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<ul><li>Letitia L. Lekay </li></ul><ul><li>9236672 </li></ul><ul><li>ICT Developments (Trends) & Applications in LIS 821  ...
Table of Content <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Defining the Digital Divide </li></ul><ul><li>Defining Gender </li...
Introduction <ul><li>How the Internet is used differently by women & men and why? </li></ul><ul><li>Define digital divide ...
Defining the Digital Divide <ul><li>What exactly is digital divide? </li></ul><ul><li>The phrase  digital divide is basica...
Defining Gender <ul><li>Gender is different from sex </li></ul><ul><li>When we refer to gender it is often that we think a...
ICT AND GENDER <ul><li>By 1995, when Internet was dramatically increased, few women were online (Kennedy, Wellman & Klemen...
Issues Pertaining to Gender and digital divide <ul><li>Gender  and digital divide is more focused on how women compared to...
Digital Divide and Gender:USA, UK, Asia and Africa <ul><li>United States of America, Internet usage stands at nearly 80 pe...
Digital Divide and Gender:USA, UK, Asia and Africa <ul><li>Today in the USA the gender and digital divide in Internet acce...
Bridging the Digital Divide <ul><li>Is the gap closing? </li></ul><ul><li>How is the gap widening? </li></ul><ul><li>Why d...
Conclusion <ul><li>Of the topics discussed in this presentation, it is clear a lot still needs to be done to overcome the ...
Bibliography <ul><li>BIBLIOGRAPHY </li></ul><ul><li>Cheong, P. H. 2007. Gender and perceive Internet efficacy: examining s...
THANK YOU!,DANKIE, ENKOSI’
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Ict Development Trends & Applications Letitia

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  1. 1. <ul><li>Letitia L. Lekay </li></ul><ul><li>9236672 </li></ul><ul><li>ICT Developments (Trends) & Applications in LIS 821 </li></ul>
  2. 2. Table of Content <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Defining the Digital Divide </li></ul><ul><li>Defining Gender </li></ul><ul><li>ICT and Gender </li></ul><ul><li>Issues Pertaining to Gender and Digital Divide </li></ul><ul><li>Digital Divide and Gender in: USA, UK, Asia & Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Bridging the Gender and Digital Divide </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul><ul><li>Bibliography </li></ul>
  3. 3. Introduction <ul><li>How the Internet is used differently by women & men and why? </li></ul><ul><li>Define digital divide </li></ul><ul><li>Define Gender </li></ul><ul><li>Issues in gender and digital divide, how countries differ in their roles of the issues </li></ul><ul><li>Does women spend less time online than men? And why? </li></ul>
  4. 4. Defining the Digital Divide <ul><li>What exactly is digital divide? </li></ul><ul><li>The phrase digital divide is basically a new label for an earlier expression used to describe the “information haves and have-nots” (Benjamin 2001). </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing global integration, but also geographically uneven (Perrons, 2004). </li></ul><ul><li>Divide between rich and poor, developed and developing countries (Deegan & Tanner 2002). </li></ul><ul><li>Division of technology </li></ul>
  5. 5. Defining Gender <ul><li>Gender is different from sex </li></ul><ul><li>When we refer to gender it is often that we think about women is it so? </li></ul><ul><li>ICT and the computer are differently experienced by female and male? </li></ul>
  6. 6. ICT AND GENDER <ul><li>By 1995, when Internet was dramatically increased, few women were online (Kennedy, Wellman & Klement, 2003) </li></ul><ul><li>It is very difficult to talk about gender and gendered aspects of access of technology </li></ul><ul><li>Technologies including ICTs are not gender-neutral, rather the use of ICTs and other technologies by women and men reflects to a large extent the wider socio-cultural and economic context... </li></ul><ul><li>Gender differences suited women’s role as role players of sharing friendship. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Issues Pertaining to Gender and digital divide <ul><li>Gender and digital divide is more focused on how women compared to their male counterparts </li></ul><ul><li>Perceptions are that women are less suited to, or interested to work with technology </li></ul><ul><li>In Africa it is a challenge for women to overcome the burden of marginalization </li></ul><ul><li>Women are also viewed as passive receivers of information rather than actors able to shape and contribute to decision making of policy formulation in general and the ICT sector in particular </li></ul><ul><li>Gender has received little attention in technological adoption and other information technology, although historically, research in the field of computing has found that males have more favourable attitudes towards computers and are less likely to be computer phobic than females (Cheong, 2007). </li></ul>
