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Unit iii






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Unit iii Unit iii Presentation Transcript

  •  Typhoid Fever Bacillary Dysentery Cholera Food Poisoning Leptospirosis
  •  Hepatitis Mumps
  •  Amoebiasis  Enterobiasis Schistosomiasis  Taeniasis Capillariasis  Trichuriasis Helminths  Paragonimiasis Trichinosis  Strongyloidiasis Ancylostomiasis  RedTide Ascariasis Poisoning
  • is a general infection caused bySalmonella Typhi involving primarilythe lymphoid tissues (Peyers Patches)of the small intestine. is a bacterial infection transmitted bycontaminated water, milk shellfish orother foods
  • Salmonella Typhosa or Salmonella TyphiFecal Oral routeRose Spot on the Abdomen10-20 days
  • – as long as the bacteria areexcreted therefore anotherimportant source of infection isthe stool of the patient
  • 1. PRODROMAL OR GRADUAL ONSET/INITIAL STAGE Fever, Abdominal pain, diarrhea Irregularly spaced small rose spot on the abdomen, chest, trunk, and back
  • 2. FASTIGIAL STAGE 1. Ladderliked fever or stairway fever 2. Rose pot 3. Splenomegaly enlargement of the spleen
  • 2. FASTIGIAL STAGE Abdominal symptoms may become marked abdominal distention (tympanites) Teeth and lips accumulate a dirty brown collection of dried mucus and bacteria known as (typhoid state)
  •  Restless alteration in the level ofconsciousness Carphologia – involuntary picking of linens Subsultus Tendinum – involuntary twitching of the tendon of the wrist
  • WIDAL TEST – agglutination test for typhoid fever 3 ANTIGEN USE – positive active typhoid state or acute infection exposed before to typhoid fever Immunized with cholera typhoid – are found among carriers
  • HEMATOCHEZIA – fresh blood in the stool –inflammation of the lining tissue of the abdominal cavity
  • 1. Symptomatic2. GI Bleeding (NPO) Blood Transfusion may be given to patient3. Avoid spicy food cause irritation of gastric mucosa and aggravate the bleeding of the pt.4. Encourage increase fluid intake the patient may become dehydrated due to water loss vomiting diarrhea and poor oral intake.5. Give a high calorie low residue diet during febrile stage
  •  Immunization ( Cholera Typhoid ) Avoid the 5 Fs Proper disposal of feces Avoid breeding places of flies Proper preparation cooking storage of food Proper handwashing Cut finger nails
  • an acute bacterial disease of theintestinal tract includes a group ofenteric infections caused by bacilli of theshigella group
  •  Shigella Flexneri Shigella Sonnei Shigella dysenteriae Fecal oral
  • 1-7 days average 3-4 daysfeces of infectedpersons, contaminated food andwater
  • 1. Fever is an initial manifestation2. Vomiting and headache3. Colicky or cramping abdominal pain and tenderness together with anorexia, malaise4. Persistent diarrhea at first watery bloody and later stools contain blood mucus and very scanty fecal substance
  • 5. Bowel movement are numerous accompanied by abdominal cramps and tenesmus, Which is manifested by infants by crying and straining during defecation even without passage of fecal matter
  • Stool ExamCo-Trimoxazole
  • 1. Fluid and electrolyte replacement2. Giving of ORS3. Peri Anal care4. Observe for S/S of dehydration  Sunken eyeballs  Sunken fontanelle  Dry skin  Poor skin turgor  Scanty urine out put  Excessive thirst
  • 1) Sanitary waste disposal2) Screening of food handlers3) Hand washing4) Avoid breeding places of flies
  • Is a severe gastro intestinal diseasecharacterized by vomiting and massivewatery diarrhea with rapid dehydrationand shock Vibrio Coma Vibrio Cholerae (Classic and Eltor)
  • a. Fecal oral routeb. Ingestion of food or water contaminated with stool or vomitus of pts.c. Fluid soiled hands and utensils Rice watery stool few hrs 5 days ( 1-3 days)
  •  Massive or profuse diarrhea watery voluminous whitish, grayish or greenish slightly mucoid stools without fecal matter Stools are passed repeatedly later becoming almost continuous without straining or tenesmus Signs of Severe dehydration Loss of voice Oliguria
  •  Fever may be low grade or moderate at the start but becomes subnormal in later stages especially when shock occur
