Mandarin ab initio language specific syllabus (first exams 2013)

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Mandarin ab initio language specific syllabus (first exams 2013)

  1. 1. Diploma Programme Programme du Diplôme Programa del Diploma Mandarin ab initio Language-specific syllabus Mandarin ab initio Programme spécifique Mandarín ab initio Programa de estudios específico 汉语普通话初级课程 具体语种的教学大纲 First examinations 2013 Premiers examens en 2013 Primeros exámenes en 2013© English ab initio: Language-specific syllabus International Baccalaureate Organization 2011 1© Anglais ab initio: Programme spécifique Organisation du Baccalauréat International 2011© Inglès ab initio: Programa de Estudios Específico Organización del Bachillerato Internacional, 2011
  2. 2. 引言 此具体语种的教学大纲应与 2011 年 3 月公布的英文版 Language ab initio guide或 2011 年 5 月公布的中文版《初级语言课程指南》配合使用。 以下主题和相关话题为习得所学语言(汉语普通话)提供了一个框架。课程安排应涵盖课程指南中所列出的每一个主题和话题,但教师们也可以根据学生的兴趣和需要对主题和话题的深度进行调整。因此,并不需要学习与话题相关的所有词汇,如有必要,鼓励教师在教学中引进其它词语和语法点。 由于多元文化理解是初级语言课程学习的核心,教师在开展对主题和相关话题的教学时,应尽量培养学生能够描述它们,并针对自身文化和所学语言的文化做出方方面面的比较和对照。 本教学大纲提出的主题、话题以及话题所涉及的各个方面按如下结构排列: 主题 话题 • 所涉及的方面:建议教授的词汇 为话题所涉及的一些方面提供了建议教授的词汇,它们并非无所不包,只是指示了在该具体方面教师可以教哪些内容。主题:个人与社会(Theme: Individual andsociety)日常起居 (daily routines)• 在家中 (at home)起床 qǐchuáng to get up洗澡 xǐzǎo to take a shower/bath刷牙 shuā yá to brush teethMandarin ab initio: Language-specific syllabus 1Mandarin ab initio : Programme spécifiqueMandarín ab initio: Programa de estudios específico
  3. 3. 洗脸 xǐ liǎn to wash face吃饭 chīfàn to eat (meal)喝茶 hē chá to drink tea上厕所 shàng cèsuǒ to go to toilet睡觉 shuìjiào to go to bed有时候 yǒushíhou sometimes经常/常常 jīngcháng / chángcháng often几点 jīdiǎn what time点 diǎn o’clock分 fēn minute刻 kè a quarter of an hour小时 xiǎoshi hour玩 wán to play洗碗 xǐ wǎn to clean dishes洗衣 xǐ yī to wash clothes照顾 zhàogu to look after帮 bāng to help上午 shàngwǔ morning中午 zhōngwǔ noon下午 xiàwǔ afternoon晚上 wǎngshang evening• 在学校 (at school)同学 tóngxué classmate上学 shàngxué to go to school放学 fàngxué school finishes上课 shàngkè class startsMandarin ab initio: Language-specific syllabus 2Mandarin ab initio : Programme spécifiqueMandarín ab initio: Programa de estudios específico
  4. 4. 下课 xiàkè class finishes迟到 chídào late准时 zhǔnshí on time; punctual请假 qǐngjià to ask for leave运动 yùndòng to do sport锻炼 duànliàn to train; to exercise休息 xiūxi to take a break• 在工作单位 (in the workplace)工作单位 gōngzuò dānwèi workplace同事 tóngshì colleague上班 shàngbān to go to work下班 xiàbān work finishes• 社交;问候;餐桌礼仪 (social interaction: greetings, table manners)你好 nǐhǎo hello再见 zàijiàn goodbye对不起 duìbuqǐ sorry没关系 méiguānxi It’s ok谢谢 xièxie thanks不客气/不谢 búkèqì/ búxiè You are welcome请问 qǐngwèn Excuse me (prior to a question)贵姓 guìxìng What is your surname (polite)叫 jiào to be called什么 shénme what名字 míngzi nameMandarin ab initio: Language-specific syllabus 3Mandarin ab initio : Programme spécifiqueMandarín ab initio: Programa de estudios específico
  5. 5. 多大 duōdà How old最近 zuìjìn recently您身体好吗 nín shēntǐ hǎo ma How is your health你好吗 nǐ hǎo ma How are you怎么样 zěnmeyàng What’s up忙吗 máng ma Are you busy很好 hěn hǎo Very well不错 bú cuò Not bad一般 yìbān So so; not bad还可以 hái kěyǐ Not too bad欢迎 huānyíng Welcome打扰您 dǎrǎo nín Sorry for bothering you介绍 jièshào to introduce祝贺 zhùhè to congratulate恭喜 gōngxǐ to congratulate; Congratulations请客 qǐngkè to invite someone做客 zuòkè to be a guest客人 kèren guest来 lái to come去 qù to go看朋友 kàn péngyou to visit a friend信 xìn letter条子 tiáozi note出去 chūqù to go out有空 yǒu kòng being free有事 yǒu shì busy; occupiedMandarin ab initio: Language-specific syllabus 4Mandarin ab initio : Programme spécifiqueMandarín ab initio: Programa de estudios específico
  6. 6. 晚会 wǎnhuì evening party; ball聚会 jùhuì gathering见面 jiànmiàn to meet送行 sòngxíng to see off接 jiē to collect (someone)请慢用 qǐng màn yòng Enjoy your meal请坐 qǐng zuò Please take a seat• 星期 (week)年 nián year月 yuè month日/号 rì /hào date每天 měitiān everyday今天 jīntiān today昨天 zuótiān yesterday明天 míngtiān tomorrow后天 hòutiān the day after tomorrow前天 qiántiān the day before yesterday星期一 xīngqīyī Monday星期二 xīngqīèr Tuesday星期三 xīngqīsān Wednesday星期四 xīngqīsì Thursday星期五 xīngqīwǔ FridayMandarin ab initio: Language-specific syllabus 5Mandarin ab initio : Programme spécifiqueMandarín ab initio: Programa de estudios específico
