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Presentation ic gjhsvjhwd

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  • 1. “At bottom, people are pretty much the same the world over”. Lucy Blackett & Shannon Eustace
  • 2. Theories of Intercultural Communication Social Engineering Socialisation Linguistic Relativity Communication Networks Accommodation Direct and Indirectness Identity Personal Identity Group Identity Gender, Age and Social Class
  • 3. Human Nature “The inherent character or nature of human beings; the sum of traits, characteristics, and predispositions attributed to or associated with human beings” (OED, 2009) This suggests that people are all the same if you are referring to the core meaning of human, as we all share these traits. Everybody has: A religious belief Emotion Sexuality Oxford English Dictionary, 2009
  • 4. Communication “The imparting or exchanging of information by speaking, writing, or using some other medium” (OD, 2009) Communication is both verbal and non-verbal and surrounds all language. David Crystal, 2012 Oxford Dictionaries, 2009
  • 5. Social Engineering Socialisation The adaption of certain behaviours due to the surrounding culture. Example 1: children’s toys Example 2: discipline techniques Linguistic Relativity – Sapir-Whorf Linguistic characteristics and cultural norms influence each other. Convergence Theory - Kincaid Linguistic characteristics and cultural norms will only influence each other if communication is unrestricted. If communication is restricted, the cultural system will diverge towards diversity. Hoijer, 1954 Kincaid, 1988 Walsh, n.d.
  • 6. Communication Networks Communication systems vary between groups and are heavily cultural dependant. Many communication techniques are used to help cultures interact easily with each other, without conflict. Accommodation Accommodation - people converge their language/behaviour towards the second speaker so that they sound/act similar to each other. Accommodation is used to uphold politeness in conversation. Direct vs. Indirect Speech North Americans find indirect speech tricky and direct speech more polite. East Asians find indirect speech more polite and direct speech rude. Bailey, 2000 Tuner & West, 2010
  • 7. Identity Personal ‘Characteristics that define us as unique individuals’ (Gudykunst, 2004) Identity and Language Gender based lexis Social class Age group Group Characteristics shared by members of a social group. Positive aspects of group membership: belonging, protection, ease of communication, security. Gudykunst, 2004 Tajfel, 1978 Tannen, 1990
  • 8. Conclusion “At bottom, people are pretty much the same world over.” The above statement is only valid when referring to the larger aspects of intercultural communication: human traits, gender identity in children and importance of group membership. The validity of the statement decreases when focusing on deeper analysis of the theories of intercultural communication: individual beliefs and characteristics, communication between cultures and identity with language.
  • 9. Bibliography BOOKS: Bailey. B., 2000. Discourse and Society. In: I. Piller, 2011. Inntercultural Communication: A Critical Introduction. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press Crystal. D., 2012. The Main Dimensions of Language Study. English Language. Suffolk One, unpublished Gudykunst. W. B., 2004. Bridging Differences: Effective Intergroup Communication. 4th ed. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Hoijer. H., 1954. Language In culture. Chicago: Chicago University Press Kincaid, D. L., 1988. The convergence theory of intercultural communication. In: Y. Y. Kim and W. B. Gudykunst, ed. 1988. Theories In Intercultural Communication. Newbury Park, CA: Sage. pp. 280298. Tajfel, H., 1978. Differentiation Between Groups: Studies in the Social Psychology of Intergroup Relations. London: Academic Press Tannen. D., 1990. You Just Don’t Understand: Women and Men in Conversation. London: Virago Press Turner. L. H. and West. R., 2010. Introducing Communication Theory: Analysis and Application. 4th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill WEBSITES: Oxford Dictionaries, 2009. Communication. [Online] Available at: < http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/communication > [Accessed 15th November 2013] Oxford English Dictionary, 2009. Human Nature. [Online] Available at: < http://www.oed.com/view/Entry/274634?redirectedFrom=human+nature#eid > [Accessed 15th November 2013] Walsh. E., n.d. Discipline Techniques. [Online] Available at <www.kidspot.com.nz> [Accessed 4th December 2013]
  • 10. Bibliography BOOKS: Bailey. B., 2000. Discourse and Society. In: I. Piller, 2011. Inntercultural Communication: A Critical Introduction. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press Crystal. D., 2012. The Main Dimensions of Language Study. English Language. Suffolk One, unpublished Gudykunst. W. B., 2004. Bridging Differences: Effective Intergroup Communication. 4th ed. Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Hoijer. H., 1954. Language In culture. Chicago: Chicago University Press Kincaid, D. L., 1988. The convergence theory of intercultural communication. In: Y. Y. Kim and W. B. Gudykunst, ed. 1988. Theories In Intercultural Communication. Newbury Park, CA: Sage. pp. 280298. Tajfel, H., 1978. Differentiation Between Groups: Studies in the Social Psychology of Intergroup Relations. London: Academic Press Tannen. D., 1990. You Just Don’t Understand: Women and Men in Conversation. London: Virago Press Turner. L. H. and West. R., 2010. Introducing Communication Theory: Analysis and Application. 4th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill WEBSITES: Oxford Dictionaries, 2009. Communication. [Online] Available at: < http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/communication > [Accessed 15th November 2013] Oxford English Dictionary, 2009. Human Nature. [Online] Available at: < http://www.oed.com/view/Entry/274634?redirectedFrom=human+nature#eid > [Accessed 15th November 2013] Walsh. E., n.d. Discipline Techniques. [Online] Available at <www.kidspot.com.nz> [Accessed 4th December 2013]