 Gonorrhea
 Syphilis
 Chancroid
 Granuloma Inguinale
 LymphoGranulomaVenereum
 Herpes Simplex
 Infectious Mononucleosis
 AIDS
GONORRHEA
CLAP/ FLORES BLANCAS/ GLEET
Is a sexually transmitted bacterial
disease involving the mucosal lining
of the geni...
Neisseria gonorrhoeae or gonococcus
3 – 21 days average 3 – 5 days
Infected persons remain
communicable as long as the
org...
1. Contact with exudates from the
mucous membranes of infected
persons , usually as a result of
sexual activity
2. Occur i...
4. Sexual contact (orogenetal,
anogenetal) between opposite sexes
as well as the same sex
5. Fomites
a) Burning sensation and frequent
urination
b) Yellowish purulent vaginal
discharges
c) Redness and swelling of the
genita...
f) Urethritis or cervicitis occurs few
days after exposure
g) Endometritis salpingitis or pelvis
peritonitis are symptoms ...
h) Pregnant women with gonorrhoea
may infect the eye of her baby
during the passage through the
birth canal
a) dysuria with purulent discharge
(gleet) from the urethra two-seven
days after exposure
b) Rectal infection common in
ho...
d) Prostitis
e) Urethritis
f) Pelvic pain and fever
After 3 – 6 day incubation period , the
following may be noted:
 Dysuria
 Urinary frequency and incontinence
 Purulent discharge
 Itching
 Red and edematous meatus
 Occasional itching
 Burning and pain due to exudates
from the adjacent infected area
 Vulval symptoms are more severe
...
 Engorgement , redness, and swelling
 Profuse purulent discharge
 RUQ pain
 Other possible symptoms
 pharyngitis, ton...
 Severe pelvic pain and lower
abdominal pain
 Muscle rigidity, tenderness and
abdominal distension
 Tachycardia may dev...
1) Sterility and pelvic inflammatory
disease in women
2) Epididymitis
3) Arthritis ,endocarditis
4) Conjunctivitis
5) Meni...
In Females
Thayer Martin medium
In Males
Gram stain
a) For uncomplicated gonorrhoea in
adults:
 Ceftriaxone 125 mg – 250 mg IM
single dose; Doxycycline 100 mg
orally BID for...
d) Recommended initial regimen
disseminated gonococcal infection in
adults and adolescents is:
 1gm Ceftriaxone IM or IV ...
e) All regimen should be continued for
24 hrs. to 48 hrs. after improvement
begins
 400 mg Cefixime P.O. twice daily or
5...
1. Watch for adverse effects during
therapy
2. Esplain that until cultures prove
negative, he/she is still infectious
and ...
7. Infant born to mothers positive for
gonorrhoea should be instilled with
one percent silver nitrate or any
recommended o...
1. Sex Eduaction
2. Case finding, contact tracing
3. Reporting of gonorrheal case
SYPHILIS
LUESVENEREUM/
MORBUSGALLICUS
Is a chronic, infectious sexually
transmitted disease that usually
begins in the muc...
TreponemaPallidum
10-90 days. The average 3 weeks
Indefinite
A. Discharges from obvious or
concealed lesions of the skin or
mucous membranes.
 The semen, blood, tears and urine of
in...
1. Direct transmission
2. Indirect contact
3. Through placenta of syphilitic mother
4. Transmitted from syphilitic baby to...
a) Chancres erupt in genitalia, anus,
nipples, tonsils, eyelids.
b) Painless start as paule and then
erode
c) Disappear af...
8 weeks after onset of the initial
chancre
a) Macular, popular, pustular or nodular
b) Uniform in size well-defined and
ge...
8 weeks after onset of the initial
chancre
e) Headache, anorexia, malaise,
weightloss, nausea and vomiting
sore throat sli...
a) Serologic test will prove reactive
b) 2/3 of patients remain asymptomatic
until death
a) Considered as a destructive bu...
I.
 Develop between 1 – 10 years after
the infection
 Gumma. A chronic, superficial nodule
or a deep granulomatous lesio...
II.
 Liver
 Upper resp. tract
 Severe cases destruction of the bones
III.
 Once the treponeme enters the fetal
circulation, dissemination to all the
tissues occur at once. The treponeme
mult...
