Introduction to social entrepreneurship


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A short introduction to social entrepreneurship

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  • These are the most important questions to answer for researchers in social entrepreneurship
  • Introduction to social entrepreneurship

    1. 1. Fredrik Björk, Malmö University
    2. 2. What Is Entrepreneurship? <ul><li>‘ Creating value by bringing together resources to exploit an opportunity’ </li></ul>
    3. 3. Entrepreneurs <ul><li>The function of entrepreneurs is to reform or revolutionize the patterns of production… By exploiting an invention or… an untried technological possibility… </li></ul><ul><li>Joseph Schumpeter </li></ul><ul><li>The entrepreneur always searches for change, responds to it, and exploits it as an opportunity. </li></ul><ul><li>Peter Drucker </li></ul>
    4. 4. And Social Entrepreneurship? <ul><li>Creating social and/or ecological value </li></ul><ul><li>Social entrepreneurship is not a new phenomenon </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals and groups have been addressing social and ecological issues for centuries </li></ul>
    5. 6. Creating value <ul><li>Creating social and/or ecological value is the success factor in social entrepreneurship </li></ul><ul><li>What about the financial return? </li></ul><ul><li>If there is no surplus, it will be a short-lived organization…. </li></ul><ul><li>So – the organization has to have a sustainable flow of resources </li></ul><ul><li>Because – to create social and ecological values you need long-term commitment </li></ul>
    6. 7. Why social entrepreneurship? <ul><li>The public sector and the business sector have obviously been unable to handle the social and ecological challenges that communities all over the world are facing </li></ul><ul><li>Social entrepreneurship should be seen as a complement </li></ul>
    7. 8. Business Public sector Civil society
    8. 9. Social Entrepreneurship <ul><li>Social entrepreneurship implies challenging sector boundaries – and cross-sector collaboration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NGOs with business approaches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social purpose business ventures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public sector and civil society partnerships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cross-sector projects </li></ul></ul>
    9. 10. Components of social entrepreneurship <ul><li>Entrepreneurs </li></ul><ul><li>Innovations </li></ul><ul><li>Oppurtunities/needs </li></ul><ul><li>Organizations </li></ul>
    10. 11. The social entrepreneurs <ul><li>The focus have often been on the lone, ’heroic’ entrepreneur </li></ul><ul><li>But there are also examples of collaborative start-ups in social entrepreneurship </li></ul><ul><li>Citizens, users, visionaries, neighbours, clients and patients – or just a couple of friends – become entrepreneurs! </li></ul>
    11. 12. The social innovations <ul><li>New ways of addressing social and/or ecological challenges </li></ul><ul><li>Often challenge existing welfare systems or notions of how society should be structured </li></ul>
    12. 13. Oppurtunities and needs <ul><li>Social entrepreneurship is in general more driven by the ambition to satisfy pressing needs that business or the public are unable (or not interested) to meet </li></ul>
    13. 14. Organizations <ul><li>Associations, foundations, cooperatives, open networks … No form of organization is disqualified </li></ul><ul><li>Control and ownership are crucial questions (not least in collaborative ventures) </li></ul><ul><li>Intrapreneurship is not uncommon </li></ul><ul><li>Resources are often a mix of financial and social capital </li></ul>
    14. 15. Baisikeli (Copenhagen) <ul><li>EXAMPLES </li></ul><ul><li>” When people in poverty become more mobile, they get an opportunity to create a better life - a life with access to healthcare, education and higher earnings. Baisikeli is a social enterprise in Denmark that manufactures, sells, repairs and rents bicycles for both residential and business, in order to fund more and larger African projects and transfer of Danish expertise.” </li></ul>
    15. 16. Moomsteatern (Malmö) <ul><li>EXAMPLES </li></ul><ul><li>” The idea in 1987 was to start a theater group for people with intellectual disabilities, a theater with only artistic goals, a theater that made theater for the audience… We've done comedy, satire, musical theater, children's theater and revue. We have toured locally and around the world, lectured, worked with ‘statistically normal’ actors… But we do not stop. It is part of the theater's nerve to never stop developing. There is always something more that can be done.” </li></ul>
    16. 17. Apokalyps Labotek (Malmö) <ul><li>EXAMPLES </li></ul><ul><li>” The work of Apokalyps Labotek is often related to issues concerning consumption, production and strategic development. The aim is to generate more knowledge and discussion in combination with fabrication and production of sustainable alternatives. In short, we think, know, do and make. Self-commissioned projects run parallel with collaborations with companies, institutions and people.” </li></ul>
    17. 18. Specialisterne (Denmark) <ul><li>EXAMPLES </li></ul><ul><li>” The majority of the employees in Specialisterne have a diagnosis on the autism spectrum, and work as consultants on tasks such as software testing, programming and data-entry for the corporate sector. At Specialisterne, people with autism work in an environment where they are presented with the best possible opportunities to reach their potential. They don’t have to learn to adapt to the usual working-environment norms, such as being a good team player, being empathetic, handling stress well and showing flexibility… Putting it simply; at Specialisterne, not fitting in is a good thing. The traits that usually exclude people with autism from the labour market are the very traits that make them valuable employees.” </li></ul>
    18. 19. Future challenges <ul><li>Need to develop support strucutures – local, national, international </li></ul><ul><li>Resist being pictured as ’nice people doing good’ – then social entrepreneurship becomes irrelevant. Social entrepreneurs are change agents! </li></ul>