  • 1. Extracellular volume loss due to intestinal loss of isotonic fluid leading to: a) Profound on severe dehydration with washerwomans hands, restlessness and extreme thirst b) Circulatory collapse or shock2. Acidosis due to loss of large volume of bicarbonate rich stools3. HYPOKALEMIA – due to continuous fecal potassium loss may manifest as
  • Rectal swab Tetracycline Acidosis and Shock Renal failure and Uremia Respiratory Complications like pneumonia
  • 1) Early and intensive management of fluid and electrolytes imbalance2) Oral rehydration to prevent dehydration3) Peri anal care
  • 1. Boiling of drinking water2. Immunization3. Avoid the 5 F’S
  • FOOD POISONINGDenotes a clinical situation whichoccurs after ingestion of certaincontaminated food stuffs or othermaterials which are poison inthemselves. It has been found that thepoisoning is a gastro enteritis oftenproduced by the presence of a diseaseorganism or its toxins
  • Salmonella Typhimutium
  • 6 – 48 hours foods rich in CHON Fever Nausea and vomiting Diarrhea, if severe there is blood
  • foods rich in carbohydrates Fever Abdominal pain, Cold Clammy Skin Easy fatigability Diarrhea
  • Clostridium botulinum
  • 24 hours canned goods headache gradualparalysis death within 24 hrs. if not treated
  • 1. CBR2. Increase fluid intake3. Encourage the pt. to vomit4. Oral hygiene
  • 1. Check the expiration date2. Bulging of the can goods3. Change in appearance shape, of foods. • Presence of bubbles • Smell if it to mushy4. Cooking or reheating of foods may kill the organism
  • This infection is carried by animalsboth domesticated and wild whoseexcreta contaminated water or foodwhich is ingested or inoculatedthrough the skin or mucous membrane
  • Leptospira Ingestion Inoculation break on the skin 6 – 15 days
  • wild rats1. AGE2. Season high incidence during rainy season3. Geographic more prevalent in slum areas heavily infested by wild rats orange colored eyes
  •  Febrile lasting 4-7 days Chills, Headache Musclepain severe prostration Nausea and vomiting
  • WITH or without Jaundice lasting 4-30 days if severe death may occurbetween 9th and 16th day Headache Fever meningeal irritation with CSF findings of aseptic meningitis
  • WITH or without Jaundice lasting 4-30 days if severe death may occurbetween 9th and 16th day Hepatic and renal manifestation Jaundice Renal involvement oliguria, and anuria with progressive renal failure
  • WITH or without Jaundice lasting 4-30 days if severe death may occurbetween 9th and 16th day Shock Coma and congestive heart failure are also seen in severe cases
  • WITH or without Jaundice lasting 4-30 days if severe death may occurbetween 9th and 16th day
  • 1. Pneumonia2. Iridocyclitis3. Peripheral Neuritis - Leptospira Agglutination Test – Leptospira Antigen Antibody Test
  • PenicillinA. SymptomaticB. Urine must be properly disposedC. Cleaning of dirty places, pools, stagnant water Eradication of Wild Rats
  • HEPATITISis a diffuse inflammation of the liverparenchyma caused by a virus Hepa A B Non A and Non B D E
  • HEPATITIS – Infectious hepatititsHas An acute or abrupt clinical onsetcause by RNA type virus of theentero virus family
  • 2 - 6 weeksFecesfecal oral route
  • ~children and elderlies ~rainy season ~none Those with poor environmental sanitation Food handlers Those who practice oral anal sex
  • 5 % mortality1. Proper environmental sanitation2. Screening of food handlers3. Avoid oral anal sex
  • HEPATITIS – Serum hepatititsIs a double shelled particlecontaining DNA type virus whichwere called serum hepatitis
  • 6 weeks – 6 months blood, semen, vaginal secretionspercutaneous inoculation, sexual contact
  • ~all ages ~all season ~yes Members of the health team Drug addicts contaminated needles that are using Clients undergoing hemodialysis Promiscuity multiple sexual partners
  • 1-10% Mortality lead to carrier and cirrhosis of the liver1. Immunization2. Use of sterile syringes needles3. Screening of blood donors
  • HEPATITIS post transfusion hepatitisA viral infection that at present doesnot have identified the agent orantigenic markers
  • other viruses2 weeks – 6 monthsbloodblood transfusion
  • ~all ages ~all season ~yes blood recipient Client undergoing surgery
  • 1-2% Mortalityscreening of blood donors
  • HEPATITIS Hepatitis DeltaHepatitis E Et Non A Non Benterically transmitted non A non B
  • blood transfusion