  7. 7. • 周末 (weekend)星期六 xīngqīliù Saturday星期日/天 xīngqīrì / tiān Sunday周末 zhōumò weekend教育 (education)• 衣着 (clothes)校服 xiàofú school uniform制服 zhìfù uniform大衣 dàyī coat毛衣 máoyī sweater雨衣 yǔyī raincoat长裤 chángkù trousers/pants短裤 duǎnkù shorts裙子 qúnzi skirt鞋子 xiézi shoes皮鞋 píxié leather shoes运动鞋 yùndòng xié sneakers运动服 yùndòng fú sport suit外套 wàitào blazer衬衫 chènshān shirtT 恤衫 T xùshān T shirt领带 lǐngdài tie袜子 wàzi socks手套 shǒutào gloves围巾 wéijīn scarf帽子 màozi hatMandarin ab initio: Language-specific syllabus 6Mandarin ab initio : Programme spécifiqueMandarín ab initio: Programa de estudios específico
  8. 8. • 教育体制 (educational systems)幼儿园 yòuéryuán kindergarten; nursery小学 xiǎoxué primary school中学 zhōngxué high school; secondary school初中 chūzhōng junior high school高中 gāozhōng senior high school大学 dàxué university学院 xuéyuàn college私立 sīlì private公立 gōnglì public; state年级 niánjí grade班 bān class小组 xiǎozǔ group• 器材 (equipment)课本 kèběn textbook笔 bǐ pen毛笔 máobǐ brush铅笔 qiānbǐ pencil铅笔盒 qiānbǐ hé pencil box纸 zhǐ paper本子 běnzi notebook尺子 chǐzi ruler橡皮 xiàngpí eraser作业本 zuòyè běn workbook录音机 lùyīnjī tape recorderMandarin ab initio: Language-specific syllabus 7Mandarin ab initio : Programme spécifiqueMandarín ab initio: Programa de estudios específico
  9. 9. 字典/词典 zìdiǎn / cídiǎn dictionary复印机 fùyìn jī photocopier地图 dìtú map电脑/计算机 diànnǎo / jìsuànjī computer开(关)机 kāi (guān) jī to turn on (off) computer打印 dǎyìn to print上网 shàngwǎng to surf the net下载 xiàzài to download互联网 hùliánwǎng internet网页 wǎngyè webpage网址 wǎngzhǐ website文件 wénjiàn document存 cún to save电子邮件 diànzǐyóujiàn email垃圾邮件 lājī yóujiàn junk mail病毒 bìngdú virus回复 huífù to reply传真 chuánzhēn fax• 考试 (examinations)考试 kǎoshì examination及格 jígé to pass exam复习 fùxí to revise练习 liànxí to practise进步 jìnbù to make progress取得 qǔdé to obtain成绩 chéngjī gradeMandarin ab initio: Language-specific syllabus 8Mandarin ab initio : Programme spécifiqueMandarín ab initio: Programa de estudios específico
  10. 10. 压力 yālì pressure懂 dǒng to understand知道 zhīdao to know注意 zhùyì to pay attention完成 wánchéng to complete• 课外活动:创造,行动,服务 (extra curricular activities: creativity, action, service)社区服务 shèqū fúwù community service实习 shíxí work placement服务 fúwù service作业/功课 zuòyè / gōngkè homework课外活动 kèwài huódòng extra curricular参加 cānjiā to participate运动会 yùndònghuì Sport’s day夏令营 xiàlìngyíng summer camp旅游 lǚyóu to travel; to visit参观 cānguān to visit• 设施 (facilities)校园 xiàoyuán campus教室 jiàoshì classroom桌子 zhuōzi desk椅子 yǐzi chair黑/白板 hēi / bái bǎn writing board实验室 shíyànshì laboratory图书馆 túshūguǎn library教学楼 jiàoxué lóu teaching blockMandarin ab initio: Language-specific syllabus 9Mandarin ab initio : Programme spécifiqueMandarín ab initio: Programa de estudios específico
  11. 11. 食堂 shítáng dinning hall礼堂 lǐtáng assembly hall操场/运动场 cāochǎng / sports ground yùndòngcháng体育馆 tǐyù guǎn gym hall游泳池 yóuyǒng chí swimming hall篮球场 lánqiú chǎng basketball court足球场 zúqiú chǎng football pitch布告栏 bùgào lán notice board宿舍 sùshè dormitory• 校历(school calendar)放假 fàngjià to start a holiday寒假 hánjià winter holiday暑假 shǔjià summer holiday假期 jiàqī holiday开学 kāixué to start term学期 xuéqī term, semester期中 qīzhōng midterm期末 qīmò end of term• 学生 (students)小学生 xiǎo xuéshēng primary school student中学生 zhōng xuéshēng middle school student大学生 dà xuésheng university student男(女)学生 nán (nǚ) xuésheng male (female) student家长 jiāzhǎng parentsMandarin ab initio: Language-specific syllabus 10Mandarin ab initio : Programme spécifiqueMandarín ab initio: Programa de estudios específico
  12. 12. • 学科:认识论、专题论文 (subjects: theory of knowledge, extended essay)学科 xué kē subject语言 yǔyán language数学 shùxué Maths外语 wàiyǔ foreign language中文 Zhōngwén Chinese汉语普通话 Hànyǚ pǔtōnghuà Mandarin物理 Wùlǐ Physics化学 Huàxué Chemistry生物 Shēngwù Biology科学 Kēxué Science音乐 Yīnyuè Music美术 Měishù Fine art历史 Lìshǐ History地理 Dìlǐ Geography政治 Zhèngzhì Politics经济 Jīngjì Economics信息技术 Xìnxí jìshù I.T.法律 Fǎlǜ Law工程 Gōngchéng Engineering心理学 Xīnlǐxué Psychology医学 Yīxué Medicine有用 yǒuyòng useful有意思 yǒuyìsi interesting有趣 yǒuqù interesting无聊 wúliáo boring容易 róngyì easyMandarin ab initio: Language-specific syllabus 11Mandarin ab initio : Programme spécifiqueMandarín ab initio: Programa de estudios específico
