Gender differences
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Gender differences



Gender differences in educational attainment

Gender differences in educational attainment



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Gender differences Gender differences Presentation Transcript

  • In educational attainment
  •   In the 1960s and 1970s sociologists were concerned about the underachievement of girls. By the 1990s this concern had switched to the boys.
  •       The Qualifications and Curriculum Authority found girls scored higher on all tests. 62% of girls could concentrate for 10 minutes Only 49% of boys could 56% of girls could write/spell their name 42% of boys could DfES (2007) 70% of children with special educational needs are boys
  •  Girls do better in all subjects  Although the gap is less in Maths and Science
  •  There is around a 10% difference between boys and girls achieving 5 GCSEs at grade A-C
  •    Girls are more likely to pass and get higher grades. The gap is much narrower than at GCSE. (2006) 95.8% of girls passed two or more Alevels and only 94% of boys did.
  •  Both genders have improved every year  It’s just that girls have improved more  Not all boys underachieve (Coffrey, 2001)
  •    Certain groups of boys are more likely to fail than others Social class is a huge determining factor in this (Epstein et al, 1998) Class has over 5 times the effect of gender on attainment (Gilbourne and Mirza, 2000)
  •    When the 11+ test was introduced in the 1940s more girls passed than boys The results had to be ‘adjusted’ So girls doing better is not necessarily a new phenomena (Chitty, 2002)
  •  Create a mind map of reasons for this ‘gender gap’
  •  Factors affecting achievement can be split into two categories. INTERNAL FACTORS EXTERNAL FACTORS
  • 1. 2. 3. What is feminism? Briefly describe two different strands of feminism Outline how feminism may have helped girls achieve more at school
  • 1. Feminism is a social movement concerned with equal rights for women in all areas of life.
  •     Liberal feminism – seeks to create equality through changes to the law. Marxist feminism – believes that inequality stems from the capitalist economic system. Radical feminism – believes inequality stems from male power (Patriarchy) and only truly radical solutions will work Difference feminism – notes the importance of individual experience (not all women experience the same difficulties)
  • Sue Sharpe ‘Just like a girl’ (1976 and 1994) Found that 1990s girls were  More assertive  More ambitious  More confident Main priorities of 70s girls were ‘love, marriage, and children’
  •   Feminism has challenged the ‘traditional’ image of women as housewives and mothers only. Feminism has challenged the gender binary
  • Masculine Feminine Dominant Strong Logical Aggressive Protective Sexually assertive Blue Breadwinner Sporty Competitive Submissive Weak Emotional Passive In need of protection Sexually passive Pink Homemaker Caring Sensitive
  •   From the moment children are born, they are assigned a gender that will affect the ways people interact with them. Children learn gendered norms and gender stereotypes
  •  Choice of toys
  •    In the 60s and 70s women were often depicted in domestic roles. The ladybird reading scheme was used in many schools. How might the following images normalise gendered roles?
  •    Angela McRobbie (1994) Content analysis of girl’s magazines from the 70s and 90s Jackie magazine emphasised the importance of getting married and not getting ‘left on the shelf’
  •    Angela McRobbie (1994) Modern magazines have images of assertive, independent women. Similarly TV programmes have more positive female role models.
  •   Perform your own content analysis on some modern magazines. What images are they portraying to young women?
  • Can you think of any girl power icons or positive role models from the media?