 Lesions of the skin and mucous
membranes:
 Bullous rash syphyllitic pemphigus
 Wrinkling of the skin
 Syphilitic nony...
Interstitial Keratitis late lesion
 Begins at any age 4-30 years
 Circumcorneal vascularization of the
sclera
 Corneal ...
 Severe damage to several organs
and nervous system
 Heart disease insanity and brain
damage
 Death in newborn
1. Dark Field illumination test
2. Fluorescent treponemal antibody
absorption test
3. VDRL slide test
4. CSF analysis
1. P...
1. Stress to the client the importance of
completing the treatment even after
the symptoms subside
2. Infected individuals...
1. Report cases to the DOH
2. Control prostitution
3. Require sex workers to have regular
check ups
4. Proper sex educatio...
CHANCROID
SOFT CHANCRE/ SOFT SORE/
SULCUS MOLE
Is a sexually transmitted disease
characterized by painful genital
ulcers a...
Haemophilus discreyi
1 – 14 days average 1 – 5 days
1. The shallow surface contains many
polymorphonuclear cells, red blood
cells, and debris.
2. The wide middle zone is
edem...
1. Small lesions appear at the groin or
inner thigh. In males, it may appear
on the penis and in females, on the
vulva, va...
4. The papules blees easily and
produce pus.
5. Within two to three weeks, inguinal
adenitis may develop, creating
suppura...
 Gram stain of ulcer exudate
 Biopsy
 Darkfield examination and serologic
test
 Azithromycin 500 mg, taken orally
as a...
1. Standard precaution should be
practiced.
2. Check for drug allergy.
3. Lotion, cream, or oil should be
applied on lesio...
1. Advice client to avoid sexual contact
with infected persons.
2. Use condoms during sexual activity.
3. Wash the genital...
Donavaniagranulomatis
Sexual contact
ULCERATIVE spreading lesion
of the genitalis and groins
Culture of the lesions
Tetracycline
AVOID THE MODE OF
TRANSMISSION
LYMPHOGRANULOMA INGUINALE
Transmitted through irregular sexual
contact
FILTRABLE VIRUS
7 – 12 days
SEXUAL CONTACT
 Small evanescent lesion
 Peri anal strictures
Frei Test
Aureomycin
AVOID THE MODE OF
TRANSMISSION
Herpes Simplex
is a viral disease characterized by
the appearance of sores and blisters
anywhere on the skin. These sores
...
Herpes Simplex
Herpes simplex is related to the
viruses that cause infectious
mononucleosis (Epstein-Barr virus),
chickenp...
1. This virus can cause cold sores that
usually infect during infancy and
childhood.
2. The sore is characterized by tiny,...
4. Patients may barely notice the
symptoms or need medical
attention for relief of pain
5. The disease can be transmitted ...
7. The sores usually catch of the
primary infection appear two to
twenty days after contact with an
infected person and us...
1. This type causes genital sores,
affecting the buttocks, penis, vagina
or cervix, and last two to twenty
days.
2. Most p...
4. The virus can also be spread by
touching an unaffected part of the
body after touching the herpes
lesion.
5. Manifestat...
 The clinical manifestation of herpes
simplex virus infection ranges from
mild to fatal disease, depending on
the age and...
1. Oral herpes. Gingivostomatis in young
children is the most common clinical
manifestation of the initial infection
with ...
1. Oral herpes. Gingivostomatis in young
children is the most common clinical
manifestation of the initial infection
with ...
2. Labial Herpes. The lips may
occasionaly be involved in the
primary infection commonly known
as cold sore or fever blist...
2. Labial Herpes. The lips may
occasionaly be involved in the
primary infection commonly known
as cold sore or fever blist...
4. Cutaneous Herpes HSV may affect the
skin on any part of the body.
5. Ertemamultiforme. This allergic reaction
of the sk...
 New borns – Neonatal herpetic
 Eczema Varicelli form eruption
 Encephalitis
1. Oral anti-viral drugs such as
acyclovir, famciclovir or valvacyclovir.
2. Personal hygiene.
3. Restoration of fluid and...
EBV
Kissing, blood transfusion
 Pharyngitis
 Lympadenopathy
 Splenomegaly
Serologic test for EBV
Avoid kissing to a stranger
AIDS
Acquired Immune Deficiency
Syndrome, it is acquired, which
means it is neither hereditary nor
inborn. It involves imm...
Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
1. Sexual contact
2. Injection of infected blood
products
3. Perinatal or vertical tran...
CLINICAL STAGE 1:
ASYMPTOMATIC
 General Lympadenopathy
CLINICAL SATGE 2: EARLY (MILD)
 Weight loss greater than 10% of
b...
CLINICAL STAGE 1:
ASYMPTOMATIC
 General Lympadenopathy
CLINICAL SATGE 2: EARLY (MILD)
 Weight loss greater than 10% of
b...
CLINICAL STAGE 3:
INTERMEDIATE (MODEERATE)
 Weight lost greater than 10%
 Chronic unxpalined diarrhea for
more than one ...
CLINICAL STAGE 4: LATE (SEVERE
AIDS)
 HIV wasting syndrome
 Pneumocystis Carini pneumonia
 Toxoplasmosis of the brain
...
AIDS
Chronic Illness
Acute illness
(fever, rash, joint and muscle pain, sorethroat)
HIV Infection
 Memory loss
 Altered gait
 Depression
 Sleep disorders
 GIT symptoms:
 Chronic diarrhea AIDS related
complex
 Persistent cough for one month
 Generalized pruritic dermatitis
 Recurrent herpes Zoster infection
 Oropharyngeal can...
 Loss of weight 10% of body weight
 Chronic diarrhea for more than one
month
 Prolonged fever for one month
1. Depression
2. Diarrhea
3. Thrush
4. Weight loss
5. Lipodystrophy (fat redistribution
syndrome)
6. Sinus infection
7. Na...
9. Burning and tingling of the feet and
hands ( peripheral neuropathy.
 A. Mac – Mycobacterium avium
complex a TB like manifestation that
usually occurs when the patient cd
count is below 50
...
 Herpes
 B. Hepatitis
 Genital warts
 CMV
 Molluscumcontaiosum
 candidiasis
 Cryptococcal meningitis
 Hystoplasmos...
 Bacterial
 Pneucystiscarinii pneumonia (PCP)
 V. CANCERS
 KaposisSarcopma
 Cervical dysplasis and cancer
 Non Hodgk...
 Toxoplasmosis
 Cryptosporidiosis
1. Watery diarrhea
2. Abdominal cramps
3. Low grade fever
4. Weight loss due to persisitent
diarrhea
 Wash hands thoroughly after contact
with feces
 Practice safe sex
 Be careful not to swallow water when
swimming
 Was...
1. EIA or ELISA – Enzyme-Linked
Immunosorbent Assay
2. Practice Agglutination (PA test)
3. Western blot analysis confirmat...
REVERSE trancriptase inhibitors
1. A. Zedovudine- Retrivir
2. Zalcitabine _HAVID
3. Stavudine – ZERIT
4. Lamivudine- Epivi...
1. Health Education
2. Practice universal / standard
precaution
3. Prevention
The FOUR Cs in the Management of
HIV/AIDS
1....
“The man who does
not read good
books has no
advantage over the
man who can’t read
them…”
~Mark Twain
Unit vi
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Unit vi

409 views
339 views

Published on

Published in: Health & Medicine
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
409
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
7
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Unit vi

  1. 1.  Gonorrhea  Syphilis  Chancroid  Granuloma Inguinale
  2. 2.  LymphoGranulomaVenereum  Herpes Simplex  Infectious Mononucleosis  AIDS
  3. 3. GONORRHEA CLAP/ FLORES BLANCAS/ GLEET Is a sexually transmitted bacterial disease involving the mucosal lining of the genitourinary tract, the rectum and the pharynx
  4. 4. Neisseria gonorrhoeae or gonococcus 3 – 21 days average 3 – 5 days Infected persons remain communicable as long as the organisms are present in secretions and discharges
  5. 5. 1. Contact with exudates from the mucous membranes of infected persons , usually as a result of sexual activity 2. Occur in utero upon the rupture of membranes, as observed in infants delivered by caesarean section after the membrane ruptures. 3. Transmitted through direct contact with contaminated vaginal secretions of the mother as the baby comes out of the birth canal
  6. 6. 4. Sexual contact (orogenetal, anogenetal) between opposite sexes as well as the same sex 5. Fomites
  7. 7. a) Burning sensation and frequent urination b) Yellowish purulent vaginal discharges c) Redness and swelling of the genitals d) Burning sensation and itching of the vaginal area e) Urinary frequency and pain in urination