  13. 13. 难 nán difficult认为 rènwéi to think; to believe同意 tóngyì to agree反对 fǎnduì to object第一,第二 dìyī , dìèr firstly, secondly其次 qícì secondly最后 zuìhòu the last一方面 yī fāngmiàn on one hand另一方面 lìng yī fāngmiàn on the other hand总之 zǒngzhī in conclusion• 老师 (teachers)校长 xiàozhǎng headmaster老师 lǎoshī teacher班主任 bānzhǔrèn class teacher• 课程表 (timetable)课程表 kèchéng biǎo timetable点名 diǎnmíng to have roll call上课 shàngkè class starts下课 xiàkè class finishes休息 xiūxi to take a break午休 wǔ xiū lunch break上学 shàngxué to go to school放学 fàngxué school finishes课堂活动 kètáng huódòng class activity小组活动 xiǎozǔ huódòng group activityMandarin ab initio: Language-specific syllabus 12Mandarin ab initio : Programme spécifiqueMandarín ab initio: Programa de estudios específico
  14. 14. 开会 kāihuì to hold a meeting问 wèn to ask回答 huídá to answer; answer讨论 tǎolùn to discuss; discussion解释 jiěshì to explain; explanation听 tīng to listen说 shuō to speak读 dú to read写 xiě to write字 zì word; character句子 jùzi sentence• 制服(uniform) See ‘clothes’ in ‘education’• 大学:课程,生涯规划 (university: course, career)打算 dǎsuàn to plan希望 xīwàng to hope文科 wénkē Arts subjects理科 lǐkē Science subjects工科 gōngkē Engineering subjects医科 yīkē Medicine系 xì department学位 xuéwèi degree学士 xuéshì Bachelor degree硕士 shuòshì Master degree博士 bóshì PhD研究 yánjiū to research; researchMandarin ab initio: Language-specific syllabus 13Mandarin ab initio : Programme spécifiqueMandarín ab initio: Programa de estudios específico
  15. 15. 毕业 bìyè to graduate饮食(food and drink)• 烹饪指导(cooking instructions)做 zuò to make切 qiē to cut; to slice炒 chǎo to fry烤 kǎo to bake炸 zhá to deep fry煮 zhǔ to boil煮开 zhǔkāi to reach to the boil point煎 jiān to shallow fry先 xiān firstly然后 ránhòu then放进 fàngjìn to put in等 děng to wait大火 dàhuǒ high heat小火 xiǎohuǒ low heat分钟 fēnzhōng minute• 烹饪传统:配料,特色菜,特殊活动 ( culinary traditions: ingredients, special dishes, special events )油 yóu oil盐 yán salt糖 táng sugar醋 cù vinegar酱油 jiàngyóu soy sauceMandarin ab initio: Language-specific syllabus 14Mandarin ab initio : Programme spécifiqueMandarín ab initio: Programa de estudios específico
  16. 16. 葱 cōng spring onion姜 jiāng ginger蒜 suàn garlic胡椒粉 hújiāo fěn pepper powder辣椒 làjiāo chilli西红柿酱/ xīhóngshì jiàng / tomato sauce fānqié jiàng番茄酱咸 xián salty淡 dàn bland甜 tián sweet酸 suān sour辣 là spicy苦 kǔ bitter红烧 hóng shāo braised in soy sauce糖醋 tángcù sweet and sour• 食品杂货 (groceries)米 mǐ rice (raw)面条 miàntiáo noodles肉 ròu meat猪肉 zhūròu pork牛肉 niúròu beef羊肉 yángròu lamb鸡肉 jīròu chicken鸭肉 yāròu duck鱼 yú fish虾 xiā shrimpMandarin ab initio: Language-specific syllabus 15Mandarin ab initio : Programme spécifiqueMandarín ab initio: Programa de estudios específico
  17. 17. 海鲜 hǎixiān seafood蔬菜/青菜 shūcài / qīngcài vegetable凉菜 liángcài cold vegetable dish豆腐 dòufu tofu白菜 báicài Chinese cabbage点心 diǎnxīn light refreshment饮料 yǐnliào drinks矿泉水 kuàngquán shuǐ mineral water果汁 guǒzhī juice牛奶 niúnǎi milk可乐 kělè cola汽水 qìshuǐ lemonade茶 chá tea咖啡 kāfēi coffee水果 shuǐguǒ fruit苹果 píngguǒ apple香蕉 xiāngjiāo banana橙子/桔子 chéngzi / júzi orange梨 lí pear草莓 cǎoméi strawberry零食 língshí snack蛋糕 dàngāo cake饼干 bǐng gān biscuit; cookies糖果 tángguǒ sweetie巧克力 qiǎokèlì chocolate花生 huāshēng peanut冰淇淋 bīngqílín ice creamMandarin ab initio: Language-specific syllabus 16Mandarin ab initio : Programme spécifiqueMandarín ab initio: Programa de estudios específico
  18. 18. • 保健与日常饮食:素食 (health and diet: vegetarianism)素食 sùshí vegetarian diet素食餐厅 sùshí cāntīng vegetarian restaurant吃素的 chīsù de vegetarian节食 jiéshí on diet• 厨房电器与用具(kitchen appliances and utensils)厨房 chúfáng kitchen冰箱 bīngxiāng fridge洗碗机 xǐwǎn jī dish washer微波炉 wēibō lú microwave吸尘器 xīchén qì vacuum cleaner炉子 lúzi cooker锅子 guōzi pot炒菜锅 chǎocài guō wok碟子/盘子 diézi / pánzi plate碗 wǎn bowl筷子 kuàizi chopsticks刀子 dāozi knife叉子 chāzi fork勺子/调羹 sháozi / tiáogēng spoon• 市场 (market)市场 shìchǎng market超级市场 chāojí shìchǎng supermarket菜市场 cài shìchǎng traditional food groceries marketMandarin ab initio: Language-specific syllabus 17Mandarin ab initio : Programme spécifiqueMandarín ab initio: Programa de estudios específico
  19. 19. 夜市 yèshì night market小吃街 xiǎochī jiē snack street摊贩 tānfàn stall seller• 餐饮(meals)汤 tāng soup(米)饭 (mǐ)fàn (cooked) rice面条 miàntiáo noodles饺子 jiǎozi dumpling包子 bāozi bun凉菜 liángcài cold vegetable dish三明治 sānmíngzhì sandwich汉堡包 hànbǎobāo hamburger意 大 利 饼 / 比 萨 yìdàlìbǐng / bǐsàbǐng pizza饼中餐 zhōngcān Chinese food西餐 xīcān Western food早餐/早饭 zǎocān /zǎofàn breakfast午餐/午饭 wǔcān/ wǔfàn lunch晚餐/晚饭 wǎncān/wǎnfàn dinner请 qǐng please好吃 hǎochī delicious干杯 gānbēi to drink a toastMandarin ab initio: Language-specific syllabus 18Mandarin ab initio : Programme spécifiqueMandarín ab initio: Programa de estudios específico
