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Ch 32 intro to animal diversity 10-11 [compatibility mode]

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  • 1. An Introduction to Animal Diversity Chapter 32
  • 2. Characteristics of Animals • 1. Multicellular eukaryotes • 2. Heterotrophs • 3. No cell walls • 4. Specialization • 5. Locomotion • 6. Sense organs • 7. Sexual reproduction
  • 3. Animals are multicellular eukaryotes that primarily reproduce sexually. After fertilization the zygote undergoes cleavage - rapid cell division
  • 4. Animals are multicellular eukaryotes that primarily reproduce sexually. Leading to the formation of a blastula
  • 5. Animals are multicellular eukaryotes that primarily reproduce sexually. Forming the different layers of embryonic tissues through gastrulation.
  • 6. Hox genes • Regulatory genes • Regulate development of embryo • Similar among many animal species • Homeoboxes – Common set of DNA sequences – Hox genes are one type of homeobox
  • 7. Cambrian explosion (535 to 525 MYA) earliest fossil appearance of many major groups of living animals.
  • 8. Cambrian explosion (535 to 525 MYA) earliest fossil appearance of many major groups of living animals. Diversity increases through Paleozoic but punctuated by mass extinctions
  • 9. Cambrian explosion (535 to 525 MYA) earliest fossil appearance of many major groups of living animals. Animals begin to make impact on land – 460 MYA Vertebrates transition to land – 360 MYA
  • 10. During Mesozoic (251-65.5 MYA) coral reefs emerge and dinosaurs dominant. 65.5 MYA the start of the Cenozoic era followed mass extinction and modern mammal orders diversify.
  • 11. Body Plans of Animals • Body plan – Set of morphological and developmental traits • Asymmetrical – absence of symmetry • Radial – top and bottom, no front or back, no left or right • Bilateral – Two axes of orientation: front – back, top - bottom Dorsal - top Ventral - bottom Anterior – front (head) Posterior – back Medial - middle Lateral – toward outside
  • 12. Tissues • No true tissue – Parazoa (Sponges) • True Tissues – Eumetazoa – Groups of cells with a specialized function – Germ layers • Diploblastic – 2 germ layers • Triploblastic – 3 germ layers • Ectoderm • Endoderm • Mesoderm
  • 13. Body Plans of Triploblastic Animals • Coelom – Fluid or air filled cavity – Separates digestive tract from outer body wall – Coelomates • Pseudocoelomates – Functioning body cavity supported by presssure • Acoelomates – No body cavities
  • 14. Protostomes vs. Deuterostomes • Protostomes – Spiral cleavage – – Determinate • Determines fate of cells early on – Blastopore becomes mouth • Deuterostomes – Radial cleavage – Indeterminate • Fate of cell not determine; leads to stem cells – Blastopore becomes anus
  • 15. Major Features of Animal Phylogeny – about 3 dozen phyla exist Based on Morphology Data Based on Molecular Data