  8. 8. f) Urethritis or cervicitis occurs few days after exposure g) Endometritis salpingitis or pelvis peritonitis are symptoms of uterine invasion which may lead to infertility. There are signs of pelvic infection like fever, nausea and vomiting, and abdominal pain/tenderness
  9. 9. h) Pregnant women with gonorrhoea may infect the eye of her baby during the passage through the birth canal
  10. 10. a) dysuria with purulent discharge (gleet) from the urethra two-seven days after exposure b) Rectal infection common in homosexuals c) Inflammation of the urethra can cause strictures which can prevent the passage of urine After 3 – 6 day incubation period , the following may be noted:
  11. 11. d) Prostitis e) Urethritis f) Pelvic pain and fever After 3 – 6 day incubation period , the following may be noted:
  12. 12.  Dysuria  Urinary frequency and incontinence  Purulent discharge  Itching  Red and edematous meatus
  13. 13.  Occasional itching  Burning and pain due to exudates from the adjacent infected area  Vulval symptoms are more severe before puberty and after menopause
  14. 14.  Engorgement , redness, and swelling  Profuse purulent discharge  RUQ pain  Other possible symptoms  pharyngitis, tonsillitis, rectal burning
  15. 15.  Severe pelvic pain and lower abdominal pain  Muscle rigidity, tenderness and abdominal distension  Tachycardia may develop in patients with PID and salpingitis
  16. 16. 1) Sterility and pelvic inflammatory disease in women 2) Epididymitis 3) Arthritis ,endocarditis 4) Conjunctivitis 5) Meningitis
  17. 17. In Females Thayer Martin medium In Males Gram stain
  18. 18. a) For uncomplicated gonorrhoea in adults:  Ceftriaxone 125 mg – 250 mg IM single dose; Doxycycline 100 mg orally BID for 7 days b) For pregnant women  Ceftriaxone 125 mg – 250 mg IM single dose, Erythromycin 500 mg orally for 7 days. c) Aqueous procaine penicillin 4 million units injected IM ANST
  19. 19. d) Recommended initial regimen disseminated gonococcal infection in adults and adolescents is:  1gm Ceftriaxone IM or IV every 24 hrs. for pts. allergic to beta-lactam antibiotics, 2g spectinomycin IM every 12 hrs.
  20. 20. e) All regimen should be continued for 24 hrs. to 48 hrs. after improvement begins  400 mg Cefixime P.O. twice daily or 500 mg Ciprofloxacin P.O. 2 x daily.  1 g single dose of Ceftriaxone IM and irrigation of infected eye with normal saline solution
  21. 21. 1. Watch for adverse effects during therapy 2. Esplain that until cultures prove negative, he/she is still infectious and can transmit gonococcal infection. 3. Practice standard precaution 4. Information shld. Be confidential 5. Isolation 6. Arthritis apply moist heat
  22. 22. 7. Infant born to mothers positive for gonorrhoea should be instilled with one percent silver nitrate or any recommended ophthalmic prophylaxis onto eyes at the time of birth 8. Report all gonorrheal cases 9. Health education
  23. 23. 1. Sex Eduaction 2. Case finding, contact tracing 3. Reporting of gonorrheal case
  24. 24. SYPHILIS LUESVENEREUM/ MORBUSGALLICUS Is a chronic, infectious sexually transmitted disease that usually begins in the mucous membranes and quickly becomes systemic
  25. 25. TreponemaPallidum 10-90 days. The average 3 weeks Indefinite
  26. 26. A. Discharges from obvious or concealed lesions of the skin or mucous membranes.  The semen, blood, tears and urine of infected persons  Mucous discharges from the nose, eyes, genital tract or bowels  Surface lesions contain spirochetes in very high numbers
  27. 27. 1. Direct transmission 2. Indirect contact 3. Through placenta of syphilitic mother 4. Transmitted from syphilitic baby to a wet nurse or to anyone carelessly diapers
  28. 28. a) Chancres erupt in genitalia, anus, nipples, tonsils, eyelids. b) Painless start as paule and then erode c) Disappear after 3 – 6 weeks even without treatment d) Lympadenopathy unilateral or bilateral e) Internal surfaces such as cervix and vaginal wall