  •  Fever RUQ pain nausea and vomiting anorexia flu Presence of jaundice Pruritus Tea colored urine Clay or gray colored stool Acholic stool – clay colored stool Hepatomegaly
  • 1. Liver function test2. Bilirubin exam.3. Liver enzymes test4. Ultrasound of the liver A. Liver profile test B. HBSAG – hepatitis B
  • No specific treatmentEssentiale acts as a liver protectorBed RestIncrease carbohydrate , increase protein, low fat dietHard candiesSkin care
  • Is an acute viral infection of thesalivary glands particularly theparotids with constitutionalmanifestations of varying degrees
  • MUMPS VIRUS, Paromyxovirus 14 – 25 daysFrom 6 days before until 9 days afterthe parotid glands swell
  • discharges coming from nose and mouth of infected person 9 Saliva of the pt. directby person to person contact droplet or airborne infection  With the oropharynx as the portal of entry
  • childhood disease with a peak of age 5 – 15 years old life long Immunity1. Slight malaise, with low grade fever2. Pain below the ear particularly in moving the jaw
  •  Orchitis - common complication among menFEMALE vulvitis.Vaginitis rare compare it to maleno specificIce cooling effect it onlyrelieve the pain
  • CBRAvoid lifting heavy objectIce compressNever give sour foodsOral hygiene Mumps Vaccine
  • Refers to infection of men byEntamoeba Histolytica involving thecolon but may spread to other softtissue organs by contiguity orhematogenous or lymphaticdissemination most commonlt to theliver or lungs
  • Entamoeba Histolytica 2 – 4 weeksfecal oral route ingested the cystform of parasites
  • 1. Fever2. Abdominal pain3. Flatulence4. Blood streaked mucoid stool5. Foul smelling stool6. Diarrhea alternating with constipation Stool Exam: stool must be fresh
  • Flagyl1. Isolation of Patient2. To avoid spread of disease by health teachings to the pt. and his family  Boil water when or before drinking  Cover left over foods  Handwashing after defecation, before eating
  • Flagyl1. Isolation of Patient2. To avoid spread of disease by health teachings to the pt. and his family Avoid the 5 F’S
  • 3 SPECIES OF BLOOD FLUKESSchistosoma japonicumSchistosoma mansoniSchistosoma haematobium
  • Snail (Oncomelania Quadrasi)Framers and fishers 2 months
  • Egg copulation hatches miracidium Male and CERCARIAFemaleFlukes Penetration Feet
  • 1. Fever2. Abdominal pain diarrhea3. Emaciated4. Melena Stool Exam COPT Circum Oval Precipitin TEST
  • PraziquantrelTREATMENT Stibophen ( fuadin )
  •   Snail control  Spraying of snail poison  Construction of irrigation system  Proper cultivation technique
  •   Proper disposal of feces  Wearing of protective foot covering  Making of foot bridges
  • 
  • Tagudin or Pudoc Ilocos SurCapillaria philippinensis
  • ingestion of uncooked brackish water fish Fever Abdominal pain diarrhea with borborygmi
  • Stool exam MetronidazoleAvoid eating of uncooked brackishwater fish
  • ~Spiralis type of worm round wormeating or ingesting uncooked pork(meat, fats) ~Ancylostoma Duodenale walking barefooted
  • ~ Ascaris lumbricoides giant intestinal round worm soil and food contaminated with feces ~ Enterobiumvermicularis (PIN WORM) soil and food contaminated with feces
  • ~ Ascaris lumbricoides giant intestinal round worm soil and food contaminated with feces ~ Enterobiumvermicularis (PIN WORM) nocturnal anal itchiness
  • ~ Ascaris lumbricoides giant intestinal round worm soil and food contaminated with feces ~ Enterobiumvermicularis (PIN WORM) Tape TEST
  • ~ Taenia saginata, Taeniasollium, Diphyllabothrium latum beef tape worm pork tape worm fish tape worm
  •  – Trichuria whip worm soil and food contaminated with feces ingestion of uncooked crabs hemoptysis
  •  – Strongyloid stercoralis thread worm soil and food contaminated with feces  Voracious eater  Pot belly  Malnourish and anemic
  • Stool exam Giving of antihelmenthics Avoid the 5F’s Avoid walking barefooted Personal hygiene
  • RED TIDE POISONING – PSP Plankton ingestion of contaminated shell fish
  •  Headache numbness and tingling sensation around the mouth Gradual paralysis death within 24 hrs. if not treated right awayType of food eaten by the patient
  • Supportive Complete Bed REST Induce the pt. to vomit Increase fluid intake Oral Hygiene Avoid Eating shell fish