Ch01 le1

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Ch01 le1

  1. 1. UNITUNIT 11 CH01_LE1 7/9/05 3:01 PM Page ii
  2. 2. Heritage, Organization, and Tradition Heritage, Organization, and Tradition Unit ChapterUnit Chapter Chapter 1 Introduction to Air Force Junior Reserve Officer Training Corps In Your Home and Community Goal Setting In the Air Force, thousands of people combine their efforts to carry out a large security mission. Your Air Force Junior ROTC unit also has a mission. How does your unit give back to your community? Look at your unit’s history and activities. List at least three ways that you can contribute to your community through your participation in Air Force Junior ROTC. CH01_LE1 7/9/05 3:01 PM Page 1
  3. 3. CHAPTERCHAPTER11 CH01_LE1 10/4/05 12:50 PM Page 2
  4. 4. Introduction to Air Force Junior ROTC Introduction to Air Force Junior ROTC Lesson 1 Organization of the AFJROTC Lesson 2 The Military Uniform and Appearance Standards Lesson 3 Customs and Courtesies for Air Force Junior ROTC Lesson 4 Attitude, Discipline, and Respect Lesson 5 Ethics Chapter OutlineChapter Outline What do you know about Air Force Junior ROTC (AFJROTC)? Write two or three sentences about why you chose to take AFJROTC classes. Quick WriteQuick Write CH01_LE1 7/9/05 3:01 PM Page 3
  5. 5. 4 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO AIR FORCE JUNIOR RESERVE OFFICER TRAINING CORPS Organization of the AFJROTC 11 LessonLesson History As a cadet in the Air Force Junior Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC), you are part of a time-honored and distinguished tradition of preparing young people to be the leaders of tomorrow through a blend of education and military training. The first purely technical and military school in the United States for training students in citizen soldiery was founded almost 200 years ago in Norwich, Vermont. In September 1820, the American Literary, Scientific and Military Academy was founded by Army Captain Alden Partridge. Today this institution is known as Norwich University. Captain Partridge firmly believed that a citizenry educated in the art of war would serve the nation well. The school became known for its excellent academic program embedded in a tough, disciplined military environment. Another Army officer, Lieutenant Edgar R. Steevers, was the first to organize Junior ROTC programs in 1911. Lieutenant Steevers, who also believed that the teaching of military training could help create better citizens, merged traditional education with military training in a public high school in the city of Cheyenne, Wyoming. He wanted to teach young men the advantages of a strong body and a clean mind, the value of self-control and restraint, civic duties, and responsibilities. The Army formally adopted Junior ROTC the same year that the National Defense Act of 1916 authorized a junior course for non-college military schools, high schools, and other non- preparatory schools. But it wasn’t until 1964 that Junior ROTC made its way into all branches of the military. Public Law 88-647, also known as the Reserve Officer Training Corps Vitalization Act of 1964, directed the secretaries of each branch of the military to establish and maintain Junior ROTC units at public and private secondary schools. Interested schools must apply and meet eligibility criteria established by each secretary. Schools must also agree to provide Jot down two activities that involve several people working together. How does knowing who will do what make the work go smoothly? Quick WriteQuick Write LEARN ABOUT... • the purpose of Air Force Junior ROTC. • the mission of Air Force Junior ROTC. • the objectives of the Junior ROTC program. • the line of responsibility and authority in AFJROTC. • job descriptions and organizational charts. • selection of commanders and staff positions. CH01_LE1 7/9/05 3:01 PM Page 4
  6. 6. LESSON 1 ORGANIZATION OF THE AFJROTC 5 a three-year (or more) course of military instruction as outlined by the specific military branch. Another requirement is that an enrollment of at least 100 physically fit students or 10 percent of the study body, whichever is less, must be maintained in the Junior ROTC program. Students must be U.S. citizens and enrolled in the ninth grade or higher. School selection is also based on ensuring a fair and equitable distribution of Junior ROTC programs throughout the nation. The law offers incentives to participating schools to employ retired officers and noncommissioned officers (NCOs) as instructors. In addition, the law authorizes each military branch to provide equipment, uniforms, and a portion of the instructors’ pay. In 1973, Public