  20. 20. • 数量(quantity)个 gè most general measure word瓶 píng bottle盒 hé box盘 pán plate碗 wǎn bowl杯 bēi glass; cup包 bāo pack袋 dài bag斤 jīn pound• 餐馆 (restaurants)中餐馆 zhōngcān guǎn Chinese food restaurant西餐馆 xīcān guǎn Western food restaurant风味餐馆 fēngwèi cānguǎn local cuisine restaurant快餐馆/快餐店 Kuàicānguǎn / Fast food restaurant kuàicāndiàn饭馆 fànguǎn restaurant外賣店 wàimài diàn takeaway面店 miàndiàn noodle bar菜单 càidān menu订(桌) dìng (zhuō) to reserve叫菜/点菜 jiào cài / diǎn cài to order food服务员 fúwùyuán waiter/waitress付钱/结帐/买单 fùqián / jiézhàng / to pay the bill mǎidān顾客 gùkè customer小费 xiǎofèi tipMandarin ab initio: Language-specific syllabus 19Mandarin ab initio : Programme spécifiqueMandarín ab initio: Programa de estudios específico
  21. 21. • 商店的类型 (types of shops)商店 shāngdiàn shop商场 shāngchǎng shopping mall杂货店 záhuò diàn grocery store超级市场 chāojí shìchǎng supermarket水果店 shuǐguǒ diàn fruit store冰店 bīng diàn ice store个人资料(personal details) 、外貌(appearance) 、性格(character)姓名 xìngmíng name性别 xìngbié gender• 住址(address)住址 zhùzhǐ address国 guó country省 shěng province市 shì city区 qū district街 jiē street路 lù road号 hào number村 cūn village邮编 yóubiān post code电话号码 diànhuà hàomǎ telephone number城市 chéngshì city; urban郊区 jiāoqū suburbMandarin ab initio: Language-specific syllabus 20Mandarin ab initio : Programme spécifiqueMandarín ab initio: Programa de estudios específico
  22. 22. 乡村/农村 xiāngcūn / nóngcūn countryside出生地点 chūshēng dìdiǎn place of birth• 年龄 (age)年龄 niánlíng age岁 suì years old多大 duōdà How old一 yī one二 èr two三 sān three四 sì four五 wǔ five六 liù six七 qī seven八 bā eight九 jiǔ nine十 shí ten十一 shíyī eleven十七 shíqī seventeen二十 èrshí twenty四十五 sìshí wǔ forty-five九十九 jiǔshí jiǔ ninety-nine百 bǎi hundredMandarin ab initio: Language-specific syllabus 21Mandarin ab initio : Programme spécifiqueMandarín ab initio: Programa de estudios específico
  23. 23. • 出生日期(date of birth)出生日期 chūshēng rìqī date of birth年 nián year月 yuè month日/号 rì /hào day几月 jǐ yuè which month几号 jǐ hào which day一九九五 yī jiǔ jiǔ wǔ 1995二零一二 èr líng yī èr 2012一月 yīyuè January二月 èryuè February三月 sānyuè March四月 sìyuè April五月 wǔyuè May六月 liùyuè June七月 qīyuè July八月 bāyuè August九月 jiǔyuè September十月 shíyuè October十一月 shíyīyuè November十二月 shíèryuè December一号 yīhào 1st (day)二号 èrhào 2nd (day)八日/号 bā rì / hào 8th (day)十三日/号 shísān rì / hào 13th (day)二十六日/号 èrshíliù rì / hào 26th (day)三十日/号 sānshí rì / hào 30th (day)Mandarin ab initio: Language-specific syllabus 22Mandarin ab initio : Programme spécifiqueMandarín ab initio: Programa de estudios específico
  24. 24. • 房子:房间,家具(house: rooms, furniture)房子 fángzi house家 jiā home住在 zhù zài to live in…大 dà big小 xiǎo small房东 fángdōng landlord房客 fángkè tenant租房子 zū fángzi to rent a house房租 fángzū rent搬家 bānjiā to move house房间 fángjiān room客厅 kètīng living room饭厅/餐厅 fàn tīng / cān tīng dining room厨房 chúfáng kitchen书房 shūfáng study睡房/卧房/卧室 shuìfáng / wòfáng / bedroom wòshì浴室/洗澡间 yùshì / xǐzǎo jiān bathroom厕所/卫生间/洗 cèsuǒ / wèishēng jiān / toilet xǐshǒu jiān手间三房两厅 sānfáng liǎngtīng three bedrooms and two public rooms车库/车房 chēkù/chēfáng garage花园 huāyuán garden花 huā flower草 cǎo grass树 shù treeMandarin ab initio: Language-specific syllabus 23Mandarin ab initio : Programme spécifiqueMandarín ab initio: Programa de estudios específico
  25. 25. 阳台 yángtái balcony楼梯 lóutī stairs楼上 lóushàng upstairs楼下 lóuxià downstairs一楼 yīlóu first floor三楼 sānlóu third floor墙 qiáng wall窗户 chuānghu window门 mén door家具 jiājù furniture床 chuáng bed桌子 zhuōzi table椅子 yǐzi chair沙发 shāfā sofa餐桌/饭桌 cānzhuō / fànzhuō dinning table书桌 shūzhuō desk衣柜 yīguì wardrobe电视 diànshì TV冰箱 bīngxiāng fridge冷气/空调 lěngqì / kōngtiáo air-conditioner• 语言 (languages)语言 yǔyán language中文/汉语 zhōngwén/hànyǔ Chinese汉语普通话 hànyǔ pǔtōnghuà Mandarin英语/英文 yīngyǔ / yīngwén English日语/日文 rìyǔ / rìwén JapaneseMandarin ab initio: Language-specific syllabus 24Mandarin ab initio : Programme spécifiqueMandarín ab initio: Programa de estudios específico
