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Munich Munich Document Transcript

  • The Munich air disaster occurred on 6 February 1958, when British European Airways Flight 609crashed on its third attempt to take off from a slush-covered runway at Munich-Riem Airport in Munich,West Germany. On board the plane was the Manchester United football team, nicknamed the "BusbyBabes", along with a number of supporters and journalists. Twenty of the 44 people on board the aircraftdied in the crash. The injured, some of whom were knocked unconscious, were taken to the Rechts derIsar Hospital in Munich where three more died, resulting in a total of 23 fatalities with 21 survivors.The team was returning from a European Cup match in Belgrade, Yugoslavia (now Serbia), against RedStar Belgrade, and stopped in Munich for refuelling, as a non-stop trip from Belgrade to Manchester wasout of the "Elizabethan" class Airspeed Ambassador aircrafts range. After refuelling, the pilots,Captains James Thain and Kenneth Rayment, attempted to take off twice; they abandoned both attemptsdue to boost surging in the port engine. Fearing that they would get too far behind schedule, CaptainThain rejected an overnight stay in Munich in favour of a third take-off attempt. By the time of the thirdattempt, snow was falling, causing a layer of slush to build up at the far end of the runway. When theaircraft hit the slush, it lost velocity, making take-off impossible. It ploughed through a fence past theend of the runway, before the port wing hit a nearby house and was torn off. Fearing that the aircraftmight explode, Captain Thain set about getting the surviving passengers as far away as possible. Despitethis threat, Manchester United goalkeeper Harry Gregg remained behind to pull survivors from thewreckage.An investigation by the West German airport authorities originally blamed Captain Thain for the crash,claiming that he failed to de-ice the wings of the aircraft, despite statements to the contrary fromeyewitnesses. It was later established that the crash was caused by the build-up of slush on the runway,which resulted in the aircraft being unable to achieve take-off velocity; Thains name was eventuallycleared in 1968, ten years after the incident.Munich. . . is the capital and the largest city of Bavaria. It is located on the River Isar north of the BavarianAlps. Munich is the 3rd largest town Germany, behind Berlin and Hamburg. About 1.42 millionpeople live within the city limits. Munich was the host city of the 1972 Summer Olympic Games. Thecitys motte is "München mag dich" (Munich likes you). Before 2006, it was "Weltstadt mit Herz"(Cosmopolitan city with a heart). Its native name, München, means "by the monks’ place". The citysname derives from the monks of the Benedictine order who founded the city; hence the monk depictedon the city’s coat of arms.Modern Munich is a financial and publishing hub, and a frequently top-ranked destination for migrationand expatriate location in livability rankings. Munich achieved 4th place in frequently quoted Mercerlivability rankings in 2011.For economic and social innovation, the city was ranked 15th globally out of289 cities in 2010. Munich is often ranked as the most livable town in Germany.
  • The Hofbräuhaus am Platzl, arguably the most famous beer hall worldwide, is located in the city centre.It also operates the second largest tent at the Oktoberfest, one of Munichs most famous attractions. TheOktoberfest was first held on 12 October 1810 in honour of the marriage of crown prince Ludwig toPrincess Therese von Sachsen-Hildburghausen. The festivities were closed with a horse race and in thefollowing years the horse races were continued and later developed into what is now known as theOktoberfest. Despite its name, most of Oktoberfest occurs in September. It always finishes on the firstSunday in October unless the German national holiday on 3 October ("Tag der deutschen Einheit"-Dayof German Unity) is a Monday or Tuesday-then the Oktoberfest remains open for these days.Town centreAt the centre of the city is the Marienplatz —a large open square. In the centre there’s Marian Column.The New Town Hall with its tower contains the Rathaus-Glockenspiel.
  • The Rathaus-Glockenspiel is a tourist attraction. Part of the second construction phase of the NewTown Hall, it dates from 1908. Every day at 11 a.m. (as well as 12 p.m. and 5 p.m. in summer) it chimesand re-enacts two stories from the 16th century to the amusement of mass crowds of tourists and locals.It consists of 43 bells and 32 life-sized figures. The top half of the Glockenspiel tells the story of themarriage of the local Duke Wilhelm V (who also founded the world famous Hofbräuhaus) to Renata ofLorraine. In honour of the happy couple there is a joust with life-sized knights on horsebackrepresenting Bavaria (in white and blue) and Lothringen (in red and white). The Bavarian knight winsevery time of course. This is then followed by the bottom half and second story: Schäfflertanz (thecoopers dance). According to myth, 1517 was a year of plague in Munich. The coopers are said to havedanced through the streets to, "bring fresh vitality to fearful dispositions." The coopers remained loyal tothe duke, and their dance came to symbolize perseverance and loyalty to authority through difficulttimes. By tradition, the dance is performed in Munich every seven years. This was described in 1700 as,"an age-old custom", but the current dance was defined only in 1871. The dance can be seen duringFasching (German Carnival).The whole show lasts somewhere between 12 and 15 minutes long depending on which tune it plays thatday. At the very end of the show, a very small golden bird at the top of the Glockenspiel chirps threetimes, marking the end of the spectacle.The Peterskirche, close to Marienplatz is the oldest church of the inner city. It was first built during theRomanesque period, and was the focus of the early monastic settlement in Munich before the citysofficial foundation in 1158.The Frauenkirche is the most famous building in the city centre and serves as the cathedral.
  • The nearby Michaelskirche is the largest renaissance church north of the Alps, while theTheatinerkirche is a basilica in Italianate high baroque which had a major influence on SouthernGerman baroque architecture. Its dome dominates the Odeonsplatz.The large Residenz palace complex (begun in 1385) on the edge of Munichs Old Town ranks among Europesmost significant museums of interior decoration. It is the former royal palace of the Bavarian monarchs.The Residenz is the largest city palace in Germany and is today open to visitors for its architecture androom decorations, and displays of the former royal collections.Having undergone several extensions, it contains also the treasury and the splendid rococo CuvilliésTheatre. Next door to the Residenz the neo-classical opera, the National Theatre was erected.Among the baroque and neoclassical mansions which still exist in Munich are the Palais Porcia, thePalais Preysing, the Palais Holnstein and the Prinz-Carl-Palais. All mansions are situated close to theResidenz, same as the Alte Hof, a medieval castle and first residence of the Wittelsbach dukes inMunich.