Law 93-165 allowed females to be counted toward enrollment in Junior ROTC units. Air Force Junior Reserve Officer Training Corps (AFJROTC) With a modest beginning of 20 units in 1966, Air Force Junior ROTC has grown to over 740 units operating throughout the world in 2005, with more than 104,000 cadets enrolled. This growth is projected to continue, increasing the number of Air Force JROTC units to more than 900 by 2006. In the beginning, only young men were allowed as cadets. However, that changed in 1972 when 2,170 young women were admitted, making up nine percent of the corps. Since then the number of young women in AFJROTC has increased to more than 45,300—more than 43 percent of the cadet corps. The purpose of Air Force Junior ROTC is simple: to help make high school students better citizens, while acquainting them with the Air Force and the field of aerospace science. Its formal mission, goals, and objectives are as follows: Mission. The mission of AFJROTC is to build better citizens for America. Goals. “[The] purpose of Junior Reserve Officers’ Training Corps [is] to instill in students in United States secondary educational institutions the value of citizenship, service to the United States, personal responsibility, and a sense of accomplishment.” (10 USC Section 2031) Objectives. The objectives of AFJROTC are to educate and train high school cadets in citizenship; promote community service; instill responsibility, character, and self- discipline; and provide instruction in the fundamentals of air and space science. Cadet Activities During one's years as a cadet, aerospace science courses will be studied, such as Frontiers of Aviation History, The Science of Flight, The Exploration of Space, Policy and Organization, Survival, and Geography. You will also learn about military traditions and flag etiquette and receive instruction in basic military drill. In addition, you will immerse yourself in topics such as personal behavior, personal responsibility, citizenship, wellness, effective communication skills, individual and group behavior, and management theories. And you will do more than study. Air Force Junior ROTC cadets have opportunities to attend dances and military balls; to engage in fund-raising events; and to participate in athletics, color guards, and drill teams. As you continue in VOCABULARY • group • squadron • flight • Senior Aerospace Science Instructor (SASI) CH01_LE1 7/9/05 3:02 PM Page 5
  7. 7. 6 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO AIR FORCE JUNIOR RESERVE OFFICER TRAINING CORPS the program, it will become more meaningful and evident that the overall goal of Air Force Junior ROTC is to help develop future leaders for, and better citizens of, our great country. Chain of Command and Organization Whenever two or more people combine their efforts to do a job, an organization exists. In the Air Force, thousands of people combine their efforts to carry out a large national security mission. This huge organization is able to do its job because it has been specifically organized for that purpose. A line of responsibility and authority extends from top to bottom, and relationships between and within sections are spelled out. Every Air Force Junior ROTC unit is organized in a specific way, with the main jobs of the organization normally displayed on a chart. Job descriptions exist for every separate duty in the unit. These charts and job descriptions provide a quick, detailed view of the operation of any section and show how a unit carries out its assignments. The Air Force Junior ROTC models its organizational charts and job descriptions on those found in the U.S. Air Force. Typical Air Force Junior ROTC organization charts and job descriptions are shown in Tables 1–1 through 1–5. When organizing any operation, it is necessary to do three things: 1. Identify skills needed. 2. Set up a working structure. 3. Assign available resources within the structure to carry out the mission successfully. Organization of the Cadet Corps Cadet corps units are organized into the following structures: • wings (two or more groups) • groups (two or more squadrons) • squadrons (two or more flights) • flights (two or more elements) • elements (three or more cadets, including the element leader) A wing has a corps size of 251 cadets and above. Groups have a corps size of 250 cadets or less. The Air Force Junior ROTC organizational chart, Table 1–1, shows a typical cadet wing’s structure. The organization of a typical cadet group is seen in Table 1–2. The charts are based on a cadet corps at a school that has a fully established program. The Senior Aerospace Science Instructor (SASI) is responsible for the overall function and management of the Air Force Junior ROTC unit. The SASI selects the cadet wing/group/squadron commander and various staff members. The cadets selected for staff positions help the cadet wing, group, or squadron commander run the CH01_LE1 7/9/05 3:02 PM Page 6