  26. 26. 韩语/韩文 hán yǔ / hán wén Korean法语/法文 fǎyǔ / fǎwén French德语/德文 déyǔ / déwén German西班牙语/ xībānyáyǔ / xībānyáwén Spanish西班牙文外语 wàiyǔ foreign language会 huì to know how to不会 bù huì not know how to说 shuō to speak几种 jǐ zhǒng How many (languages)• 国籍 (nationality)国籍 guójí nationality中国人 zhōngguó rén Chinese台湾人 táiwān rén Taiwanese新加坡人 xīnjiāpō rén Singaporean美国人 měiguó rén American加拿大人 jiānádà rén Canadian澳大利亚人 Àodàlìyà rén Australian新西兰人 xīnxīlán rén New Zealander日本人 rìběn rén Japanese韩国人 hánguó rén Korean英国人 yīngguó rén British法国人 fǎguó rén French德国人 déguó rén German西班牙人 xībānyá rén Spanish外国人 wàiguó rén foreignerMandarin ab initio: Language-specific syllabus 25Mandarin ab initio : Programme spécifiqueMandarín ab initio: Programa de estudios específico
  27. 27. 东方人 dōngfāng rén Oriental西方人 xīfāng rén Westerner• 身体(body)头 tóu head头发 tóufa hair脸 liǎn face眼睛 yǎnjīng eye鼻子 bízi nose嘴 zuǐ mouth耳朵 ěrduo ear皮肤 pífū skin手 shǒu hand脚 jiǎo foot腿 tuǐ leg胳膊 gēbo arm腰 yāo waist个子 gèzi height体重 tǐzhòng weight• 衣着(clothes)衣服 yīfu clothes大衣 dàyī coat毛衣 máoyī sweater雨衣 yǔyī raincoat裤子 kùzi trousers/pants裙子 qúnzi skirtMandarin ab initio: Language-specific syllabus 26Mandarin ab initio : Programme spécifiqueMandarín ab initio: Programa de estudios específico
  28. 28. 鞋子 xiézi shoes皮鞋 píxié leather shoes运动鞋 yùndòng xié sneakers运动服 yùndòng fú sport suit西装 xīzhuāng suit衬衫 chènshān shirtT 恤衫 T xùshān T shirt领带 lǐng dài tie袜子 wàzi socks手套 shǒutào gloves围巾 wéijīn scarf帽子 màozi hat穿 chuān to wear (clothing and shoes)戴 dài to wear (accessories)红 hóng red绿 lǜ green黑 hēi black白 bái white蓝 lán blue黄 huáng yellow棕 zōng brown橙 chéng orange• 体貌(physical appearance)高 gāo tall矮 ǎi short (height)Mandarin ab initio: Language-specific syllabus 27Mandarin ab initio : Programme spécifiqueMandarín ab initio: Programa de estudios específico
  29. 29. 胖 pàng fat瘦 shòu thin; slender长 cháng long短 duǎn short (length)大 dà big小 xiǎo small粗 cū thick细 xì thin圆 yuán round漂亮 piàoliang pretty; beautiful好看 hǎokàn nice looking可爱 kěài cute公斤 gōngjīn kilogram米/公尺 mǐ / gōngchǐ meter公分 gōngfēn centimeter尺 chǐ Chinese foot (length or height)寸 cùn Chinese inch• 态度(attitudes)友好 yǒuhǎo friendly热情 rèqíng enthusiastic; warm有耐性 yǒu nàixìng patient好脾气 hǎo píqì good tempered坏脾气 huài píqì bad tempered亲切 qīnqiè warm; friendly小气 xiǎoqì stingyMandarin ab initio: Language-specific syllabus 28Mandarin ab initio : Programme spécifiqueMandarín ab initio: Programa de estudios específico
  30. 30. 外向 wàixiàng outgoing内向 nèixiàng introverted有礼貌 yǒu lǐmào polite认真 rènzhēn diligent; earnest独立 dúlì independent• 情感与感觉(feelings)高兴 gāoxìng happy快乐 kuàilè Joyful开心 kāixīn pleased愉快 yúkuài merry兴奋 xīngfèn excited伤心 shāngxīn sad难过 nánguò sad; feeling unwell生气 shēngqì angry担心 dānxīn worried紧张 jǐnzhāng nervous放心 fàngxīn relieved满意 mǎnyì satisfied笑 xiào to laugh哭 kū to cry累 lèi tired饿 è hungry饱 bǎo full渴 kě thirsty烦 fán annoyedMandarin ab initio: Language-specific syllabus 29Mandarin ab initio : Programme spécifiqueMandarín ab initio: Programa de estudios específico
  31. 31. 身体健康(physical health)• 意外事故:急救,紧急状况(accidents: first-aid, emergencies)医院 yīyuàn hospital急诊 jízhěn emergency交通事故 jiāotōng shìgù traffic accident受伤 shòushāng injured流血 liúxuè to bleed救护车 Jiùhù chē ambulance救火车 Jiùhuǒ chē fire engine火灾 huǒzāi fire灭火 mièhuǒ to put out fire地震 dìzhèn earthquake• 身体(body) See ‘body’ in ‘ apprearence’• 医生:检查,预约 (doctor: check-ups, appointments)看病 kànbìng to see a doctor医生 yīshēng doctor牙医 yáyī dentist护士 hùshi nurse打针 dǎzhēn to give an injection吃药 chīyào to take medication检查 jiǎnchá to check up预约 yuē to make an appointment/appointment治疗 zhìliáo to treat (an illness)Mandarin ab initio: Language-specific syllabus 30Mandarin ab initio : Programme spécifiqueMandarín ab initio: Programa de estudios específico
  32. 32. • 健康:生活方式,饮食,健身 (health: lifestyle, diet, fitness)很健康 hěn jiànkāng very healthy生活方式 shēnghuó fāngshì lifestyle饮食习惯 yǐnshí xíguàn diet节食 jiéshí on diet健 身 中 心 / 健 身 jiànshēn zhōngxīn / fitness center jiànshēn shì室做运动 zuò yùndòng to take exercise吸烟 / 抽烟 xīyān to smoke• 医院与诊所:人员,大楼(hospital and clinic: personnel, buildings)医院 yīyuàn hospital诊所/医务室 zhěnsuǒ / yīwùshì clinic中医 zhōngyī Chinese doctor西医 xīyī Western doctor医生 yīshēng doctor护士 hùshi nurse病人 bìngrén patient病房 bìngfáng ward挂号 guàhào to register排队 páiduì to queue• 疾病(illness)生病 shēngbìng to fall ill感冒 gǎnmào to have a cold不舒服 bù shūfu not feeling well咳嗽 késou to coughMandarin ab initio: Language-specific syllabus 31Mandarin ab initio : Programme spécifiqueMandarín ab initio: Programa de estudios específico
