What is research???• Process of collecting/gathering data and information by a scientific or logical procedure that aims to solve a particular scientific problem.
What is research???• From a French word”CERCHIER” meaning “to seek or to search.”• An attempt to solve or gain a solution to a problem.
What is research???• A systematic, controlled, empirical and critical investigation of hypothetical propositions about the presumed relations among natural phenomenon. (Kerlinger, 1976)
What is research???• Is an honest, scientific investigation undertaken for the purpose of discovering new facts or establishing new relationships among facts already known which will contribute to the present body of knowledge and can lead to an effective solution of existing problems.
What is Nursing Research???• Systematic study and assessment of • nursing problems or phenomenon; • finding ways to improve nursing practice and patient care through creative studies; • initiating and evaluating change; and • taking action to make new knowledge useful in nursing.
What is Nursing Research???• Nursing Research includes • the breadth and depth of the discipline of nursing and the rehabilitative, therapeutic and preventive aspects of nursing as well as the preparation of practitioners and personnel involved in the total nursing sphere.
Who needs research???• Research is for the: • Undergraduate students doing term papers. • Graduate students defending masteral thesis/doctoral dissertation • Doctors/nurses • Legislators needing information to formulate the right kinds of laws.
Who needs research???• Technical staff of government officials providing the baseline reports.• Supervisors, managers, top executives in both public and private sectors engaged in planning, decision-making evaluation and even in dealing with human behaviors.• Consultants• NGOs
What is the purpose of research???• Corrects perceptions• Develops and evaluates concepts, practices and theories• Gathers information on a certain phenomenon that are lacking in knowledge• Obtains knowledge for practical purposes.• Provides hard facts that serves as a basis for planning, decision-making, project implementation, monitoring and evalution.
What is the purpose of research???• Finding answers to questions or solutions to problems.• Discovering and interpreting new facts.• Testing theories to revise accepted theories or laws in the light of new facts.• Formulating new theories.
What is the purpose of nursing research???• Develop and evaluate new techniques for delivering care that is attuned to the health needs of our people.• Develop tools for assessing the effectiveness of health services.• Provide answers to problems concerning health.• Prepare themselves not only as intelligent consumers of research but also as able initiators, participants or conductors of simple and objective researches themselves.
Characteristics of Research• Involves the gathering of new data from new sources or 1st hand information.• Directed towards the solution of a problem.• Characterized by carefully designed procedures applying rigorous analysis.• Emphasizes the development of generalizations, principles, hypothesis and theories that may be helpful in predicting future occurences.• Requires expertise
Characteristics of Research• Demands accurate observation and description of what is being studied.• Strives to be logical, applying every possible test to validate the procedures being employed.• Characterized by patient and unhurried activities.• Requires innovative approaches and determination to succeed.• Carefully and accurately recorded and reported.
Limitations of Research• Result of faulty planning and implementation of the project• The individual researcher• The scope of knowledge or information available about the topic and the problem under study also must be considered.• The tools of measurement may be inadequate or entirely lacking
Types of Research• BASIC RESEARCH / PURE RESEARCH - a scientific investigation that involves the pursuit of “Knwledge for knowledge’s sake.” - PURPOSE: to generate and refine theory and build constructs thus, the findings may not be directly useful in practice.
Types of ResearchII. APPLIED RESEARCH / PRACTICAL RESEARCH - knowledge is not the sake but seeking new applications of scientific knowledge to the situation of a problem.
Types of ResearchII. APPLIED RESEARCH / PRACTICAL RESEARCH PURPOSE: - to solve a problem - to make a decision - to develop a new program, product, method or procedure - to evaluate a program,product or procedure.
Types of ResearchIII. OPERATIONAL RESEARCH - aims to discuss and study a recurring problem in an organization which may involve a study of concretization of the organization’s mission, vision, philosophy and goals.
Types of ResearchIV. ACTION RESEARCH - undertaken to address a recurring problem in an organization immediately, usually a part of a major problem is addressed in this type of research.
Types of ResearchV. TYPES OF RESEARCH ACCORDING TO TIME ELEMENT: • HISTORICAL research means “what was” • DESCRIPTIVE research refers to “what is” • EXPERIMENTAL research describes as “what will” when certain variables are carefully controlled and manipulated.
WHAT IS THECHARACTERISTICS OF AGOOD RESEARCHER???
Characteristics of a GOOD RESEARCHER• INTELLECTUAL• PRUDENCE• HEALTHY CRITICISM• INTELLECTUAL HONESTY
WHAT DO YOU THINK ARE THE QUALITIES OF A GOOD RESEARCHER???
Qualities of aGOOD RESEARCHER ARE: R - Research oriented E - Efficient S - Scientific E - Effective A - Active R - Resourceful C - Creative H - Honest E - Economical R - Religious
Ethics in Research1. A permit to conduct the study must be properly sought from authority. Willingness of the prospective respondents must also be considered.3. The researcher must assure the respondents of confidentiality of the data that will be gathered and used in the study.5. The researcher must be willing to share the findings of the study with the institution where the respondents belong.
Ethics in Research4. The researcher must maintain integrity in the publication of the findings and results of the study.5. The researcher must not inflict harm to the respondents especially during an experimental research.6. The researcher must consider the potential benefits that the respondents may get from the study.7. The researcher must observe intellectual honesty in undertaking such research.