  8. 8. LESSON 1 ORGANIZATION OF THE AFJROTC 7 Table 1–1. Organizational Chart for a Typical Cadet Wing Table 1–2. AFJROTC Organizational Chart for a Typical Cadet Group Organizational Charts Cadet Ops Gp (COG/CC) Operations Spt Sq (COSS/CC) Current Operations OSO Plans (option) OSX A Flt/CC B Flt/CC C Flt/CC Operations Sq (COS/CC) D Flt/CC B Flt/CC C Flt/CC Operations (COS/CC) (If Needed) Mission Spt Flt DPS Personnel DPM Pub Affairs (option)-DPA Comptroller (option)-DPF Mission Spt Sq (CMSS/CC) (If Needed) Special Projects-SP Physical Fitness-PT Color Guard-CG Services Sq (CSV/CC) Logistics Support Sq (CLGL/CC) Supply Sq (CLGS/CC) Cadet Spt Gp (CSG/CC) Cadet Logistics GP (CLG/CC) ice Cmdr-CV pecial Asst-CCA afety-SE History-HO History-HO Cmd CMSgt-CCC Plans-XP Exec-CCE Chaplain-HC Comptroller-FM Cadet Wing Cmdr (CWg/CC) Operations Spt Sq (COSS/CC) Operations Sq (COS/CC) Operations Sq (COS/CC) (if needed) Cadet Operations Gp (COG/CC) Support Flight (DPS) Personnel (DPM) Comptroller (FM) Current Operations (OSO) NOTE: This is the organization of a group when it is the highest level of organization.Public Affairffairf s (PA) Logistics (LG) Special Projects (SP) Deputy Commander (CD) Command Chief Master Sgt (CCC) First Sergeant (CCF) CH01_LE1 7/9/05 3:02 PM Page 7
  9. 9. 8 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO AIR FORCE JUNIOR RESERVE OFFICER TRAINING CORPS corps. The various staff positions closely mirror those found in Air Force staff structure. The cadet corps organizational structure must reflect the actual functions of the corps. It must also help meet the goals of the leadership education course. In addition, it must clearly describe command and staff functions and recognize cadet rank. The organization should be consistent with military organizational principles. It should generally meet the provisions of Air Force Instruction (AFI) 38–101, entitled Air Force Organization. Sample organizations are shown in Tables 1–1 and 1–2. The samples closely parallel that found in AFI 38-101. However, to keep wing staffs from becoming too large, this sample delegates some functions normally carried out by the wing commander to selected squadrons. It is also slightly different because normal Air Force units are not closely aligned with AFJROTC cadet wings in the services area. The SASI may add positions to the organizational structure. However, those positions must have identifiable duties and generally meet guidelines in AFI 38-101 and AFM 37-127. Titles and office symbols must match standard Air Force practice. For example, CC is used for a wing or group Commander position, OG for the Operations Group, PA for Public Affairs, etc. The 3rd AFJROTC Cadet Wing commander, for example, would use the office symbol 3rd Cadet WG/CC, and the same unit’s Logistics Group commander would use 3rd Cadet LG/CC. Regardless of the size or structure of the corps, efficient organization is important to ensure effective leadership education. Units should maintain an organizational chart showing all designated cadet corps positions. This chart should be posted where cadets can see and become familiar with it. In addition, job descriptions should be written for each position shown on the organizational chart. Copies should be maintained in files that are accessible to cadets. See Table 1–3 for sample job descriptions. Cadet Appointment and Rotation Based on the requirements of the unit’s organizational structure, the SASI selects the cadet corps commander, subordinate commanders, and staff members. The SASI is responsible for maintaining a written policy on an equitable appointment and rotation system. The SASI will consider an individual cadet’s strengths and shortcomings when assigning positions. The intent is to ensure that cadets are assigned to positions where they will gain the greatest leadership benefits. The SASI may consider adopting a below-the-zone promotion system that parallels the Air Force system. Cadet grades should not be confused with United States Air Force grades. The word “cadet” must be a part of any written reference to a specific cadet rank. In keeping with usual promotion systems, cadet rank is limited during the first and second year of a unit’s operation. During the second year, the SASI may limit cadet grades to one grade below that for a fully established unit. The maximum grade authorizations are listed in Table 1–4 for a cadet wing and Table 1–5 for a cadet group. CH01_LE1 7/9/05 3:02 PM Page 8