  33. 33. 发烧 fāshāo to have fever头痛 tóutòng to have headache疼 téng ache, pain• 药 (medicines)药 yào medicine中药 zhōngyào Chinese medicine西药 xīyào Western medicine药片 yàopiàn tablet, pill药水 yàoshuǐ liquid medicine吃药 chīyào to take medicine• 药方/处方(prescriptions )药房/药店 yàofáng / yàodiàn pharmacy/drug store一日三次 yīrì sāncì three times a day饭前吃 fànqián chī to take medicine before meal饭后吃 fànhòu chī to take medicine after meal关系 (relationships)• 动物(animals)动物 dòngwù animal狗 gǒu dog猫 māo cat鱼 yú fish兔子 tùzi rabbit牛 niú cow; bull羊 yáng goat; sheepMandarin ab initio: Language-specific syllabus 32Mandarin ab initio : Programme spécifiqueMandarín ab initio: Programa de estudios específico
  34. 34. 猪 zhū pig鸡 jī rooster; hen鸭 yā duck鸟 niǎo bird马 mǎ horse小马 xiǎomǎ pony小老鼠 xiǎo lǎoshǔ mouse龙 lóng dragon虎 hǔ tiger狮 shī lion猴 hóu monkey蛇 shé snake熊猫 xióngmāo panda• 社区 (community )社区 shèqū community邻居 línjū neighbour大家 dàjiā everyone大人/成人 dàren / chéngrén adult老年人 lǎoniánrén elderly中年人 zhōngniánrén middle-aged青年/年轻人 qīngnián / niánqīngrén young people青少年 qīngshàonián teenager小孩/儿童 xiǎohái / értóng child男人 nánrén man女人 nǔrén womanMandarin ab initio: Language-specific syllabus 33Mandarin ab initio : Programme spécifiqueMandarín ab initio: Programa de estudios específico
  35. 35. • 家庭(family)家庭 jiātíng family家人 jiārén family member亲戚 qīnqi relative爸爸/父亲 bàba / fùqīn dad/father妈妈/母亲 māma / mǔqīn mum/mother哥哥 gēge older brother姐姐 jiějie older sister弟弟 dìdi younger brother妹妹 mèimèi/mèimei younger sister祖父/爷爷 zǔfù / yéye paternal grandfather祖母/奶奶 zǔmǔ / nǎinai paternal grandmother外祖父/外公 wàizǔfù / wàigōng maternal grandfather外祖母/外婆 wàizǔmǔ / wàipó maternal grandmother伯伯/伯父 bóbo / bófù uncle (father’s older brother)叔叔 shūshu uncle (father’s younger brother)姑姑 gūgu aunt (father’s sister)姨 yí aunt (mother’s sister)舅舅 jiùjiu uncle (mother’s brother)孩子 háizi child儿子 érzi son女儿 nǔér daughter丈夫/先生 zhàngfu / xiānsheng husband妻子/太太 qīzi / tàitai wifeMandarin ab initio: Language-specific syllabus 34Mandarin ab initio : Programme spécifiqueMandarín ab initio: Programa de estudios específico
  36. 36. • 家庭的庆祝会(family celebrations)庆祝 qìngzhù to celebrate生日 shēngrì birthday婚礼 hūnlǐ wedding聚会 jùhuì gathering礼物 lǐwù present• 朋友 (friends)朋友 péngyou friend好朋友 hǎo péngyou close friend男的朋友 nánde péngyou male friend女的朋友 nǚde péngyou female friend男朋友 nán péngyou boyfriend女朋友 nǚ péngyou girlfriend• 同伴(partnerships)夫妻 fūqī husband and wife男朋友 nán péngyou boyfriend女朋友 nǚ péngyou girlfriend结婚 jiéhūn to get married同居 tóngjū to live together• 宠物 (pets)宠物 chǒngwù pet狗 gǒu dog猫 māo cat鱼 yú fishMandarin ab initio: Language-specific syllabus 35Mandarin ab initio : Programme spécifiqueMandarín ab initio: Programa de estudios específico
  37. 37. 兔子 tùzi rabbit鸟 niǎo bird小马 xiǎomǎ pony小老鼠 xiǎo lǎoshǔ mouse购物(shopping)• 信贷 (credit)信用卡 xìnyòng kǎ credit card刷卡 shuākǎ to use a credit card• 习俗和传统:讨价还价,拍卖 (customs and traditions: bargaining, sales)讨价还价 tǎojià huánjià bargaining拍卖 pāimài sale打折 dǎzhé on discount减价 jiǎnjià to reduce price买一送一 mǎiyī sòngyī buy one get one free便宜一点 piányi yīdiǎn to reduce the price a little太贵了 tài guì le too expensive• 环境考量:包装,原料(environmental concerns: packaging, sources)环境 huánjìng environment包装 bāozhuāng package袋子 dàizi bag塑胶袋 sùjiāo dài plastic bag纸袋 zhǐdài paper bagMandarin ab initio: Language-specific syllabus 36Mandarin ab initio : Programme spécifiqueMandarín ab initio: Programa de estudios específico
  38. 38. • 钱(money)钱 qián money零钱 língqián change找钱 zhǎoqián to get change元/块 yuán / kuài dollar (RMB)角/毛 jiǎo / máo ten cents分 fēn cent便宜 piányi cheap贵 guì expensive现金 xiànjīn cash支票 zhīpiào cheque/check信用卡 xìnyòng kǎ credit card有 yǒu to have没有 méiyǒu not have• 网上购物 (shopping on the internet)网上购物 wǎngshàng gòuwù shopping on internet买 mǎi to buy卖 mài to sell安全 ānquán safe方便 fāngbiàn convenient• 商店(shops)商店 shāngdiàn shop百货商店/公司 bǎihuò shāngdiàn / department store gōngsī购物中心/商场 gòuwù zhōngxīn / shopping mall shāngchǎngMandarin ab initio: Language-specific syllabus 37Mandarin ab initio : Programme spécifiqueMandarín ab initio: Programa de estudios específico
