<ul><li>Biology Group Presentation -Transport Function Of Blood </li></ul><ul><li>Group Members :  </li></ul><ul><li>Ong S...
Key terms to be learnt
Some Substances that are transported By the Blood Oxyhaemoglobin <ul><li>Combines with oxygen to form an unstable compound...
<ul><li>Oxygen combines with Haemoglobin reversibly </li></ul><ul><li>Meaning that it can be separated from Haemoglobin re...
<ul><li>Can be fatal as without oxygen, cells cannot release energy through respiration </li></ul><ul><li>The fumes from c...
Alveoli <ul><li>Singular: alveolus </li></ul><ul><li>Air sacs that are found in the lungs </li></ul><ul><li>Branches out f...
 
Processes Taking Place In and Out of the cell  <ul><li>Respiration is the oxidation of food substances with the release of...
<ul><li>Your diaphragm contracts and flattens </li></ul><ul><li>Your external intercostal muscles contract while your inte...
<ul><li>What happens during Exhalation? </li></ul><ul><li>Your diaphragm relaxes and arches upwards </li></ul><ul><li>Your...
<ul><li>Gaseous exchange in alveoli: </li></ul><ul><li>Gaseous exchange in alveoli takes place by diffusion  </li></ul><ul...
<ul><li>How is oxygen absorbed in your lungs ? </li></ul><ul><li>One cell think membrane separating the blood capillaries ...
Acclimatization  <ul><li>Acclimatization is the process of the body adjusting to the decreased availability of oxygen at  ...
<ul><li>The changes to your body at altitude are complex and can be quite dramatic. The difficulty your body has maintaini...
<ul><li>A number of changes take place in the body to allow it to operate with decreased oxygen.  </li></ul><ul><li>The de...
<ul><li>Increased Respiratory Rate </li></ul><ul><li>During the first week of adaptation, a variety of changes take place....
<ul><li>Fluid Shifts </li></ul><ul><li>Blood flow to the brain increases to provide the brain with its required volume of ...
<ul><li>Increased 2, 3 DPG Production </li></ul><ul><li>Within the blood cells 2, 3 Diphosphoglycerate (DPG) increases. </...
The further you move away from sea level up into higher altitudes, the  lower  the air pressure is. The body has two main ...
 
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Respiration and Transport in man

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Respiration and Transport in man

