Mafia p1

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Mafia p1

  1. 1. HUMAN TRAFFICKING: CHINA Meghan Luce Sant’Anna Institute Prof. Corbino Midterm Pres.
  2. 2. BACKGROUND FACTS  2.5 million people forced into labor.  It is estimated that 1 .2 million children are trafficked each year.  People are trafficked from 127 countries, to be exploited in 137 countries.  $31 .6 billion dollars in profits annually.  In 2006 only 5,808 prosecutions and 3,160 convictions through out the world.
  3. 3. SON PREFERENCE IN CHINA  Preference for sons in China combined with easy access to sex-selective abortions has led to a gender imbalance (3)  Sex Ratio at Birth (SRB) is over 130 in several provinces in China (3)  Preference for Sons: higher wage earning capacity, continue the family line, recipients of inheritance. (6)  Preference has led to female infanticide and abandonment and neglect of girls (6)
  4. 4. ONE-CHILD POLICY: ‘FAMILY PLANNING’  Until 1960’s it was encouraged to have as many children as possible. (7)  The policy was introduced in 1979 (7)  ‘One-Child Policy’ introduced to address overpopulation. (7)  One-Child in urban areas, exception: including twins, rural couples, ethnic minorities, and couples who are both only children themselves. (7)
  5. 5. GENDER IMBALANCE AS A RESULT OF POLICY  10%-20% excess of young men across large pats of China (3).  2005- 1.1 million excess males born across China (3).  Societal Implications: percentage of male population will not be able to marry
  6. 6. HUMAN TRAFFICKING: CHINA  China is a source & destination countr y for human traf ficking (8).  Cross-border traf ficking of women is increasing (8).  Purposes of cross -border traf ficking: commercial sexual exploitation and forced marriage to illegal adoption, forced labor, and begging (8).  Source Provinces: Yunnan & Guizhou (8)  Destination Provinces: Fujian, Guangdong & Shangdong (8)
  7. 7. HUMAN TRAFFICKING: CHINA  Majority occurs within borders, around 600,000 migrate annually overseas. (9)  Causes: lack of employment & rural -urban internal migration (9)  Chinese Government placed on Tier 2 Watch List for 7 th consecutive year (9).
  8. 8. ORGANIZED CRIME IN CHINA: TRIAD  Triad- refers to the many branches of Chinese transnational organized crime organizations. (11)  Emerged in the 17 th century with the emergence of secret societies founded by Shaolin Monks (11).  By 1950 300,000 Triad members in Hong Kong (11)  9 main operating Traids: Wo Hop To, Wo Shing Wo, Rung Tung, Chuen Shing, Sun Yee On, 14k, and Luen (11)
  9. 9. ORGANIZED CRIME IN CHINA: TRIAD  Destroyed Criminal Groups: (10)  1986- 30,000  1994: 150,000  Arrested Members: (10)  1986- 114,000  1994- 570,000  Most cities are safe, lack of police force (10)  12 officers per 10,000 residents  Police force: ill equipped, ill-trained, under funded, and understaffed
  10. 10. TRIAD: CRIMINAL ACTIVITIES & PROFITS  1880s- Counterfeiting (all 11)  1960’s & 1970’scounterfeiting Chinese currency, copying books & black market  Recently: watches, films, designer items  Since the 1970’s more activity with legitimate business  Triads are more active in costal provinces (12)  About 200 billion yuans ($24.7 billion) laundered in China each year. (12)
  11. 11. RESOLUTION?  Unemployment & Policy Change
  12. 12. SOURCES  2:http://www.theguardian.com/world/2009/may/19/china -gender -rati owomen-men  3: http://www.sciencedail y.com/releases/2011/03/1103141 32244. htm      6: http://www.bmj.com/content/340/ bmj .c2216 7: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/One -child_ poli cy 8:http://www.no -traf fi cking.org/china.html  9:http://www.humantraf fi cking.org/countries/china     10:http://www.nytimes.com /ref/college/coll -c hina -politics -005.html 11: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Triad_% 28underground_ society% 29 1 2: http://eng.globalaf fair s.ru /number/n_ 7981

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