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  2. 2. What is data collection? The process by which the researcher collects the information needed to answer the research problem.
  3. 3.  In collecting the data, the researcher must decide:  Which data to collect  How to collect the data  Who will collect the data  When to collect the data
  4. 4.  The selection of data collection method should be based on the following:  The identified hypothesis or research problem  The research design  The information gathered about the variables
  5. 5. The methods of data collection vary according to:  Degree of structure  Degree of quantifiability  Degree of obtrusiveness  Degree of objectivity
  7. 7. RESEARCH INSTRUMENTS Instrument or a Tool  described as a device used to collect the data.  facilitate variable observation and measurement. The type of instrument used by the researcher depends on the data collection method selected.  “Massey states that the “Instrument development requires a high degree of research expertise, as the instrument must be reliable and valid.”
  8. 8. Ways of Searching forResearch Instruments
  9. 9. Ways of Searching for Research Instruments Read professional journals to learn what kind of instruments are being used for similar studies, their format, style, and how they are used by the writers. Read books that provide a description or an actual copy of various instruments for the reader. Talk with other researchers who may know of certain tools they have developed for themselves, or may have used tools developed by others. Combine or adapt one or more tools used by other researchers. Develop his/her own instrument to fulfill a specific need.
  10. 10. Guidelines for Developing an Instrument
  11. 11. Guidelines for Developing an Instrument The instrument must be suitable for its function. The research tool will only be effective only as it relates to its particular purpose. The instrument must be based on the theoretical framework. The instrument must be based on the theoretical framework selected for the study.
  12. 12. Guidelines for Developing an Instrument The instrument should be valid. The content of the instrument must be appropriate to test the hypothesis or answer the question being studied. The instrument should be reliable. The devised research tool should provide comparable data every time the subject uses the instrument. An instrument should include an item that directly asks the hypothesis. The research tool should be designed and constructed in such a way that cheating is minimized
  13. 13. Guidelines for Developing an Instrument The instrument should be free of bias. A good instrument is free of build-in clues. The instrument should not contain measures that function as hints for desired responses. The researcher may need to read extensively to identify which aspects of the theory are appropriate for investigation.
  14. 14. Guidelines for Developing an Instrument The researcher, through the instrument, must be able to gather data that are appropriate in order to test the hypothesis or to answer the question under investigation. The researcher should gather a group of items from such sources. The researcher should gather a group of items from such sources as persons knowledgeable in the field, accepted theories or hypotheses, personal experience, or material from studies reported in books and professional journals.
  15. 15. Guidelines for Developing an Instrument The response given by each respondent in the research study should solely be his own. There should be no contamination through outside influences, such as someone else’s ideas or products. Therefore, the respondent who agrees to participate in a study is responsible for supplying information or for exhibiting behavior that is truly his own.
  16. 16. Types of Research Instruments
  17. 17. Types of Research Instruments 1. Questionnaire 2. Checklist 3. Distribution 4. Interview 5. Observation 6. Records 7. Experimental Approach 8. Survey Approach
  18. 18. Types of Research Instruments1. Questionnaire  A series of questions designed to elicit information, which is filled in by all participants in the sample.  This can be gathered either by oral interview or by written questionnaire.  This is the most common type of research instrument.
  19. 19.  Advantages of a Questionnaire 1. Relatively simple method of obtaining data. 3. Less time is consumed. 5. Researcher is able to gather data from a widely scattered sample.
  20. 20.  Disadvantages of a Questionnaire1. Responses to a questionnaire lack depth.2. Respondent may omit or disregard any item he chooses.3. Some items may force the subject to select responses that are not his actual choice.4. Length of the questionnaire is limited according to the respondent’s interest.5. Printing may be costly especially if it is lengthy.6. Data are limited to the information that is voluntarily supplied by the respondents.7. Some items maybe misunderstood.8. The sample is limited to those who are literate.
  21. 21. Techniques for Developing Questionnaire2. Researcher may read literatures about the topic look through available questionnaires or obtain help from experts.4. Open - ended questions are preferable than closed questions since they reflect respondent’s attitudes, feelings, which are expressed in his own words.6. If yes - no questions are used; additional information may be gained by leaving space for respondent’s own idea.8. The possibility of a middle ground statement is also important.10. Every item in a questionnaire should relate to the topic under study.
  22. 22. Criteria of a Good Questionnaire
  23. 23. Criteria of a Good Questionnaire1. Clarity of Language  It must meet the level of understanding of the respondents in order to generate needed responses.2. Singleness of Objective  An item must have one and only one answer3. One-to-One Correspondence  The questionnaire as a whole must correspond with the objectives of the study4. Correct Grammar, Spelling, and Construction  The questionnaire must be constructed observing grammatically correct sentences, correctly spelled words, coherence in construction of sentences, etc.