  10. 10. LESSON 1 ORGANIZATION OF THE AFJROTC 9 Sample Job Descriptions The cadet wing commander (CWg/CC) is responsible for: • The appearance, discipline, efficiency, training, and conduct of the wing. • Planning and coordinating all wing activities, facilities, and resources. • Ensuring all members of the cadet corps have the opportunity to develop leadership commensurate with their individual abilities. • Coordinating with the SASI. The cadet wing vice commander (CWg/CV) is responsible for: • Command of the wing during absence of the wing commander. • Supervising the wing staff. • Administration of wing headquarters. The cadet special assistant (CWg/CCA) is responsible for all duties assigned by the SASI. Fill this position with a 3rd-year cadet in a 3-year program or fourth-year cadet in a 4-year program who has been rotated from the position of corps commander. The executive officer (CWg/CCE) is responsible for: • All tasks assigned by the cadet wing commander. • Scheduling and coordinating activities of the cadet wing commander. The cadet command chief master sergeant (CWg/CCC) is responsible for: • Providing recommendations to the CWg/CC based on inputs from lower class cadets and acts as liaison between the corps and wing staff. • Advising the CWg/CC on problems with the corps and suggesting possible solutions. • Performing other duties as assigned by the CWg/CC. The cadet plans officer (CWg/XP) is responsible for: • Developing and posting contingency plans for all operations of the cadet wing. • Performing other duties as assigned by the CWg/CC. • Note: The SASI has the option to align this normal wing commander staff function under the COSS/CC. If this option is exercised, then the office symbol is COSS/OSX. The cadet safety officer (CWg/SE) is responsible for: • Conducting a weekly safety inspection of all cadet facilities. • Reporting all safety violations or findings to the CWg/CC or the SASI and providing recommendations for correcting safety-related problems. The cadet historian (CWg/HO) is responsible for: • The recording and recovery of historical information and data pertaining to corps activities. • The documentation of historical information and data pertaining to corps activities on electronic media. • Performing other duties as assigned by the CWg/CC. Table 1–3 Sample Job Descriptions CH01_LE1 7/9/05 3:02 PM Page 9
  11. 11. 10 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO AIR FORCE JUNIOR RESERVE OFFICER TRAINING CORPS The cadet chaplain (CWg/HC) is responsible for: • The morale and welfare of members of the cadet corps and recommending solutions to problems concerning morale and welfare issues to the CWg/CC. • Delivering inspirational services as required for Dining-ins or outs, and other corps activities. • Performing other duties as assigned by the CWg/CC. The cadet comptroller (CWg/FM) is responsible for: • Ensuring adequate controls are established for proper accounting of all corps money. • Controlling all cadet financial transactions. • Maintaining accurate, descriptive, and up-to-date records of all financial transactions. • Ensuring all checks are issued in accordance with policies established by the CWg/CC. • Maintaining ledgers and account transactions in accordance with generally accepted accounting standards. • Presenting a weekly audit report to the cadet staff + JROTC staff. • Signing and initialing all checks payable from wing funds. • Preparing budget projections for successive weeks and terms. • Performing other duties as assigned by the CWg/CC. • Note: The SASI has the option to align this normal wing commander staff function under the CMSS/CC. If this option is exercised, then the office symbol is CMSS/DPF. The cadet public affairs officer (CWg/PA) is responsible: • For establishing an active public affairs program. • For preparing, publishing, and distributing a wing yearbook. • For submitting news articles to school and local newspapers concerning cadet activities. • For providing all wing photographic service. • Assisting briefers in graphic support. • Performing other duties as assigned by the CWg/CC. • Cadet public affairs officer continued: • Note: The SASI has the option to align this normal wing commander staff function under the CMSS/CC. If this option is exercised, then the office symbol is CMSS/DPA. The cadet operations group commander (COG/CC) is responsible for: • The appearance, discipline, effectiveness, training, and conduct of the cadet operations group. • Attending Wing staff meetings. • Performing other duties as assigned by the CWg/CC. The