BALANCE SHEET ANALYSIS• Reserves• 1) Subsidy Received From The Govt• 2) Development Rebate reserve• 3) Revaluation of fixed assets• 4) Issue of Shares at Premium• 5) General Reserves• Surplus• The credit balance in profit and loss account
BALANCE SHEET ANALYSIS• Tangible Net Worth• This refers to the total funds arrived by paid- up capital , Reserves and P&L Surplus• Less• Intagible Assets
BALANCE SHEET ANALYSIS• Term Liabilities• Redeemable preference shares• Debentures• Deferred payment gaurantees• Public Deposits(Repayable after 12 months)• Term loans and unsecured loans from friens, relatives,directors repayable over a period of time• Remark : The company can raise public deposits to the extent of 25% of paid up capital plus free reserves and 10% from share holders for the maturity period ranging from 6 months to 3 yrs
BALANCE SHEET ANALYSIS• Current Liabilities• Working capital bank borrowings• T.loans deferred credit inst falling due in 12 mths• public deposits maturing within 12 months• unsecured loans, unless the repayment is on deferred terms• sundry creditors• advances from dealers and customers• interest accrued but not paid• tax provisions• Dividend declared and payable
BALANCE SHEET ANALYSIS• Contingent Liabilities• Tax disputes• Legal litigations• Bills and cheques discounted with banks• Claims against the company not acknowledged
BALANCE SHEET ANALYSIS• Fixed Assets• Infrastructure like land & building• plant & machinery• Vehicles• Furniture & fixtures• Depreciation• Straight line method• Written down Value Method• Remark : Dep added to profit to arrive repayment obligation especially in term loans
BALANCE SHEET ANALYSIS• Investments• 1) Shares And Securities• 2) Associate Companies• 3) Fixed deposits with banks/finance companies• Remark : While analysing bal sheet we can analyse necessity of such investments• Remark : While fixed deposits with banks are considered as fixed assets, the investmetns in associate concerns are treated as non current assets.
BALANCE SHEET ANALYSIS• Non Current Assets• Deferred recievables/Overdue recievables(like disputed amounts and Over Due > 6 mths)• Non moving stocks/inventory/un usable spares• Investment/Lending to associate concern• Borrowing of the directors from the company• Telephone deposits/ ST deposits etc
BALANCE SHEET ANALYSIS• Intangible Assets• Preliminary & Preoperative expenses• Deferred Revenue Expenditure• Goodwill• Trade mark• Patents• Rem : The o/s balance to be written off every year by charging P&L account
BALANCE SHEET ANALYSIS• Current Assets• Raw materials, work-in-progress,finished goods,spares and consumables• Sundry debtors and recievables < 6 mths• Advances paid to suppliers of raw materials• Cash and bank balances• Interest recievables• Other current assets such as Government securities, Bank deposits ..etc
BALANCE SHEET ANALYSIS• Notes• All expenses or provisions or advances or loans etc which are accrued and payable within 12 months are current liablities• When a company makes investments in unconnected avenues such as shares, securites, associate concerns are to be treated as non cur ast• The slow moving and absolete inventory - NCA
BALANCE SHEET ANALYSIS• Notes• Bal Sh Analy not only to be quantitative but to be qualitative• It is the fin pos on a part date. Min three years bal sh ana would be more meaningful• It is a mixture of facts, opinions and conventions• While opinions are of the company’s management, the conventions are practiced by the finance managers of the company.• ( ex Over due recievable > 6 mths as NCA is a acccounting convention
BALANCE SHEET ANALYSIS• Notes• The valuation of the stock is done as per the opinion of the management• Depreciation method may be changed to boost profit• It may be silent on key personnel and staff turnover• Marginal changes in the classification of certain items would lead to different results.
BALANCE SHEET ANALYSIS• Notes• Management competence• Investment decision• Resorting to window dressing• experience of the promoters• Board comprises of only family members• The key personnel of the company• The structure of the organisation• The authority and decision making are decentralised
BALANCE SHEET ANALYSIS• Notes• The state of industrial relations• Financial systems and procedures• management control• planning, budgeting, forecasting• capacity utilisation• status of the technology• awareness of the market, competitions ..etc• for listed co: share prices, EPS, book value, dividend record, public response ..etc
Profit & Loss Account• It is a summary of revenue earned and expenses incurred which ultimately results in profit or loss of to the company• No defined format in law• Operating revenue = Sales revenue• Non_operating revenue = Other income ( out of sale of investments, interest, commission and discount etc)• Hence operating profit is a yard stick for operating profit of the company• Operating profit = Sales Revenue- Operating
Profit & Loss Account• Gross Sales• Gross sales includes excise duty to be charged to the customer, central sales tax applicable, state sales tax applicable, the discount o be allowed to distributors/dealers/customers. The gross sales appears in the P&L account comprises of all the above part from the basic unit price.• Net Sales• The sales figure excluding all the factors explained above are the net sales.
Profit & Loss Account• Cost of production• This is the cost incurred right from the procurement of raw material to the finished good.• For ex in a garment firm following cost is incurred while production• 1) cost of raw material cloth, buttons, canvas, hooks, zips etc• 2) Maintenace of sewing machines• 3) payment of wages to workers• 4) power• 5) washing, ironing,packing etc.• Cost of Prod exclu selling & admn exp & int cost
Profit & Loss Account• Selling And General Administarative Expenses• Maintaining office staff for admn & acctg• marketing effort• payment of salaries/Tr All to marktg personnel• All the expenses which are not directly connected to manufacturing are classifed as selling and/or general expenses
Profit & Loss Account• Cost of goods sold• Cost of goods sold includes all manufacturing expenses and the adjustments for opening and closing stock• Cost of Goods sold = Opening stock + Purchases + Manufacturing expenses - Closing stock• Gross Profit is arrived deducting figure of cost of goods sold from the sales figure• ie Gross profit = Sales - Cost of goods sold.
Profit & Loss Account• Operating Profit is arrived deducting selling, administrative and general expenses , provision for bad debts, interest and miscellaneous expenses from the gross profit.• ie Op Profit = Gr Prof - (Sel & adm exp + Prov bad debt + mis exp )• Profit Before Tax When other income is added and other expenses are deducted from the operating profit we get profit before Tax• ie PBT = Op Profit + oth Inc - oth exp• Net Profit When provision for taxes is deducted from the Profit Before Tax we get Net profit• ie Net Profit = PBT - taxes
Profit & Loss Account• Non Operating Income/Expenses• The income earned by the unit from other than manufacturing and seling operations is classified under this head . i.e• a) Interest earned on fixed deposits• b) Dividends and profit earned by sale of assets and share.• All those expenses which are not directly connected with operations of the unit are classified under this head. i.e• a) Preliminary expenses written off• b) Loss suffered due to sale of assets & share