  24. 24. Characteristic of a Good Questionnaire1. Well-stated title3. Has statement of purpose5. It assures the respondents about the confidentiality of responses7. It is designed to achieve the objectives of the study9. It has a clear direction11. There are no double-negative questions13. It avoids double barreled questions15. The design corresponds to an easy tabulation of data
  25. 25. Degree of Structure Questions1. Open-ended questions  This gives the respondents the ability to respond in their own words.2. Close-ended or fixed alternative  This allows the subject to choose one of the given alternatives.
  26. 26.  Specific Types of Closed-ended Question: 1. Dichotomous questions  This requires the respondent to make a choice between two responses such as yes/no, male/female, or married/unmarried. Example: Have you been ligated? ___ Yes ___ No 2. Multiple questions  This offers more than one choice. Example: How favorable is it to you to become pregnant at this time? ___ Very favorable ___ Favorable ___ Not sure ___ Unfavorable ___ Very unfavorable
  27. 27. 3. Cafeteria questions  A special type of multiple-choice question. The respondents are asked to select a response according to their own point of view.  Example: People have different views on “family planning”, which of the following best represent your views? ___1. Family planning is necessary to quality life. ___2. Family planning is immoral and should be totally banned. ___3. Family planning has undesirable side effects that suggest need for caution. ___4. Family planning has beneficial effects that merit its practice. ___5. Family planning is moral and should be practiced.
  28. 28. 4. Rank-Order questions  The respondents are asked to choose a response from the “most” to the “least”.  Example: Why must family planning be practiced? Rank your answers from the 1-most reasonable to 5-least reasonable? ___Limits maternal disabilities. ___Gives parents more time to meet family needs. ___Helps maintain financial viability of the family. ___Affords more working hours for couples. ___Ensures family capability to educate all the children in the future.
  29. 29. 5. Rating questions  The respondents are asked to judge something along an ordered dimension.  This is typically bipolar in nature, with the end points specifying the opposite extremes of a continuum.  Example: On the scale of 1 to 5 where 1 means strongly disagree and 5 means strongly agree, the Health Center in Barangay A provides you the necessary services. Scale ___ 5 - Strongly agree ___ 4 - Agree ___ 3 - Uncertain ___ 2 - Disagree ___ 1 - Strongly disagree
  30. 30. 2. Checklist
  31. 31. 2. Checklist These are items that comprise several questions on a topic and require the same response format.
  32. 32.  Example: Here are some characteristics of birth-control devices that are of varying importance to different people. How important are the following in choosing a birth-control method? Characteristic of birth- Of very Of great Of some Of no control device great importance importance importance Importan ce 1. Comfort 2. Cost 3. Ease of Use 4. Effectiveness 5. Noninterference of spontaneity 6. Safety 7. Safety to partner
  33. 33. 3. Interview
  34. 34. 3. Interview This involves either structure or unstructured verbal communication between the researcher and subject, during which information is obtained for a study.
  35. 35. Types of Interview1. Unstructured Interviews  more conversational  long sometimes (hours) and  conducted in a usual situation.  This allows the researcher flexibility in questioning the subject.2. Structured Interviews  always operates within formal written instrument referred as interview schedule.  researcher designed the questions to be asked prior to interview including the order of the questions.  The questions are asked orally in either face to face or telephone format.
  36. 36.  Advantages of Interview 1. Data from interview are usable 2. Depth of response can be assured 3. In an exploratory study, the interview technique provides basis for the formulation of questionnaire 4. Clarification is possible 5. No items are overlooked 6. Higher proportion of responses is obtained 7. Greater amount of flexibility is allowed Disadvantages of Interview 1. Time element 2. Biases may result 3. Costly
  37. 37. 4. Observation
  38. 38. 4. Observation most commonly used in qualitative research. Types of Observation1. Unstructured observation  a method of collecting research data that has both opponents and proponents.2. Structured observation  preparation of record-keeping forms such as category systems, checklists and rating scales.  researcher typically has some prior knowledge about the behavior or event of interest
  39. 39.  Advantages of Observation3. Produces large quantities of data w/ relative case.5. All data obtained from observation are usable.7. Relatively inexpensive.9. All subjects are potential respondents.11. Subjects are usually available.13. The observation technique can be stopped or begun at any time.7. Observation may be recorded at the time they occur eliminating bias because of recall.
  40. 40.  Disadvantages of Observation 1. Accurate prediction of a situation or event to be observed is unlikely. 2. Interviewing selected subjects may provide more information, economically, than waiting for the spontaneous occurrence of the situation. 3. The presence of an observer gives the subjects a quality normally absent. 4. Observed events are subject to biases. 5. Extensive training is needed.
  41. 41. 5. Records
  42. 42. 5. Records A record refers to all the numbers and statistics that institutions, organizations and people keep as a record of their activities. Sources1. Census data2. Educational records3. Hospital/clinic records
  43. 43.  Advantages of Records1. Records are unbiased2. Records often cover a long period of time3. Inexpensive Disadvantages of Records1. All the researcher can have is what is there. If the record is incomplete, there is no way it can be completed.2. No one can be sure of the conditions under which the records were collected.3. There is no assurance of the accuracy of the records.
