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Health Economics-Epidemiology
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  • 1. Population, Epidemiologyand the Demand for Health Services
  • 2. Organ Development Curve• show that our organ systems, although develop at different rates, fully develop at the same time. This is during ages 18 to 20.• Lymphoid tissues - for body defense develops rapidly from birth to about 12 years old. • 100% development at ages 18 to 20.
  • 3. Organ Development Curve• Nerve tissues – rapidly develop between birth and 4 years slows down between 4 years to 10 years then flattens until 18 to 20 years.• General type tissues have a biphasic growth. – First happens between birth to 4 years, then flattens, then another spurt happens 12 to 18 to 20.
  • 4. • Reproductive organs develop only very slightly from birth to 2 years, and then flatten.• Reproductive growth spurt happens during adolescence then fully matures between 18 to 20 years.
  • 5. • Conclusion: – We become fully developed at 18 to 20 years and therefore we are healthiest also at this time.
  • 6. Different Ages: Different Probabilities of Illness• Being healthiest between 18 to 20 also means that we are least sickly within the vicinity of these ages• The lowest probability of getting sick between 18 years until late adulthood (about 30 years old).• The probability of getting ill is highest in the extremes of ages: the very young, and the very old.
  • 7. • Concept # 1: – At different ages, there are different probabilities of getting ill, which is highest in the extremes of ages.• Concept # 2: – At different ages, individuals experience different types of illnesses.
  • 8. Different Ages: Different Types of Illness Experienced• 0 to 5 years • Later Ages – Respiratory infections; • Hypertension – Pneumonia • Diabetes Mellitus – Diarrheal Diseases • Osteoarthritis – Nutritional Disorders • Malignant Neoplasms – Sepsis & other • Infections infections • Degenerative / Psychogenic
  • 9. • Concept # 3: – At different ages different individuals will experience demand different types of health goods and services.
  • 10. Different Ages: Different Types of Health Goods & Services Demanded• 0 to 5 years • Later Stages • Antibiotics • Anti- Hypertensives • Vaccines • Oral Hypoglycemics • Milk formulas and • Anti- other nutritional hyperlipidemics • Diarrheal therapy • Prostheses • Rehab services • Surgery
  • 11. Population/Demographic Transition & the Demand for Healthcare• Different ages will have different health stocks and exposure to health risks.• Therefore, different age groups will have different probabilities of getting ill. The highest occurs at the extremes of ages, lowest in adolescence and early adulthood.
  • 12. Population/Demographic Transition & the Demand for Healthcare• Different age groups will experience different types of illnesses.• Different age groups, experiencing different types of illness will demand different types of health commodities.
  • 13. Philippine Population• Ages 0 to 19 year olds represent about 45% of the population• 20 to 64 year olds represent about 50%• ages 64 and above represent about 5%.
  • 14. • 0 to 19 year olds = “investing stage” • where a lot of time, money, and resources are used to make sure that they are fully developed to be very productive in the future. • Their role is to prepare for the future.
  • 15. • 20 to 64 year olds = “working or productive population” – who are carrying the economic burden. – Their role is to produce and contribute to GNP.
  • 16. • above 65s = “burden” – not expected to produce or contribute anything, but they consume a lot. – They are rewarded and accorded respect and care because at one period in time, they were the ones who carried the economic burden of the country.
  • 17. Exercises:In a clean paper, answer the following questions. To be submitted at 4pm
  • 18. 1. If you were the Health Secretary of the Philippines and you have a P 20B budget, which health programs will you prioritize?2. If you are a businessman who has P 1B to invest in the Philippines, what goods and services will you produce and sell?
  • 19. In answering the mini exercises above, remember the 3 concepts:3. At different ages, different age groups will have different probabilities of getting ill.2. At different ages, individuals experience different types of illnesses. Acute in the young, chronic in the older ages.3. Therefore at different ages people will demand different healthcare goods and services.