11 rules of writing, grammar, and
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11 rules of writing, grammar, and

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some interesting information with attached examples

some interesting information with attached examples

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11 rules of writing, grammar, and 11 rules of writing, grammar, and Presentation Transcript

  • 1. To join two independent clauses, use a comma followed by a conjunction, a semicolon alone, or a semicolon followed by a sentence modifier.2. Use commas to bracket nonrestrictive phrases, which are notessential to the sentences meaning.3. Do not use commas to bracket phrases that are essential to asentences meaning.
  • 4. When beginning a sentence with an introductory phrase oran introductory (dependent) clause, include a comma.5. To indicate possession, end a singular noun with anapostrophe followed by an "s". Otherwise, the nouns formseems plural.6. Make the subject and verb agree with each other, not with aword that comes between them.
  • 7. Use proper punctuation to integrate a quotation into asentence. If the introductory material is an independentclause, add the quotation after a colon. If the introductorymaterial ends in "thinks," "saying," or some other verbindicating expression, use a comma.8. Be sure that a pronoun, a participial phrase, or an appositiverefers clearly to the proper subject. View slide
  • 9. Use parallel construction to make a strong point and create asmooth flow.10. Use the active voice unless you specifically need to use thepassive.11. Omit unnecessary words. View slide
  • Examples
  • Incorrect: The delivery boy knew he carried strange cargo, but stillventured off unafraid.Correct: The delivery boy knew he carried strange cargo, but he stillventured off unafraid.Incorrect: My math teacher doesnt know how to lecture, sheshould have remained a student.Correct: My math teacher doesnt know how to lecture; sheshould have remained a student.Incorrect: Gregor has not changed physically; but has given himselfan excuse to separate himself from the pain of previous experiences.Correct: Gregor has not changed physically; however, he has givenhimself an excuse to hide from the pain of previous experiences.
  • Incorrect: The bus driver with her ears tuned to the roar decidedto take the grumbling bus on a detour across the football field.Correct: The bus driver, her ears tuned to the roar, decided to takethe grumbling bus on a detour across the football field.Incorrect: My window as dirty as it is reveals the beauty of nature ona snowy morning.Correct: My window, as dirty as it is, reveals the beauty of nature ona snowy morning.Incorrect: King and Lucille, his customized black Gibson haveelectrified audiences all over the world.Correct: King and Lucille, his customized black Gibson, haveelectrified audiences all over the world.
  • Incorrect: The man, who has too many ties, has too few necks.Correct: The man who has too many ties has too few necks.Incorrect: The cats, with six toes, are a unique attraction of thetour of Hemingways house.Correct: The cats with six toes are a unique attraction of thetour of Hemingways house.
  • Incorrect: After buying the five pound jar of marshmallowspread he set off in search of a bulk portion of peanut butter.Correct: After buying the five pound jar of marshmallowspread, he set off in search of a bulk portion of peanut butter.Incorrect: With this he bestows the responsibility of his ownhappiness on his mother and father.Correct: With this, he bestows the responsibility of his ownhappiness on his mother and father.Incorrect: As she begins to gain independence it is natural forGrete to regard the idea of dependency as repugnant.Correct: As she begins to gain independence, it is natural forGrete to regard the idea of dependency as repugnant.
  • Incorrect: Though the lobsters claws were bound, the creature madea threatening gesture as they dropped it in the pot.Correct: Though the lobsters claws were bound, the creature made athreatening gesture as they dropped it in the pot.Incorrect: In a democracy, anyones vote counts as much as mine.Correct: In a democracy, anyones vote counts as much as mine.Incorrect: There is a vast age difference between Victors mother andfather.Correct: There is a vast age difference between Victors mother andfather.
  • Incorrect: The Thanksgiving dinner, right down to the beautifulcenterpiece, weredevoured by the escaped grizzly.Correct: The Thanksgiving dinner, right down to the beautifulcenterpiece, wasdevoured by the escaped grizzly.Incorrect: The cart, as well as its contents, were gone.Correct: The cart, as well as its contents, was gone.Incorrect: The girl, along with her classmates, like the new teacher.Correct: The girl, along with her classmates, likes the new teacher.
  • Incorrect: Tumbling down the hill, Jack yelled: "Gosh, Im sick ofthis."Correct: Tumbling down the hill, Jack yelled, "Gosh, Im sick ofthis."Incorrect: Her letter spoke to him in harsh tones, "You never fail torepulse me."Correct: Her letter spoke to him in harsh tones: "You never fail torepulse me."Incorrect: He views the problem as a slight delay or a sickness thatwill eventually disappear, "I will go back to sleep for a fewminutes and forget all this nonsense."Correct: He views the problem as a slight delay or a sickness that willeventually disappear: "I will go back to sleep for a few minutesand forget all this nonsense."
  • Incorrect: Its hump decorated in strings of flowers, theprogrammer rode the camel through the food court.Correct: The programmer rode the camel, its humpdecorated in strings of flowers, through the food court.Incorrect: Filled with bad gas, he drove his car to Tucsondespite the knocking.Correct: Although it was filled with bad gas, he drove his car toTucson despite the knocking.
  • Incorrect: I was glad to be departing for Australia but I wasnervous when I left my apartment.Correct: I was glad to be departing for Australia but nervous tobe leaving my apartment.Incorrect: The system excels at tasks suchas communicating with other computers, processing records,and mathematical calculations.Correct: The system excels at tasks suchas communicating with other computers, processing records,and calculating mathematical equations.
  • Incorrect: A refund was given to him by the hair regenerationcompany.Correct: The hair regeneration company gave him a refund.Incorrect: A good score was achieved by the team.Correct: The team achieved a good score.Incorrect: A box of chocolates and a dozen roses werepresented to the girl by her boyfriend.Correct: The boyfriend presented a box of chocolates and adozen roses to the girl.
  • Incorrect: I would like to assert that the author should beconsidered to be a buffoon.Correct: The author is a buffoon.Incorrect: It would be safe to say that Gregor Samsa is not the onlycharacter in Franz Kafkas The Metamorphosis to undergo drasticchanges.Correct: Gregor Samsa is not the only character in Franz Kafkas TheMetamorphosis to undergo drastic change.Incorrect: Before going to the supermarket, we made a list of thegroceries we needed in order to make the food that we intended toeat for dinner.Correct: Before going to the supermarket, we made a list of groceriesthat we needed to prepare dinner.