THE INTERNATIONAL PHONETIC ALPHABET (revised to 2005)       CONSONANTS (PULMONIC)                                         ...
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Ipa internacional phonetic_alphabet

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The International Phonetic Alphabet may be freely copied on condition that acknowledgement is made to the International Phonetic Association (Department of Theoretical and Applied Linguistics, School of English, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki 54124, GREECE).

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Ipa internacional phonetic_alphabet

  1. 1. THE INTERNATIONAL PHONETIC ALPHABET (revised to 2005) CONSONANTS (PULMONIC) © 2005 IPA Bilabial Labiodental Dental Alveolar Post alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyngeal Glottal Plosive p b t d Ê ∂ c Ô k g q G / Nasal m µ n = ≠ N – Trill ı r R Tap or Flap v | « Fricative F B f v T D s  z S Z ß Ω ç J x V X  © ? h H Lateral fricative Ò L Approximant √ ® ’ j ˜ Lateral approximant l  ¥ K Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a voiced consonant. Shaded areas denote articulations judged impossible. CONSONANTS (NON-PULMONIC) VOWELS Front Central Back Clicks Voiced implosives Ejectives > Bilabial ∫ Bilabial ’ Examples: Close i y È Ë ¨ u ˘ Dental Î Dental/alveolar p’ Bilabial IY U ! (Post)alveolar ˙ Palatal t’ Dental/alveolar Close-mid e P e ∏ Ø o ¯ Palatoalveolar ƒ Velar k’ Velar ´ ≤ Ï s’ E { ‰ ø O ò Alveolar lateral Uvular Alveolar fricative Open-mid OTHER SYMBOLS œ å ∑ Voiceless labial-velar fricative Ç Û Alveolo-palatal fricatives Open a ” A Å Where symbols appear in pairs, the one w   Voiced labial-velar approximant » Voiced alveolar lateral flap to the right represents a rounded vowel. Á Voiced labial-palatal approximant Í Simultaneous S and x SUPRASEGMENTALS Ì Voiceless epiglottal fricative " Primary stress  ¿  Voiced epiglottal fricative Affricates and double articulations Æ ( can be represented by two symbols kp ts Secondary stress ÆfoUn´"tIS´n  ÷   Epiglottal plosive ( joined by a tie bar if necessary. … Long e…DIACRITICS Diacritics may be placed above a symbol with a descender, e.g. N( Ú Half-long eÚ 9 Voiceless n9 d9 ª Breathy voiced bª aª 1 Dental t 1 d1 * Extra-short e* 3 s3 t 3 0 b0 a0 ¡ Apical t ¡ d¡ ˘ Minor (foot) group ≤ Voiced Creaky voiced Major (intonation) group Ó Aspirated tÓ dÓ £ Linguolabial t £  d£ 4 Laminal t 4 d4 . Syllable break ®i.œkt 7 More rounded O7 W Labialized tW dW ) Nasalized e) ≈ Linking (absence of a break) ¶ Less rounded O¶ ∆ Palatalized t∆ d∆ ˆ Nasal release dˆ ™ Advanced u™ ◊ Velarized t◊  d◊ ¬ Lateral release d¬ TONES AND WORD ACCENTS LEVEL ˆ CONTOUR 2 Retracted e2 ≥ Pharyngealized t≥   d≥ } No audible release d} e _ or âExtra high  or e Rising ä  ·   Centralized e· ù Velarized or pharyngealized : e! ê High e$ ë Falling + Mid-centralized e+ 6 e6  ( ®6 = voiced alveolar fricative) e@ î Mid e% ü High rising e~ ô efi ï Raised Low Low ` Syllabic n` § Lowered e§ ( B§ = voiced bilabial approximant) e— û Extra low e& ñ$ rising Rising- falling 8 Non-syllabic e8 5 Advanced Tongue Root e5 Õ Downstep ã Global rise ± Rhoticity ´± a± ∞ Retracted Tongue Root e∞ õ Upstep à Global fall

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