  29. 29. 8 weeks after onset of the initial chancre a) Macular, popular, pustular or nodular b) Uniform in size well-defined and generalized c) Macules often erupt between rolls of fat on the trunk and on the arms, palms, soles, face and scalp d) Condylomatalata
  30. 30. 8 weeks after onset of the initial chancre e) Headache, anorexia, malaise, weightloss, nausea and vomiting sore throat slight fever f) Alopecia g) Nails become brittle and pitted
  31. 31. a) Serologic test will prove reactive b) 2/3 of patients remain asymptomatic until death a) Considered as a destructive but non- infectious stage. b) Late syphilis has three subtypes:
  32. 32. I.  Develop between 1 – 10 years after the infection  Gumma. A chronic, superficial nodule or a deep granulomatous lesion that is solitary, asymmetric, painless, endurated.  Gummas can be found in any long bones of the legs
  33. 33. II.  Liver  Upper resp. tract  Severe cases destruction of the bones
  34. 34. III.  Once the treponeme enters the fetal circulation, dissemination to all the tissues occur at once. The treponeme multiplies and infects many organs  Macerated  Livid red color  Spleen and liver found to be enlarged on autopsy
  35. 35.  Lesions of the skin and mucous membranes:  Bullous rash syphyllitic pemphigus  Wrinkling of the skin  Syphilitic nonychia  Mucous patches  Liver and Spleen  Infants abdomen is protuberant
  36. 36. Interstitial Keratitis late lesion  Begins at any age 4-30 years  Circumcorneal vascularization of the sclera  Corneal scarring
  37. 37.  Severe damage to several organs and nervous system  Heart disease insanity and brain damage  Death in newborn
  38. 38. 1. Dark Field illumination test 2. Fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption test 3. VDRL slide test 4. CSF analysis 1. Penicillin IM 2.4 million units 2. More than a year duration 2.4 million unit of Penicillin G/week for 3 weeks
  39. 39. 1. Stress to the client the importance of completing the treatment even after the symptoms subside 2. Infected individuals to inform their partner that they should be tested if necessary, treated 3. Practice universal precaution 4. Keep the lesion dry as much as possible
  40. 40. 1. Report cases to the DOH 2. Control prostitution 3. Require sex workers to have regular check ups 4. Proper sex education should be given in early life at home, in schools and in the community 5. Look for cases of syphilis infection 6. Contact tracing
  41. 41. CHANCROID SOFT CHANCRE/ SOFT SORE/ SULCUS MOLE Is a sexually transmitted disease characterized by painful genital ulcers and inguinal adenitis. It affects males more than females
  42. 42. Haemophilus discreyi 1 – 14 days average 1 – 5 days
  43. 43. 1. The shallow surface contains many polymorphonuclear cells, red blood cells, and debris. 2. The wide middle zone is edematous and shows endothelial proliferation of blood vessels but lacks fibroplasticrepair. 3. In deep zone, there is densed infiltration of plasma cells and lymphocytes
  44. 44. 1. Small lesions appear at the groin or inner thigh. In males, it may appear on the penis and in females, on the vulva, vagina and cervix. 2. Sometimes these lesions may erupt on the lips, tongue, breast, or navel. 3. The papules rapidly ulcerate, becoming painful, soft and malodorous.
  45. 45. 4. The papules blees easily and produce pus. 5. Within two to three weeks, inguinal adenitis may develop, creating suppurated, inflamed nodes that may rupture into large ulcer buboes. 6. During the healing stage, phimosis may develop
  46. 46.  Gram stain of ulcer exudate  Biopsy  Darkfield examination and serologic test  Azithromycin 500 mg, taken orally as a single dose  Erythromycin 500 mg, 1 cap BID X 7 days  Ciftriaxone 250mg IM as a single dose
  47. 47. 1. Standard precaution should be practiced. 2. Check for drug allergy. 3. Lotion, cream, or oil should be applied on lesion. 4. Instruct the patient to abstain from sexual contact until healing is complete(two weeks). 5. The patient should wash his/her genitalia daily with soap and water.