  1. 1. <ul><li>Biology Group Presentation -Transport Function Of Blood </li></ul><ul><li>Group Members : </li></ul><ul><li>Ong Shi Ting </li></ul><ul><li>Phople Simone Prashant </li></ul><ul><li>Koh Si Ming </li></ul><ul><li>Rifath Sulthana D/O Abdul Gaffar </li></ul>
  2. 2. Key terms to be learnt
  3. 3. Some Substances that are transported By the Blood Oxyhaemoglobin <ul><li>Combines with oxygen to form an unstable compound called Oxyhaemoglobin. </li></ul><ul><li>Gives blood its bright red colour </li></ul><ul><li>Blood then transports Oxyhaemoglobin to all the tissues of the body </li></ul><ul><li>Releases oxygen as the blood passes through tissues containing very little oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>Oxygen diffuses in solution into the tissue cells </li></ul><ul><li>This way, every cell in the body receives its required amount of oxygen </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Oxygen combines with Haemoglobin reversibly </li></ul><ul><li>Meaning that it can be separated from Haemoglobin readily </li></ul><ul><li>So that it can supply oxygen to the cells in the body </li></ul>Reversible Binding Carboxyhaemoglobin <ul><li>Can lead to carbon monoxide poisoning </li></ul><ul><li>Haemoglobin combines more readily with carbon monoxide than oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>It does not readily give up its carbon monoxide, leading to Haemoglobin becoming unavailable to transport oxygen </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Can be fatal as without oxygen, cells cannot release energy through respiration </li></ul><ul><li>The fumes from car exhaust contain monoxide </li></ul><ul><li>People who breathe in car exhaust in a confined space can be poisoned. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Alveoli <ul><li>Singular: alveolus </li></ul><ul><li>Air sacs that are found in the lungs </li></ul><ul><li>Branches out from the bronchiole </li></ul><ul><li>Thousands of them are found in the lungs and provides a very large surface area for gaseous exchange </li></ul><ul><li>Well-supplied with blood capillaries for gaseous exchange </li></ul><ul><li>Wall is only one cell thick. Ensures a faster rate of diffusion of gases through it </li></ul><ul><li>Thin film of moisture cover the surface of the alveolus and allows oxygen to dissolve in it </li></ul><ul><li>Walls are richly supplied with blood capillaries. Flow of blood maintains the concentration gradient of gases </li></ul>
  7. 8. Processes Taking Place In and Out of the cell <ul><li>Respiration is the oxidation of food substances with the release of energy. </li></ul><ul><li>The body takes in oxygen and removes carbon dioxide by inspiration and expiration. </li></ul><ul><li>Inspiration is the term for when you are breathing in. </li></ul><ul><li>Expiration is the term for when you are breathing out. </li></ul>
  8. 9. <ul><li>Your diaphragm contracts and flattens </li></ul><ul><li>Your external intercostal muscles contract while your intercostal muscles relax </li></ul><ul><li>Your ribs moves upwards and outwards, your sternum also moves up and forward </li></ul><ul><li>Volume of your thoracic cavity increases </li></ul><ul><li>Air pressure in your lungs causes them to expand to fill up the enlarged space in your thorax </li></ul><ul><li>Expansion of your lungs causes the air pressure inside them to decrease </li></ul><ul><li>Atmospheric pressure is now higher than the pressure within your lungs </li></ul>What happens during Inspiration ?
  9. 10. <ul><li>What happens during Exhalation? </li></ul><ul><li>Your diaphragm relaxes and arches upwards </li></ul><ul><li>Your internal intercostal muscles contract while your external intercostal muscles relax </li></ul><ul><li>Your ribs move downwards and inwards. Your sternum also moves down to its original position. </li></ul><ul><li>The volume of your thoracic cavity decreases </li></ul><ul><li>Your lungs are compressed and air pressure inside them increases as the volume decreases </li></ul><ul><li>Air pressure within the lungs in now higher than atmospheric pressure. The air is forced out of your lungs to the exterior. </li></ul>
  10. 11. <ul><li>Gaseous exchange in alveoli: </li></ul><ul><li>Gaseous exchange in alveoli takes place by diffusion </li></ul><ul><li>Blood entering your lungs has a lower concentration of oxygen but a higher concentration of carbon dioxide than atmospheric air entering the alveoli in the lungs </li></ul><ul><li>A concentration gradient is hence set up for the two gases is set up between blood and alveolar air. </li></ul><ul><li>Oxygen diffuse from the alveolar air into the blood capillaries, and carbon dioxide diffuses in the opposite direction </li></ul>
  11. 12. <ul><li>How is oxygen absorbed in your lungs ? </li></ul><ul><li>One cell think membrane separating the blood capillaries from the alveolar air is permeable to oxygen and carbon dioxide. </li></ul><ul><li>As alveolar air contains a higher concentration of oxygen than the blood, oxygen dissolves in the moisture lining the alveolar walls and then diffuses into the capillaries </li></ul><ul><li>How is carbon dioxide removed from your body? </li></ul><ul><li>Tissue cells produce a lot of carbon dioxide as a result of aerobic respiration </li></ul><ul><li>As the blood capillaries pass through these tissues, carbon dioxide diffuses into the blood and enters red blood cells </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon dioxide diffuse out of the blood capillaries into the alveoli, and expelled when you breathe out </li></ul>
