Gender differences


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Gender differences in educational attainment

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Gender differences

  1. 1. In educational attainment
  2. 2.   In the 1960s and 1970s sociologists were concerned about the underachievement of girls. By the 1990s this concern had switched to the boys.
  3. 3.       The Qualifications and Curriculum Authority found girls scored higher on all tests. 62% of girls could concentrate for 10 minutes Only 49% of boys could 56% of girls could write/spell their name 42% of boys could DfES (2007) 70% of children with special educational needs are boys
  4. 4.  Girls do better in all subjects  Although the gap is less in Maths and Science
  5. 5.  There is around a 10% difference between boys and girls achieving 5 GCSEs at grade A-C
  6. 6.    Girls are more likely to pass and get higher grades. The gap is much narrower than at GCSE. (2006) 95.8% of girls passed two or more Alevels and only 94% of boys did.
  7. 7.  Both genders have improved every year  It’s just that girls have improved more  Not all boys underachieve (Coffrey, 2001)
  8. 8.    Certain groups of boys are more likely to fail than others Social class is a huge determining factor in this (Epstein et al, 1998) Class has over 5 times the effect of gender on attainment (Gilbourne and Mirza, 2000)
  9. 9.    When the 11+ test was introduced in the 1940s more girls passed than boys The results had to be ‘adjusted’ So girls doing better is not necessarily a new phenomena (Chitty, 2002)
  10. 10.  Create a mind map of reasons for this ‘gender gap’
  11. 11.  Factors affecting achievement can be split into two categories. INTERNAL FACTORS EXTERNAL FACTORS
  12. 12. 1. 2. 3. What is feminism? Briefly describe two different strands of feminism Outline how feminism may have helped girls achieve more at school
  13. 13. 1. Feminism is a social movement concerned with equal rights for women in all areas of life.
  14. 14.     Liberal feminism – seeks to create equality through changes to the law. Marxist feminism – believes that inequality stems from the capitalist economic system. Radical feminism – believes inequality stems from male power (Patriarchy) and only truly radical solutions will work Difference feminism – notes the importance of individual experience (not all women experience the same difficulties)
  15. 15. Sue Sharpe ‘Just like a girl’ (1976 and 1994) Found that 1990s girls were  More assertive  More ambitious  More confident Main priorities of 70s girls were ‘love, marriage, and children’
  16. 16.   Feminism has challenged the ‘traditional’ image of women as housewives and mothers only. Feminism has challenged the gender binary
  17. 17. Masculine Feminine Dominant Strong Logical Aggressive Protective Sexually assertive Blue Breadwinner Sporty Competitive Submissive Weak Emotional Passive In need of protection Sexually passive Pink Homemaker Caring Sensitive
  18. 18.   From the moment children are born, they are assigned a gender that will affect the ways people interact with them. Children learn gendered norms and gender stereotypes
  19. 19.  Choice of toys
  20. 20.    In the 60s and 70s women were often depicted in domestic roles. The ladybird reading scheme was used in many schools. How might the following images normalise gendered roles?
  21. 21.    Angela McRobbie (1994) Content analysis of girl’s magazines from the 70s and 90s Jackie magazine emphasised the importance of getting married and not getting ‘left on the shelf’
  22. 22.    Angela McRobbie (1994) Modern magazines have images of assertive, independent women. Similarly TV programmes have more positive female role models.
  23. 23.   Perform your own content analysis on some modern magazines. What images are they portraying to young women?
  24. 24. Can you think of any girl power icons or positive role models from the media?