  48. 48. 1. Advice client to avoid sexual contact with infected persons. 2. Use condoms during sexual activity. 3. Wash the genitalia with soap and water after sexual activity
  49. 49. Donavaniagranulomatis Sexual contact ULCERATIVE spreading lesion of the genitalis and groins
  50. 50. Culture of the lesions Tetracycline AVOID THE MODE OF TRANSMISSION
  51. 51. LYMPHOGRANULOMA INGUINALE Transmitted through irregular sexual contact
  52. 52. FILTRABLE VIRUS 7 – 12 days SEXUAL CONTACT
  53. 53.  Small evanescent lesion  Peri anal strictures Frei Test
  54. 54. Aureomycin AVOID THE MODE OF TRANSMISSION
  55. 55. Herpes Simplex is a viral disease characterized by the appearance of sores and blisters anywhere on the skin. These sores usually occur either around the mouth and nose, or on the genitals and buttocks (thus nickname “virus of love”)
  56. 56. Herpes Simplex Herpes simplex is related to the viruses that cause infectious mononucleosis (Epstein-Barr virus), chickenpox and shingles.
  57. 57. 1. This virus can cause cold sores that usually infect during infancy and childhood. 2. The sore is characterized by tiny, clear, fluid-filled blisters. 3. The sore most commonly affects the lips, mouth, nose chin or cheeks and occurs shortly after exposure. It may also develop[ on wounds on the skin
  58. 58. 4. Patients may barely notice the symptoms or need medical attention for relief of pain 5. The disease can be transmitted by kissing and sharing kitchen utensils and towels. 6. Patients usually catch the infection from family members or friends who carry the virus
  59. 59. 7. The sores usually catch of the primary infection appear two to twenty days after contact with an infected person and usually last from seven to ten days
  60. 60. 1. This type causes genital sores, affecting the buttocks, penis, vagina or cervix, and last two to twenty days. 2. Most people get the infection from sexual contact with an infected person. 3. The virus affects about 20% of sexually active individuals.
  61. 61. 4. The virus can also be spread by touching an unaffected part of the body after touching the herpes lesion. 5. Manifestation includes minor rash or itching and painful sores, fever, muscular pain and burning sensation during urination.
  62. 62.  The clinical manifestation of herpes simplex virus infection ranges from mild to fatal disease, depending on the age and other characteristics of the host, the organs involved and the nature of the infection
  63. 63. 1. Oral herpes. Gingivostomatis in young children is the most common clinical manifestation of the initial infection with HSV.  Vesicular and ulcerative lesions occur in the buccal mucosa and may involve the tongue.  Inflammation of the gums, cervical adonophathy and fever are present.
  64. 64. 1. Oral herpes. Gingivostomatis in young children is the most common clinical manifestation of the initial infection with HSV.  Excessive salivation results from pain on swallowing in infants and young children.  Feeding is painful and fluid intake poor.
  65. 65. 2. Labial Herpes. The lips may occasionaly be involved in the primary infection commonly known as cold sore or fever blisters 3. Ocular Herpes. Herpetic Keratitis is a major medical problem leads to loss of vision. Primary Keratitis may be accompanied by conjunctivitis and preauricular lymphadenopathy
  66. 66. 2. Labial Herpes. The lips may occasionaly be involved in the primary infection commonly known as cold sore or fever blisters 3. Ocular Herpes. Herpetic Keratitis is a major medical problem leads to loss of vision. Conjunctivitis - primary infection Recurrent Keratitis unilateral
  67. 67. 4. Cutaneous Herpes HSV may affect the skin on any part of the body. 5. Ertemamultiforme. This allergic reaction of the skin is sometimes complication of HSV. 6. Genital herpes considered one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases
  68. 68.  New borns – Neonatal herpetic  Eczema Varicelli form eruption  Encephalitis
  69. 69. 1. Oral anti-viral drugs such as acyclovir, famciclovir or valvacyclovir. 2. Personal hygiene. 3. Restoration of fluid and electrolyte balance. 4. Isolation of clients. 5. Practice of universal precaution and through handwashing.