  12. 13. Acclimatization <ul><li>Acclimatization is the process of the body adjusting to the decreased availability of oxygen at high altitudes . It is a slow process, taking place over a period of days to weeks. </li></ul>How high is high ? <ul><li>Extreme Altitude: above 5500 m </li></ul>-   <ul><li>Very High Altitude: 3500 - 5500 m (11500 - 18000 ft) </li></ul>-   <ul><li>High Altitude: 1500 - 3500 m (5000 - 11500 ft) </li></ul>-  
  13. 14. <ul><li>The changes to your body at altitude are complex and can be quite dramatic. The difficulty your body has maintaining a good oxygen supply and keeping related problems under control is directly related to how high up you are, and also to recent changes in your altitude. </li></ul><ul><li>These are the two major factors that cause altitude sickness. </li></ul><ul><li>Ascending further away from sea level is the risky activity and the time you must be alert. </li></ul><ul><li>Conversely, descending towards sea level helps reduce moderate to severe altitude sickness. </li></ul>
  14. 15. <ul><li>A number of changes take place in the body to allow it to operate with decreased oxygen. </li></ul><ul><li>The depth of respiration increases. </li></ul><ul><li>Pressure in pulmonary arteries is increased, &quot;forcing&quot; blood into portions of the lung which are normally not used during sea level breathing. </li></ul><ul><li>The body produces more red blood cells to carry oxygen, </li></ul><ul><li>The body produces more of a particular enzyme that facilitates </li></ul><ul><li>the release of oxygen from Haemoglobin to the body tissues </li></ul><ul><li>Increased respiratory rate </li></ul><ul><li>Increased heart rate </li></ul><ul><li>Fluid shifts </li></ul>What are some of these changes?
  15. 16. <ul><li>Increased Respiratory Rate </li></ul><ul><li>During the first week of adaptation, a variety of changes take place. </li></ul><ul><li>Respiratory rate and depth increase in response to lower concentrations of oxygen in the blood, causing more carbon dioxide to be lost and more oxygen to be delivered to the alveoli. </li></ul><ul><li>The increased respiratory rate begins within the first few hours of arriving at altitudes as low as 5,000 feet. The lost carbon dioxide causes the body to become more alkaline. </li></ul><ul><li>To compensate for the body's increasing alkalinity, the kidneys excrete bicarbonate--an alkaline substance--in the urine. This adaptation occurs within 24 to 48 hours after hyperventilation starts. </li></ul><ul><li>Increased Heart Rate </li></ul><ul><li>Cells require a constant supply of oxygen so the heart beats more quickly to meet the demand. Except at extreme altitudes, heart rate returns to near normal after acclimatization. </li></ul>
  16. 17. <ul><li>Fluid Shifts </li></ul><ul><li>Blood flow to the brain increases to provide the brain with its required volume of oxygen (equivalent to that available at sea level). </li></ul><ul><li>In the lungs, the pulmonary capillaries constrict, increasing resistance to flow through the lungs and raising pulmonary blood pressure. </li></ul><ul><li>Dangerously high blood pressure in the pulmonary artery may cause fluid to escape from the capillaries and leak into the lungs (pulmonary edema). </li></ul><ul><li>Increased Red Blood Cell Production </li></ul><ul><li>As acclimatization continues, the bone marrow contributes by increasing red blood cell production. </li></ul><ul><li>New red blood cells become available in the blood within four to five days, increasing the blood's oxygen-carrying capacity. </li></ul><ul><li>An acclimatized person may have 30 to 50 percent more red blood cells than his counterpart at sea level. </li></ul>
  17. 18. <ul><li>Increased 2, 3 DPG Production </li></ul><ul><li>Within the blood cells 2, 3 Diphosphoglycerate (DPG) increases. </li></ul><ul><li>This is an organic phosphate that helps oxygen to combine with red blood cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Production of myoglobin, the intramuscular oxygen-carrying protein in red blood cells, also increases. </li></ul><ul><li>Increased Number of Capillaries </li></ul><ul><li>The body develops more capillaries in response to altitude. This improves the diffusion of oxygen by shortening the distance between the cell and capillary. </li></ul>
  18. 19. The further you move away from sea level up into higher altitudes, the lower the air pressure is. The body has two main problems with high altitude and the corresponding lower air pressure: Air at lower pressure has less oxygen per lungful. Your body adjusts to this by making more red blood cells to carry oxygen more efficiently. Most of the cell-building happens while you sleep; however, the process can take days and in the meanwhile, you may be ill. At lower air pressure, water evaporates faster. This can lead to dehydration.

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