Chapter 2-OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH PROCESS

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Chapter 2-OVERVIEW OF RESEARCH PROCESS

  1. 1. Overview of the Research Process
  2. 2. THE RESEARCH PROCESS• embodies a series of actions that are systematic and organized into steps.• main purpose is to provide direction for the researcher.• involves identifying, locating, assessing, analyzing and then developing and expressing ideas.06/09/12 Free template from www.brainybetty.com
  3. 3. Primary and Secondary Sources
  4. 4. Primary and Secondary Sources• Primary - original works which include statistical data, manuscripts, surveys, speeches, biographies/autobiographies, diaries, oral histories, interviews, works of art and literature, research reports… etc.• Secondary - usually are studies by other researchers which describe, analyze and evaluate information found in primary sources. – Examples of secondary sources are books, journals, magazine articles, encyclopedias, dictionaries…etc.06/09/12 Free template from www.brainybetty.com
  5. 5. ASK YOURSELVES… WHERE WHAT AM I SHOULD I GOING TO START??? STUDY???06/09/12 Free template from www.brainybetty.com
  6. 6. • Research beginners may be faced with a barrage of questions when thinking about research…….• Following the Steps in Research Process will provide a guide while working on the paper…06/09/12 Free template from www.brainybetty.com
  7. 7. Steps in Research Process
  8. 8. • Define the topic• Write a thesis or problem statement• Make an outline• Develop a search strategy• Evaluate identified sources• Take careful notes• Write and revise the paper• Document identified sources06/09/12 Free template from www.brainybetty.com
  9. 9. Define the topic• Browse the internet• Browse current interest magazines, newspapers for stories of interest• Browse encyclopedia and other reference books• Listen to radio or television programs• Talk to people, such as teachers, colleagues, and friends06/09/12 Free template from www.brainybetty.com
  10. 10. Write a thesis or problem statement• Begin with a question, research the topic further, then develop an opinion06/09/12 Free template from www.brainybetty.com
  11. 11. Make an outline• Identify key concepts and sub topics to provide a framework for the study06/09/12 Free template from www.brainybetty.com
  12. 12. Develop a search strategy• Make a list of subject or keywords that might be useful in upcoming search• Consider the best sources for information taking in consideration the type of information needed06/09/12 Free template from www.brainybetty.com
  13. 13. Develop a search strategy• Sources of Information a. books b. periodicals c. newspapers d. government documents e. biographical sources f. videos g. reference books h. people (experts) i. archives/special collections j. internet06/09/12 Free template from www.brainybetty.com
  14. 14. Evaluate identified sources• Begin evaluation as early as the first citation and continue thorough reading of the information contained in the article, document, book, etc.• Consider the following in evaluating identified sources: • authority, • accuracy, • objectivity, • Currency • coverage06/09/12 Free template from www.brainybetty.com
  15. 15. Take careful notes – Document sources noting the following information: – Book 1. Author 2. Title 3. Publisher (location, name, date) 4. Page numbers 5. Subject searched06/09/12 Free template from www.brainybetty.com
  16. 16. Take careful notes – Document sources noting the following information:• Article 1. Article title 2. Authors name (if any) 3. Title of periodical 4. Volume and issue number (if any) 5. Page numbers 6. Date 7. Index searched 8. Subject searched06/09/12 Free template from www.brainybetty.com
  17. 17. Taking down notes can be done through the following:1. Direct Quotation from a Source – A direct quotation is copying words exactly as they appear in the source. – When you quote a source, you must use quotation marks before and after the quotations then identify who made the statement.06/09/12 Free template from www.brainybetty.com
  18. 18. 1. Direct Quotation from a Source• This is useful when your reader see the author’s own words…Example: Roberta Israel off explained that, “the sense of touch develops so early that a three-month old fetus can react to the pressure of a hair around the sensitive area of its mouth.”06/09/12 Free template from www.brainybetty.com
  19. 19. Taking down notes can be done through the following:2. Paraphrase from a source• is a statement of the ideas from a source using slightly different words.• Keep in mind, though, that you are still using the author’s ideas.• To avoid plagiarism, you must identify the author as the source of those ideas.06/09/12 Free template from www.brainybetty.com
  20. 20. Taking down notes can be done through the following:3. Summary of a source – A summary is a statement of the main ideas of a source using your own words. – It is a shortened version of the information in the passage. – It can be either a statement of fact or your own idea.06/09/12 Free template from www.brainybetty.com
  21. 21. Write and revise the paper• Write and revise the paper – Allow plenty of time for the writing process. – The thesis and outline may need to be revised to reflect what was discovered during the research.06/09/12 Free template from www.brainybetty.com
  22. 22. Document identified sources – Give credit for the intellect work of others. – Citing sources can be done in three ways: 1. Endnotes followed by a bibliography 2. Footnotes followed by a bibliography 3. Parenthetical citations followed by a worked cited list06/09/12 Free template from www.brainybetty.com
  23. 23. How to Write a Bibliography
  24. 24. Book or Pamphlet• Author(s), article or part title (if any), Book or pamphlet title, Editor (if any), Edition, Volume (s), City where published, published, Publisher, Year• Example: Avery, G., Fletcher, M.A. and MacDonald, M.G. Neonatology 4th Edition. Philadelphia; J.B Lippincott Company,198506/09/12 Free template from www.brainybetty.com
  25. 25. CD-ROM or Diskette• Author(s), article or part title (if any), Title of CR-Rom or Diskette, Edition, Source Type ( e.g. CD-ROM), City where published, published, Publisher, Year• Example: Avery, G., Fletcher, M. A. and MacDonald, M.G. Neonatology 4th Edition. CD-ROM. Philadelphia; J.B Lippincott Company, 198506/09/12 Free template from www.brainybetty.com
  26. 26. Print Encyclopedia• Author(s), article or part title (if any), Encyclopedia title, Edition, City where published, published, Publisher, Year• Example: Avery, Gordon, Mary Ann Fletcher and Mhairi G. MacDonald. “Touch Therapy” Encyclopedia of Neonates. Philadelphia; J.B Lippincott Company, 198506/09/12 Free template from www.brainybetty.com
  27. 27. Newspaper or Magazine• Author(s), article or part title (if any), Newspaper or Magazine title, Date, Page number(s)• Example: Spencer, James, Elizabeth Howard, and Terence Taylor. “ Cleaning Your Room” Home and Health Weekly, 12 Oct, 1997:70-2206/09/12 Free template from www.brainybetty.com
  28. 28. Journal• Author(s), article or part title (if any), Journal Title, Editor (if any), Volume(s), Issue, Page number(s), Year• Example: James, Andrew J. “Why Are We Saving More Premature Babies?” Journal of Paediatric and Gynaecology. pp67, 119006/09/12 Free template from www.brainybetty.com
  29. 29. Research Process Vs.Problem-solving Process
  30. 30. • Research Process – To reveal new knowledge that may contribute to the solution of a problem• Problem-solving – To solve an immediate problem in a particular setting06/09/12 Free template from www.brainybetty.com
  31. 31. Research Process Problem-solving Process a. Identify the problem a. Identify the problem b. Gather pertinent b. Review of related literature information c. Suggest solutions c. Theoretical framework d. Consider outcomes d. Questions to be answered and hypothesis to be tested e. Choice of solution e. Research methodology f. Implement of solution f. Data gathering g. Evaluate results of g. Analysis and interpretation implementation of data h. Modify, revise, h. Summary, conclusions and change recommendations06/09/12 Free template from www.brainybetty.com

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