  70. 70. EBV Kissing, blood transfusion
  71. 71.  Pharyngitis  Lympadenopathy  Splenomegaly
  72. 72. Serologic test for EBV Avoid kissing to a stranger
  73. 73. AIDS Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, it is acquired, which means it is neither hereditary nor inborn. It involves immune deficiency; hen a persons immune system breaks down
  74. 74. Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV) 1. Sexual contact 2. Injection of infected blood products 3. Perinatal or vertical transmission 4. Stages of HIV infection
  75. 75. CLINICAL STAGE 1: ASYMPTOMATIC  General Lympadenopathy CLINICAL SATGE 2: EARLY (MILD)  Weight loss greater than 10% of body weight  Minor mucocutaneous manifestation, like:  Seborrheic dermatitis  Fungal nail infection  Recurrent oral ulceration
  76. 76. CLINICAL STAGE 1: ASYMPTOMATIC  General Lympadenopathy CLINICAL SATGE 2: EARLY (MILD)  Weight loss greater than 10% of body weight  Minor mucocutaneous manifestation, like:  Angular cheilitis  Recurrent respiratory infection (rhinitis, tonsilophayrngitis)
  77. 77. CLINICAL STAGE 3: INTERMEDIATE (MODEERATE)  Weight lost greater than 10%  Chronic unxpalined diarrhea for more than one month  Oral candidiasis (thrush)  Oral hairy leukoplakia  Severe bacterial infection like pneumonia
  78. 78. CLINICAL STAGE 4: LATE (SEVERE AIDS)  HIV wasting syndrome  Pneumocystis Carini pneumonia  Toxoplasmosis of the brain  Crytosporidosis with diarrhea for more than one month  Herpes simplex viruis infection  Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy  Disseminated endemic myoscosis
  79. 79. AIDS Chronic Illness Acute illness (fever, rash, joint and muscle pain, sorethroat) HIV Infection
  80. 80.  Memory loss  Altered gait  Depression  Sleep disorders  GIT symptoms:  Chronic diarrhea AIDS related complex
  81. 81.  Persistent cough for one month  Generalized pruritic dermatitis  Recurrent herpes Zoster infection  Oropharyngeal candidiasis  Chronic disseminated herpes simplex infection  Generalized lymphadenopathy
  82. 82.  Loss of weight 10% of body weight  Chronic diarrhea for more than one month  Prolonged fever for one month
  83. 83. 1. Depression 2. Diarrhea 3. Thrush 4. Weight loss 5. Lipodystrophy (fat redistribution syndrome) 6. Sinus infection 7. Nausea and Vomiting 8. Lactic Acidosis Lactic acid builds up in the clients
  84. 84. 9. Burning and tingling of the feet and hands ( peripheral neuropathy.
  85. 85.  A. Mac – Mycobacterium avium complex a TB like manifestation that usually occurs when the patient cd count is below 50  Tuberculosis  Salmonillosis
  86. 86.  Herpes  B. Hepatitis  Genital warts  CMV  Molluscumcontaiosum  candidiasis  Cryptococcal meningitis  Hystoplasmosis
  87. 87.  Bacterial  Pneucystiscarinii pneumonia (PCP)  V. CANCERS  KaposisSarcopma  Cervical dysplasis and cancer  Non Hodgkins Lymphoma
  88. 88.  Toxoplasmosis  Cryptosporidiosis
  89. 89. 1. Watery diarrhea 2. Abdominal cramps 3. Low grade fever 4. Weight loss due to persisitent diarrhea
  90. 90.  Wash hands thoroughly after contact with feces  Practice safe sex  Be careful not to swallow water when swimming  Wash and or cook food properly  Drink safe water
  91. 91. 1. EIA or ELISA – Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay 2. Practice Agglutination (PA test) 3. Western blot analysis confirmatory diagnostic test 4. Immunofluorescent test 5. Radio immune-precipitation assa (RIPA) 6. HIV antibody test
  92. 92. REVERSE trancriptase inhibitors 1. A. Zedovudine- Retrivir 2. Zalcitabine _HAVID 3. Stavudine – ZERIT 4. Lamivudine- Epivir 5. Nevirapine – Viramine 6. Didanosine – VIDEX Protease inhibitors 1. Saquinavir 2. Ritinovir 3. Indinavir
  93. 93. 1. Health Education 2. Practice universal / standard precaution 3. Prevention The FOUR Cs in the Management of HIV/AIDS 1. Compliance 2. Counseling /education 3. Contact tracing 4. Condoms
  94. 94. “The man who does not read good books has no advantage over the man who can’t read them…” ~Mark Twain

×