  39. 39. 部(门) bù (mén) department一楼 yī lóu first floor电梯 diàntī lift; escalators地下层 dìxiàcéng basement服饰/服装 fúshì / fúzhuāng clothing玩具 wánjù toy饮食/餐饮 yǐnshí / cānyǐn food服务台 fúwùtái reception; information desk试衣室/间 shìyī shì / jiān fitting room试穿 shìchuān to try on书店 shūdiàn bookstore肉店 ròudiàn meat store鱼店 yúdiàn fish store超级市场 chāojí shìchǎng supermarket服饰店 fúshì diàn boutique营业时间 yíngyè shíjiān opening times• 交易 (transactions)收银处 shōuyín chù cashier柜台 guìtái counter售货员 shòuhuòyuán sale assistant袋子 dàizi bag顾客 gùkè customer排队 páiduì to queue买 mǎi to buy卖 mài to sellMandarin ab initio: Language-specific syllabus 38Mandarin ab initio : Programme spécifiqueMandarín ab initio: Programa de estudios específico
  40. 40. 退(货) tuì (huò) to return换 huàn to exchange发票/收据 fāpiào /shōujù receipt主题:休闲与工作 (Theme: Leisure and work)就业 (employment)• 事业/生涯 (career)计划/打算 jìhuà / dǎsuàn to plan希望 xīwàng to hope准备 zhǔnbèi to prepare如果 rúguǒ if将来 jiānglái in the future能 néng to be able to当/做 dāng / zuò to be…as…简历 jiǎnlì resume/CV广告 guǎnggào advertisement申请 shēnqǐng to apply工作 gōngzuò to work; work面试 miànshì interview有信心 yǒu xìnxīn confident赚钱 zhuànqián to make money成功 chénggōng to succeed; success说 shuō to speak书写 shūxiě to write流利 liúlì fluentMandarin ab initio: Language-specific syllabus 39Mandarin ab initio : Programme spécifiqueMandarín ab initio: Programa de estudios específico
  41. 41. • 工作培训 (job training)训练 xùnliàn to train; training机会 jīhuì opportunity• 职业 (professions)职业 zhíyè profession; occupation工人 gōngrén worker工程师 gōngchéngshī engineer厨师 chúshī chef律师 lǜshī lawyer老师/教师 lǎoshī / jiàoshī teacher教授 jiàoshòu professor会计 kuàijì accountant公务员 gōngwùyuán civil servant科学家 kēxuéjiā scientist画家 huàjiā painter (art)艺术家 yìshùjiā artist作家 zuòjiā writer记者 jìzhě journalist; reporter经理 jīnglǐ manager医生/大夫 yīshēng / dàifu doctor护士 hùshi nurse农民 nóngmín peasant商人/生意人 shāngrén / shēngyi rén business person司机 sījī driver演员 yǎnyuán actor/actress职员 zhíyuán clerkMandarin ab initio: Language-specific syllabus 40Mandarin ab initio : Programme spécifiqueMandarín ab initio: Programa de estudios específico
  42. 42. 服务员 fúwùyuán waiter/waitress秘书 mìshū secretary翻译 fānyì translator; interpreter自由职业 zìyóu zhíyè self-employed家庭主妇 jiātíng zhǔfù house wife退休 tuìxiū retired; to retire• 资历 (qualifications)医科 yīkē medical course文科 wénkē arts and humanity course理科 lǐkē science course工科 gōngkē engineering course学位 xuéwèi degree学士 xuéshì Bachelor degree硕士 shuòshì Master degree博士 bóshì PhD degree工作经验 gōngzuò jīngyàn work experience• 学习 (studies)学习 xuéxí to study, to learn系 xì department研究 yánjiū to research毕业 bìyè to graduate• 失业 (unemployment)失业 shīyè unemployed找工作 zhǎo gōngzuò to look for workMandarin ab initio: Language-specific syllabus 41Mandarin ab initio : Programme spécifiqueMandarín ab initio: Programa de estudios específico
  43. 43. • 工作条件:薪水,时间安排 (work conditions: salary, schedule)全职 quánzhí full-time work兼职 jiānzhí part-time work打工 dǎgōng part-time work (during study)赚钱 zhuànqián to make money零用钱/零花钱 língyòngqián / pocket money línghuāqián收入 shōurù income工资/薪水 gōngzī / xīnshuǐ salary上班 shàngbān to go to work下班 xiàbān to finish work假期 jiàqī holiday休息 xiūxi to take a break午休 wǔxiū lunch break努力 nǔlì diligent娱乐 (entertainment)• 文化与特殊活动:节庆 (cultural and special events: festivals)中国新年/春节 zhōngguó xīnnián / Chinese New Year/spring chūnjié festival除夕 chúxī New Year Eve过节 guòjié to celebrate festival圣诞节 shèngdànjié Christmas复活节 fùhuójié Easter舞龙 wǔlóng dragon dance舞狮 wǔshī lion dance龙舟比赛 lóngzhōu bǐsài dragon boat race划龙舟 huá lóngzhōu to row dragon boatMandarin ab initio: Language-specific syllabus 42Mandarin ab initio : Programme spécifiqueMandarín ab initio: Programa de estudios específico
  44. 44. 端午节 duānwǔjié Dragon boat Festival月饼 yuèbǐng mooncake音乐会 yīnyuèhuì concert艺术节 yìshùjié art festival传统 chuántǒng traditional现代 xiàndài modern• 游览 (excursions)旅游 lǚyóu to tour参观 cānguān to visit (sightseeing)旅游团/旅行团 lǚyóu tuán / lǚxíng tuán tour group旅游车/旅行车 lǚyóu chē/ lǚxíng chē tour bus票价 piào jià ticket price门票 ménpiào entrance ticket订 dìng to book买 mǎi to buy• 休闲活动 (leisure activities)对…有兴趣 duì … yǒuxìngqù to be interested in…喜欢 xǐhuan to like不喜欢 bù xǐhuan to dislike更喜欢 gèng xǐhuan to like…more觉得 juéde to feel认为/想 rènwéi / xiǎng to think参加 cānjiā to join; to participate运动 yùndòng sport打球 dǎqiú to play ball gamesMandarin ab initio: Language-specific syllabus 43Mandarin ab initio : Programme spécifiqueMandarín ab initio: Programa de estudios específico
