An essential learning for all managers and entrepreneurs and other professionals needing to negotiate on a daily basis. These slides will provide a direction as to the ways of negotiation and
An essential learning for all managers and entrepreneurs and other professionals needing to negotiate on a daily basis. These slides will provide a direction as to the ways of negotiation and resolving conflicts.
Studies of leadership fall into four categories: Trait theories look at three categories of traits: Those that do not change, e.g., height, nationality Those that change with difficulty, e.g., values Those that can be developed, e.g., interpersonal skills Leadership styles such as consideration for others versus task orientation Contingency theory: leaders need to fit their environment New l eadership such as transformative or connective leaders Transformational leadership is believed to have four dimensions (Bass, 1985): The transformational leader stimulates followers by questioning assumptions and encouraging new approaches to thinking and working The transformational leader focuses on developing followers, using empathy, showing consideration, or demonstrating support for employees The transformational leader has charisma—people want to follow this leader because he/she demonstrates an ideal of leadership The transformational leader has a vision that energizes and inspires followers
Several leadership studies
senior executives for Fortune 500 firms
S urveyed over 1,000 CEOs
I nterviews with 101 executives who their firms deemed to be extremely successful .
Each of these theories has been used to study global leaders . Global m indset: managers with a global mindset are able to sustain a broad view of the organization and keep the details in mind. A global mindset helps this leader balance contradictions the organization faces, encourages reliance on processes to achieve success, helps the leader accomplishes work . G lobal mindset is a leadership trait, but it also reflects new leadership because a global mindset assists in managing the meaning of events.
Try to defuse with acknowledgement, empathy, patience, impartiality.
Consider dealing with less emotional issues first
Know your own “Hot Buttons”
Practice (consider Toastmasters, etc)
Negotiating around Fixed Positions Probe for the beliefs and goals behind the fixed position. Example of a fixed position: “ I will not agree to outsource, regardless of savings” Surface goal: “Not to be burned the way we were 5 years ago” Underlying belief: “Work is controllable if we do it in-house” Underlying goals: To have control, stability, minimum risk, and not have to lay-off anyone . Underlying realities: Managing this work in-house is a costly pain, and not our core skill. These people can be redeployed on urgent backlog. Now you have the basis for analysis of alternatives, risks, contingencies, develop pros and cons, then negotiate!
Exercise 1 ( To be participated in a group of three) Roles . Zerin, a 15 year old girl – Participant 1 Father – Participant 2, Mother – Participant 3 Background : Zerin (19 years) lived in Chittagong. Zerin is calling home from her mobile to tell her parents that she is hitch-hiking to Dallywood to be a movie star. She has taken only 2,000 takas with her. She sounds convincing that she is doing the right thing but you as her parents feel differently. Please act out your roles and try to Negotiate from your position. Please let the audience know what position you would like to take. The entire conversation is for a maximum of 5 minutes. Focus on a “win-win” approach before Zerin disconnects.
Source: From Stewart L. Tubbs. Empowerment (Ann Arbor, Mich.: U-Train, Inc., 1993), pp 5-9. Adapted from R. Tannenbaum and H.W. Schmidt. “How to Choose a Leadership Pattern,” Harvard Business Review March-April, 1958.
1. T here is a need to discern what is permanent and immutable
2. W e must learn to make interconnections between people, events, and different categories of life because interdependence is an emerging condition of life
3. W e must learn to know ourselves
4. W e each need some understanding of how change and technology are affecting people and institutions
5. W e need to be open to dimensions of existence that are difficult to understand, value or control; within ourselves we need to value intuition
6. T here is a need to interact with people in a manner that will bridge racial and cultural differences
7. T here is a need to have a personal sense of creating something new for the future
The four agreements: Don Miguel Ruiz's Code for Life
Don Miguel Ruiz's book, The Four Agreements was published in 1997.
The Four Agreements is a life-changing book, whose ideas come from the ancient Toltec wisdom of the native people of Southern Mexico.
The Toltec were 'people of knowledge' - scientists and artists who created a society to explore and conserve the traditional spiritual knowledge and practices of their ancestors.
The simple ideas of The Four Agreements provide an inspirational code for life; a personal development model, and a template for personal development, behavior, communications and relationships. Here is how Don Miguel Ruiz summarizes 'The Four Agreements‘….
“Nothing others do is because of you. What others say and do is a projection of their own reality, their own dream. When you are immune to the opinions and actions of others, you won’t be the victim of needless suffering.”
“Find the courage to ask questions and to express what you really want. Communicate with others as clearly as you can to avoid misunderstandings, sadness and drama. With just this one agreement, you can completely transform your life.”
“Your best is going to change from moment to moment; it will be different when you are healthy as opposed to sick. Under any circumstance, simply do your best, and you will avoid self-judgment, self-abuse and regret.”