  44. 44. 6. Experimental Approach
  45. 45. 6. Experimental Approach  A powerful design for testing hypothesis of causal relationships among variables.  Researcher controls the independent variable & watches the effect on the dependent variable. Two Groups of Experimental Approach 1. Treatment / Experimental group 2. Control group
  46. 46.  Advantages of Experimental Approach1. It is difficult to minimize all the variables in which the control and experimental groups might differ.2. Causal relationships are difficult if not impossible to establish.3. The time element may confound the results of experimental research.4. In an experimental laboratory setting it may be difficult to obtain subjects, especially subjects who are unaware of the experiment
  47. 47. 7. Survey Approach
  48. 48. 7. Survey Approach  Non-experimental type in which the researcher investigates a community or a group of people.  Another name is FORMULATIVE OR EXPLORATORY research. Advantages of Survey Approach 1. Can provide information about the possibilities of undertaking different types of research methods. 3. Provides data about the present. 5. Has a high degree of representativeness. 7. Easy to get respondents and information often do not express their true reactions to the questions.
  49. 49.  Disadvantages of Survey Approach 1. Yields a low degree of control over extraneous variables. 2. Verbal behavior is quite unreliable and that people
  51. 51. MEASUREMENT OF VARIABLES Measurement is the process by which the researcher assigns specific number to the collected data (Massey, 1991).
  52. 52. Levels of Measurement1. Nominal level (the lowest level)  This level includes assignment of numbers simply to classify characteristics into categories.  “ASSIGNING A CODE TO LABEL” Example:  In relation to marital status, 0 might represent single and 1 married.  Nominal level variables include sex, marital status and health status
  53. 53. Levels of Measurement2. Ordinal level (the second lowest level)  This permits the sorting of objects on the basis of their standing on an attribute relative to each other.  Data are categorized and ranked, ordered from “most” to “least: according to frequency of occurrence as explained by Dr. Barrientos-Tan.  represent the rank order (1st, 2nd, 3rd etc.)
  54. 54. 1. Likert scale2. Guttman scale3. Graphic Rating Scale4. Semantic Differential Scale
  55. 55. Levels of Measurement3. Interval level (the second highest level)  This occurs when the researcher can specify both the rank- ordering of objects attribute and the distance between those objects.  do not have an absolute or rational zero point.  Use of mode, median, mean Example:  Fahrenheit and centigrade temperatures  anxiety levels measured on a Likert scale
  56. 56. Levels of Measurement4. Ratio level (the highest level)  The ratio level has a rational, meaningful zero.
  58. 58. RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY OF MEASUREMENT Reliability  means the degree of consistency and accuracy with which an instrument measures a variable. Validity  refers to the extent to which an instrument measures what it is designed to measure.
  59. 59. Testing Validity of Data Collection
  60. 60. Testing Validity of Data Collection There are three categories of testing the validity of a data collection instrument.2. Self-evident measures3. Pragmatic Measures
  61. 61.  Self-evident measures  refers to the fact that the instrument appears what it is supposed to measure. 1.1 Face validity (VALIDITY OF THE OBSERVER)  most basic level, when little or nothing is known about the variable being measured;  the researcher typically verifies face validity by asking experts to evaluate the instrument’s intent. 1.2 Content validity  relies on the assurance that you can demonstrate an adequate coverage of the known field.  The researcher typically verifies this by conducting a literature review to determine which content should be covered and by asking experts to evaluate the instrument’s representativeness of the content.
  62. 62.  Pragmatic Measures  the procedure essentially tests the practical value of a particular research instrument or tool  Thus attempting to answer the question, “Does it work?”  Concurrent validity  Predictive validity  Construct validity
  63. 63.  Concurrent validity  refers to the extent to which an instrument can accurately identify subjects that differ with respect to a given characteristic.  Researcher typically validates concurrent validity by using the instrument in conjunction with a second instrument already known to be valid.  Ex. a measure of job satisfaction might be correlated with work performance.  Note that with concurrent validity, the two measures are taken at the same time.
  64. 64.  Predictive validity  to predict some future occurrences.  the researcher commonly validates this by using the instrument, then comparing the results with some future outcomes.
  65. 65.  Construct validity  useful mainly for measuring the traits or feelings such as generosity, grief or satisfaction.  is related to the theoretical ideas behind the personality trait under consideration
  66. 66. Testing the Reliability of Research Instrument
  67. 67. Testing the Reliability of Research Instrument1. Stability  The best indicator of an instrument’s reliability.  This refers to the extent to which the same results are obtained with repeated use of an instrument  There are two categories for tests of stability:  Test / Retest  Repeated observations
  68. 68. Testing the Reliability of Research Instrument2. Internal consistency  This refers to the extent to which all parts of the measurement techniques are measuring the same concept.3. Test of Equivalence  This refers to the consistency of the results by different investigators or similar tests at the same time.