  45. 45. 网球 wǎngqiú tennis乒乓球 pīngpāngqiú table tennis篮球 lánqiú basketball羽毛球 yǔmáoqiú badminton足球 zúqiú football游泳 yóuyǒng to swim滑冰 huábīng to ice skate滑雪 huáxuě to ski跑步 pǎobù to jog旅行 lǚxíng to travel有趣/有意思 yǒuqù / yǒuyìsi interesting好看 hǎokàn good looking无聊 wúliáo boring• 休闲设施 (leisure facilities)音乐厅 yīnyuè tīng music hall电影院 diànyǐngyuàn cinema图书馆 túshūguǎn library游泳池 yóuyǒngchí swimming pool体育馆 tǐyùguǎn gym hall健身中心 jiànshēn zhōngxīn fitness center剧场 jùchǎng thearter美术馆 měishùguǎn art gallery博物馆 bówùguǎn museum公园 gōngyuán park游乐场 yóulèchǎng amusement park舞场 wǔchǎng dance hallMandarin ab initio: Language-specific syllabus 44Mandarin ab initio : Programme spécifiqueMandarín ab initio: Programa de estudios específico
  46. 46. 足球场 zúqiúchǎng football pitch滑冰场 huábīngchǎng skating rink• 艺术 (the arts)看书 kànshū to read看电视 kàn diànshì to watch TV看电影 kàn diànyǐng to watch films写作 xiězuò to write唱歌 chànggē to sing艺术 yìshù art听 tīng to listen音乐 yīnyuè music流行音乐 liúxíng yīnyuè pop music古典音乐 gǔdiǎn yīnyuè classical music民歌 míngē folk music乐器 yuèqì musical instrument跳舞 tiàowǔ to dance摄影/照相 shèyǐng / zhàoxiàng to take photos戏剧 xìjù drama画画 huàhuà to paint表演 biǎoyǎn to perform假期 (holidays)• 住宿 (accommodation)住 zhù to live订房 dìngfáng to book a room酒店/饭店 jiǔdiàn / fàndiàn hotelMandarin ab initio: Language-specific syllabus 45Mandarin ab initio : Programme spécifiqueMandarín ab initio: Programa de estudios específico
  47. 47. 宾馆/旅馆 bīnguǎn / lǔguǎn hotel露营/野营 lùyíng / yěyíng to camp双人间 shuāngrén jiān double room单人间 dānrén jiān single room空房间 kōng fángjiān vacant room入住登记 rùzhù dēngjì to check in退房 tuìfáng to check out安全门 ānquán mén exit双人床 shuāngrén chuáng double bed单人床 dānrén chuáng single bed• 活动 (activities)买 mǎi to buy购物 gòuwù shopping纪念品 jìniànpǐn souvenir礼物 lǐwù present参观 cānguān to visit文化中心 wénhuà zhōngxīn cultural center博物馆 bówùguǎn museum长城 chángchéng Great Wall照相机 zhàoxiàngjī camera旅行社 lǔxíng shè travel agent地图 dìtú map行程 xíngchéng schedule出发 chūfā to set off目的地 mùdìdì destinationMandarin ab initio: Language-specific syllabus 46Mandarin ab initio : Programme spécifiqueMandarín ab initio: Programa de estudios específico
  48. 48. • 当地习俗和传统 (local customs and traditions)汉族 hànzú Han people少数民族 shǎoshù mínzú minority nationality习俗 xísú customs传统 chuántǒng traditions• 地方和民族特色食品(regional and national foods)北方菜 běifāng cài northern dish南方菜 nánfāng cài southern dish地方菜 dìfang cài local food特色菜 tèsè cài speciality火锅 huǒguō hot pot• 旅游咨询中心 (tourist office and information)咨询中心 zīxún zhōngxīn information center市中心 shì zhōngxīn city center旅游景点 lǚyóu jǐngdiǎn scenic spot火车站 huǒchēzhàn train station飞机场 fēijīchǎng airport坐车 zuòchē to take the car/bus开车 kāichē to drive租车 zūchē to rent a car从…到 cóng … dào from…to…海报 hǎibào poster小册子 xiǎocèzi brochure禁止停车 jìnzhǐ tíngchē No parking禁止入内 jìnzhǐ rùnèi No enteringMandarin ab initio: Language-specific syllabus 47Mandarin ab initio : Programme spécifiqueMandarín ab initio: Programa de estudios específico
  49. 49. 请勿照相/ qǐngwù zhàoxiàng / No photo qǐngwù pāizhào请勿拍照保持安静 bǎochí ānjìng Quiet危险 wēixiǎn Danger出口 chūkǒu Exit入口 rùkǒu Entrance注意安全 zhùyì ānquán Caution• 交通 (transport)飞机 fēijī airplane火车 huǒchē train大巴 dàbā bus坐 zuò to take开车 kāichē to drive买票 mǎipiào to buy ticket订票 dìngpiào to book ticket单程 dānchéng single trip来回 láihuí round trip取票 qǔpiào to collect ticket旅客 lǚkè passenger售票处 shòupiào chù ticket office候车室 hòuchē shì waiting room (bus/train)候机室 hòujī shì waiting room (flight)转车 zhuǎnchē to change bus/train转机 zhuǎnjī to transfer (flight)时刻表 shíkè biǎo timetable护照 hùzhào passportMandarin ab initio: Language-specific syllabus 48Mandarin ab initio : Programme spécifiqueMandarín ab initio: Programa de estudios específico
  50. 50. 签证 qiānzhèng visa海关 hǎiguān custom检查 jiǎnchá to check行李 xíngli luggage带 dài to carry安全 ānquán safe航空公司 hángkōng gōngsī airline company航班 hángbān flight起飞 qǐfēi to take off降落 jiàngluò to land正点 zhèngdiǎn to be on schedule晚点 wǎndiǎn to be behind the schedule• 假日种类:城市、沙滩、家庭 (types of holiday: city, beach, family)全包旅游 quánbāo lǚyóu all included tour package三日游 sānrì yóu three-day trip长途旅游 chángtú lǚyóu long-distance tour短途旅游 duǎntú lǚyóu excursion参观 cānguān to visit游览 yóulǎn to go sightseeing• 天气和季节 (weather and seasons)晴 qíng sunny阴/多云 yīn / duōyún cloudy下雨 xiàyǔ to rain下雪 xiàxuě to snow打雷 dǎléi thunderMandarin ab initio: Language-specific syllabus 49Mandarin ab initio : Programme spécifiqueMandarín ab initio: Programa de estudios específico

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