  8. 8. Digital Divide and Gender:USA, UK, Asia and Africa <ul><li>United States of America, Internet usage stands at nearly 80 percent of the population </li></ul><ul><li>United Kingdom, usage stands at 60 percent of adult population, this still leaves 40 percent of the United Kingdom population outside the scope of citizens </li></ul><ul><li>African women were excluded from all aspects of the technology (WSIS, 2002) </li></ul><ul><li>Gender discrimination excludes the majority of women from benefiting from the opportunities that technology has to offer as a tool and substance for development and all human enterprise </li></ul><ul><li>Continue </li></ul>
  9. 9. Digital Divide and Gender:USA, UK, Asia and Africa <ul><li>Today in the USA the gender and digital divide in Internet access and intensity of use have all but disappeared, however a gender divide in the nature of Internet persists, at least for adults </li></ul><ul><li>Singapore on the other hand is the forerunner of the highest Internet penetration rates (67%) in the world. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Bridging the Digital Divide <ul><li>Is the gap closing? </li></ul><ul><li>How is the gap widening? </li></ul><ul><li>Why do we treat the genders differently? </li></ul><ul><li>If women form an integral part of all ICT initiatives, the agenda to drive the advancement of gender within the realm of technology and related fields, the importance and relevance of women in ICT to the gender equality will not only be acknowledged, but will also become a norm </li></ul>
  11. 11. Conclusion <ul><li>Of the topics discussed in this presentation, it is clear a lot still needs to be done to overcome the gender and digital divide. To create more space for the marginalized which is clearly the women, empowerment to the ICT sector needs attention. Literature outlined that the gap still exists in gender and digital divide, but it also give surprisingly remarks on how women can be competitive in the ICT sector. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Bibliography <ul><li>BIBLIOGRAPHY </li></ul><ul><li>Cheong, P. H. 2007. Gender and perceive Internet efficacy: examining secondary digital divide issues in Singapore. Women’s Studies in Communication journal , 30 (2): 206-228. </li></ul><ul><li>Couldry, N. 2007. New media for global citizens? The future of the digital divide debate. Brown Journal of World Affairs , 16 (1): 249-261. </li></ul><ul><li>Deegan, M. & Tanner, S. 2002. Digital futures: strategies for the information age . London: Library Association Publishing. </li></ul><ul><li>Gender & ICTs in CEE/CIS. 2004. Bridging the gender digital divide: a report on gender and ICT in Central & Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States. Retrieved 7 August 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.undp.sk/uploads/Gender%20and%20ICT%20reg_rep_eng.pdf </li></ul><ul><li>Kennedy, T, Wellman, B & Klement, K. Gendering the Digital Divide. IT&Society Journal , 1 (5): 72-96. </li></ul><ul><li>Jackson, L.A., Zhao, Y, Kolenic, A, Fitzgerald, H.E, Harold, R, & Von Eye, A. 2008. Race, gender, and information technology use: the new digital divide. Cyber Psychology & Behavior Journal , 11 (4): 437-442. </li></ul><ul><li>Internationals Women’s Day Webblog. 2009. The digital divide: Gender, location, access. Retrieved 6 August 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.internationalwomensday.com/article.asp?m </li></ul><ul><li>Pod B Episode 9. 2006. Computers to Africa. Retrieved 22 August 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>http://podcastbangla.blogspot.com </li></ul><ul><li>Tavani, H.T. 2007. Ethics & technology: ethical issues in an age of information and communication technology . 2nd Ed. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons. </li></ul><ul><li>Webb, J, Skaee, D & Carriero, B. Webblog. 2009. Digital Divide: Gender. Retrieved 6 August 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.slideshare.net/guest0747a9/gender-digital-divide </li></ul><ul><li>WSIS Gender Caucus Statement. 2002. Gender Caucus Statement for inclusion in Bamako 2002 declaration: the African regional preparatory meeting for the world summit on the information society May 25-30 2002. Retrieved 7 August 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.wougnet.org/WSIS/genderstatement.html </li></ul>
  13. 13. THANK YOU!,DANKIE, ENKOSI’
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