Elsa 2


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Elsa 2

  1. 1. VIRTUAL WORKSHOP Basic social protection in Mo z ambique: some experiences and challenges Maputo- Mo z ambique, March 2007
  2. 2. Some data about Mo z ambique <ul><li>Mozambique is rated as the 168 th country out of a total of 177 countries in the HDI; </li></ul><ul><li>Between1997 and 2003 the poverty index reduced 15.3%: from 70% in 1997 to 54% in 2003 ; </li></ul><ul><li>Absolute poverty still affects more than half of the population (52% of the urban population and 55% of the rural population) ; </li></ul><ul><li>The present challenge of the Poverty Reduction Action Plan 2005-2009 (PARPA II) is to reduce poverty up to 45% in 2029; </li></ul>
  3. 3. Some data about Mo z ambique <ul><li>The economy in Mozambique is dominated by the activities in the primary sector (83% of the active population in 2002), followed by the secondary sector (9%) and tertiary sector (8.3%). </li></ul><ul><li>The median economic growth from 1996 to 2006 was 8% per year. A growth of 7% is expected in 2007; </li></ul><ul><li>The causes of poverty are related to demographic factors, access to education, to employment and sources of income, and also to basic social infra-structures; </li></ul>
  4. 4. Some data about Mo z ambique <ul><li>The population in Mozambique is estimated to be around 19 million inhabitants in total. They are scattered across the country; </li></ul><ul><li>Households leadered by women represent one third of the households in Mozambique in total. These are usually poorer than the households lead by men; </li></ul><ul><li>Mozambique is rated as the 10 th more infected country with HIV/AIDS. In 2004, more than 1.5 million of the 19 million Mozambicans were estimated to be infected by the HIV, of whom 60% were women and 40% were men. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Brief summary of basic social protection programmes in Mozambique <ul><li>After the National Independence </li></ul><ul><li>1975-1986- Non-institutionalization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>After Mozambique joined the Social and Economic Readjustment Programme (1986-1994): the Social Action System began being selective and non-universal, covering especially the vulnerable social groups; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Social Action System was then relatively decentralized, following an approach in which policies and services were developed at a local level with the citizen’s participation. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Brief summary of basic social protection programmes in Mozambique <ul><ul><li>To support this action promoted by the State, the Social Action System, private and non-profit, was opened. The State’s reponsability was to protect the needed in coordination with the social stakeholders in the development of the social system; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Finally, a non-institutional approach was introduced, set by the Government’s policy in the social programmes, following the world trend in terms of social action systems. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Basic social protection programmes in Mozambique <ul><li>The Ministry of Women and Social Action (MMAS) is responsible for the design and implementation of policies within basic social security through the Social Action National Institute (INAS), which is a public institution under the authority of the MMAS; </li></ul><ul><li>In 1998, the Social Action Policy was approved, setting social action and its principles and guidelines for action. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Policies for specific target groups <ul><li>In 2006, the Government approved the Gender Policy and Implementation Strategy (PGEI) that will guide the actions in this domain. In the same year, the following instruments were approved: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Policy for the Disabled and Implementation Strategy; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Policy for the Elder and Implementation Strategy; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>National Action Plan for the Children (PNAC) 2006-2010; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Action Plan for the Orphan and Vulnerable Children (PACOVs) 2006-2010; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>National Action Plan for the Disabled 2006-2010 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>National Plan for the Elder 2006-2011. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Social protection law <ul><li>In 2006, the Social Protection Law was approved in Mozambique, foreseeing the following levels: </li></ul><ul><li>Compulsory social security , managed by the Social Security National Institute (INSS). It’s goal is to ensure the social insurance benefit to workers in the private sector. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Social protection law <ul><li>Basic social security , which covers all national citizens with incapacity to work, with no means to satisfy their basic needs, especially those living in absolute poverty, the disabled and the elder living in absolute poverty, children at risk, persons with chronic and degenerative diseases. This system is managed by the Ministry that is responsible for social actions (in this case, the Ministry of Women and Social Action – MMAS), with the participation of non-governmental entities with social purposes and other State administrative services. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Social protection law <ul><li>Complementary social security , which is implemented by different institutions, enterprises and civil society organizations. It covers, on a optional basis, people that have subscribed the compulsory social security system and is managed by either private or public entities whose establishment and operation will be ruled by the Ministers Cabinet. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Principles ruling social protection in Mozambique <ul><li>The principles that rule social protection in Mozambique are: universality, equality, solidarity and decentralization. </li></ul><ul><li>The strategic principles that guide the action plan programmes are: non-institutionalization, promotion of the civil society participation, community participation, gender perspective, respect for cultural diversity. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Examples of basic social protection programmes implemented by the Government <ul><li>Food Subsidy Programme (PSA) is a monthly cash transfer for individuals who are permanently incapacitated for work (elder people, disabled people and chronic diseased) with the purpose to mitigate their basic nourishing needs. The impact of the subsidy depends on whether the beneficiary lives in a rural or urban area. For those living in the rural areas, it is previously assured that the subsidy is used for more diversified ends, differing from the beneficiaries living in the urban areas. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Examples of basic social protection programmes implemented by the Government <ul><li>In 2006, the programme covered around 100 500 direct beneficiaries at a national level, of which 93% were elder, 6% were disabled persons, and 1% were chronic diseased and persons with other degenerative diseases. This programme can be considered, at the present moment, as one of the most all-embrancing social assistance programmes in the country. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Basic social protection programmes <ul><li>Direct Social Care Programme (PASD) provides benefits in kind, mostly nourishing products of primary need, educational material and others, to individuals temporarily incapacitated for work that need an immediate care, especially children at risk (orphans, needy tweens, malnourished children, abandoned children), malnourished pregnant women, chronic diseased, needy families which were victims of a natural disaster or other unexpected serious incidents. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Basic social protection programmes <ul><li>In terms of child care, it includes not only nourishing support but also the inclusion of the children in schools, the payment of educational material and other types of support until they reach 18 years of age. In 2006, the PASD assisted 22 767 persons, most of them (84%) were children. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Basic social protection programmes <ul><li>Social Benefit through Work Programme (PBST) aims at creating employment opportunities for individuals living in a confirmed absolute poverty situation and with capacity to work, promoting insertion opportunities in productive activities. In 2006, the programme covered around 4 700 beneficiaries at a national level. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Basic social protection programmes <ul><li>Income Generation Programme (PGR) provides a certain amount to support initiatives of income generation for needy target-groups. This programme basically grants credit to support projects in agriculture, cattle raising, fishing, small business and small industries. The PGR includes financial assistance, training and monitoring. The PGR also tries to ensure fund allowance to be managed by a group of community members, giving priority to associativism. Since 1998, 406 projects have already been financed, of which 195 in 2006 covering 3 825 beneficiaries at a national level. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Basic social protection programmes <ul><li>The Community Development Programme (PDC) addresses rural and urban communities living in absolute poverty. The PDC is based on a territorial approach and promotes articulation between the several actors (governmental and non-governmental). In this sense, the INAS developes this programme in the communities where they have already been implementing other programmes. One of the main intervention areas of the PDC is the provision of basic social services, building basic social infra-structures, especially in the rural areas. This programme covered, in 2006, around 60 000 beneficiaries at a national level. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Examples of initiatives in the Southern Africa region <ul><li>The Famine and Vulnerability Regional Programme covers 6 southern African countries, namely Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Swaziland, Zambia and Zimbabwe. This initiative disseminates the social protection concept and also promotes debates on this theme, studies about vulnerability and famine, reinforces policy’s definition and promotes the exchange of initiatives being implemented by these several countries. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Examples of initiatives in the Southern Africa region <ul><li>Other initiatives developed at that region’s level have been the regional and international meetings on the social area. Their purpose is the discussion of the issues related to social protection, gathering both governmental and non-governmental organizations and also civil society. </li></ul><ul><li>Contextualizing the experiences of the different countries in the region in the Mozambican reality is one of the challenges. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Some perceptions on programme implementation <ul><li>In the programmes addressing persons with a total incapacity to work, especially the PSA, efforts have been made to extend them to a higher number of beneficiaries, mostly on the rural areas. The extension of the programme to the rural areas has increased the demand, making it unsustainable to apply the same model used in the urban areas. </li></ul><ul><li>In terms of intervention strategy, for those individuals with capacity to work living in absolute poverty, support mechanisms have been continuously questioned so that the promotion of their social inclusion is done in a sustainable way. One of the critical factors is the high level of illiteracy of the beneficiaries. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Some perceptions on programme implementation <ul><li>In some cases, there is a poor feedback and the initiatives are unsustainable. Sometimes this happens due to a lack of procedures, to inadequate intervention systems and, in other cases, to the strategies used in the intervention’s approach. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Challenges <ul><li>At the programme implementation level </li></ul><ul><li>Some challenges must be faced to reinforce and improve the INAS programme implementation, namely: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>to improve the approach and response mechanisms to the causes of poverty and social exclusion; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to extend the programmes; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to increase substantially the benefits amount; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to strengthen the use of local consultation mechanisms; </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Challenges <ul><ul><li>to privilege community participation in problem resolution, according to each place’s reality; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to ensure greater participation of the target-groups in the programmes addressed to them; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to reinforce policies pro-target groups; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to capacitate people so that they can respond to these challenges. </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Challenges: the HIV/AIDS and its framing in assistance programmes <ul><li>At the INAS level there are two governmental programmes already implemented, mentioned above, that may give an adequate response to those living with the HIV/AIDS: the PSA and PASD. </li></ul><ul><li>The PSA has the potential to create a remarkable impact in the beneficiaries target-groups. Considered as one of the most all-embrancing governmental social assistence programmes, it helps to address in a direct way the orphan and vulnerable children whose parents were victims of the HIV/AIDS, and are under the care of elder persons and other direct beneficiaries of the programme. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Challenges: the HIV/AIDS and its framing in assistance programmes <ul><li>At present, the PASD is facing the fact that most beneficiaries are not covered in a transitory way as initially foreseen. For example, orphan and vulnerable children are one of the main PASD target groups and the support transitoriness (until 18 years of age) is more long lasting, demanding a reflexion upon the type of support but also the stregthening of other components, such as the provision of psicologic support, transmiting undertaking values and the idea that they should not depend on the household leader, so they can exit the programme when they are 18 and are ready to develop income generating activities. </li></ul>
  28. 28. The HIV/AIDS and its framing in assistance programmes <ul><li>We can summarize the challenges in this matter as following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>to adequate social programmes to the dinamics and challenges of the momentum; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to frame income generating initiatives in the support of relatives taking care of orphan and vulnerable children and have a capacity to work; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to define more effective service systems that can reduce the administrative expenses related to the social programmes implementation; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to strengthen other components with an impact in changing the beneficiaries attitude; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to articulate the several on-going strategies and initiatives. </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Challenges: Coordenation with other actors and communities in the INAS programme implementation <ul><li>We can summarize the challenges as the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>to conjugate on going social programmes and strategies among the different stakeholders; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to promote the partnership between the Government, non-governmental organizations and local authorities to enhance everyone’s actions in the fight against poverty and to be more effective and efficient in implementing coordenated cash transfers policies; </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Challenges: Coordenation with other actors and communities in the INAS programme implementation <ul><ul><li>to strengthen the consultations and the creation of multisectorial forums, so that all actors’s efforts are integrated and the coordination of activities is reinforced – which is still weak and considered one of the priorities; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to strengthen the coordination with governmental, non-governmental and community sectors involved in the social area; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to maximize non-governmental organizations expertise in the implementation of the programmes. </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Coordenation with other actors and communities in the INAS programme implementation <ul><li>In 2003, several laws were approved: the State Local Organs Law, the Law 8/2003 of May 19th and respective Regulation approved by the Decree 11/2005 of June 10th, foreseeing the establishment of local organs for consultation. </li></ul><ul><li>The legal establishment of local consultation committees at district and community levels is an important advantage that will allow a greater contact among and participation of all agents involved in the implementation of programmes promoting social inclusion. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Final thoughts <ul><li>INAS programmes are considered to have a great potential and can act as a starting point to provide the answers to the different challenges the country is facing in the social area. </li></ul><ul><li>What connection can we establish between basic social security programmes and compulsory social security, considering that in some cases, the compulsory social security beneficiaries are in vulnerable situations claiming for an intervention of the basic social security system? What do other countries experience in this matter? </li></ul>
  33. 33. Final thoughts <ul><li>How to ensure sustainability and articulation of the interventions addressing people with capacity or not for work, considering the target-group’s nature? </li></ul><ul><li>Which interventions are adequate to serve target-groups living in absolute poverty but with a capacity to work and in a vulnerable situation – quite often a chronic one? </li></ul>
  34. 34. Final thoughts <ul><li>How to find more adequate, innovative and undertaking forms of responding to the target-group’s needs, according to its particularities and situation of exclusion? </li></ul><ul><li>How can social programmes be (re)defined/strengthen given the role the different entities play at the intervention level (governmental, non-governmental and others)? </li></ul>
  35. 36. <ul><li>It’s the glance of children like these that encourage us to keep looking for solutions for the problems that concern us. </li></ul><ul><li>Thank you </li></ul>