cadet operations group deputy commander (COG/CD) is responsible for: • Standardization evaluation (StanEval) for the cadet operations group. • Ensuring all cadet operations group activities are conducted in accordance with current Air Force AETC, AFROTC, and corps instructions, directive policies, and procedures. • Performing other duties as assigned by the COG/CC. The cadet operations support squadron commander (COSS/CC) is responsible for: • Overseeing training, standardization, and drill and ceremonies are conducted properly. • Preparing the cadet wing master operations plan. • Preparing weekly operations orders. • Ensuring training goals are met by each cadet. • Performing other duties as assigned by the COG/CC. Table 1–3 Continued CH01_LE1 7/9/05 3:02 PM Page 10
  12. 12. LESSON 1 ORGANIZATION OF THE AFJROTC 11 The cadet current operations officer (COSS/OSO) is responsible for: • Planning and coordinating extracurricular and cocurricular activities with other school organizations. • Assisting the SASI in scheduling cadets for base visits and similar activities. The cadet operations squadron commander (COS/CC) is responsible for: • Overseeing the flight commanders. • Relaying information from the cadet operations group commander to the flight commanders. • Acting as a liaison between flights and command staff. • Performing other duties assigned by the COG/CC. The cadet flight commander (Flt/CC) is responsible for: • Maintaining the appearance, discipline, efficiency, training, and conduct of the flight. • Planning and coordinating activities within the flight. • Recommending the top cadets within the flight for awards and recognition to the COS/CC. • Performiing other duties as assigned by the COS/CC. The cadet support group commander (CSG/CC) is responsible for: • The appearance, discipline, effectiveness, training, and conduct of the cadet support group. • Attending wing staff meetings. • Performing other duties as assigned by the CWg/CC. The cadet support group deputy commander (CSG/CD) is responsible for: • Standardization evaluation (StanEval) for the cadet mission support group. • Ensuring all cadet mission support group activities are conducted in accordance with current regulations, directives, policies, and procedures. • Performing other duties as assigned by the CSG/CC. The cadet mission support squadron commander (CMSS/CC) is responsible for: • Ensuring proper maintenance of administrative and personnel files. • Learning the responsibilities and procedures of each functional area of mission support. • Performing other duties as assigned by the CSG/CC. The cadet mission support flight officer (CMSS/DPS) is responsible for: • Writing and posting weekly staff meeting minutes. • Maintaining the wing administrative files in accordance with policies and procedures established by the CMSS/CC. • Maintaining the bulletin boards, and posting current and correct wing correspondence, leadership training, and special function notices. • Maintaining the wing continuity files. • Maintaining and updating all cadet regulations. • Performing other duties as assigned by the CMSS/CC. The cadet personnel flight officer (CMSS/DPM) is responsible for: • Maintaining cadet personnel records following guidelines established by the CMSS/CC. • Maintaining the wing organizational chart and unit manning document (UMD). • Publishing a cadet directory. • Filing all documentation in cadet records or other internal information media. • Performing other duties as assigned by the CMSS/CC. Table 1–3 Continued CH01_LE1 7/9/05 3:02 PM Page 11
  13. 13. 12 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO AIR FORCE JUNIOR RESERVE OFFICER TRAINING CORPS The cadet services squadron commander (CSV/CC) is responsible for: • Ensuring a high level of morale and esprit de corps is maintained within the wing. • Promoting high levels of physical fitness within the wing. • Learning the responsibilities and procedures of each functional area of the services squadron. • Performing other duties as assigned by the CSG/CC. The cadet special projects officer (CSV/SP) is responsible for: • The planning, coordinating, and execution of all wing special activities. • Submitting after-action reports on all special projects. • Performing other duties as assigned by the CSV/CC. The cadet athletics officer (CSV/PT) is responsible for: • Operating a voluntary cadet physical fitness program, including supervising stretching exercises prior to any physical fitness activity. • Posting current health awareness information on the athletic bulletin board. • Performing other duties as assigned by the CSV/CC. The cadet color guard commander (drill team) (SV/CG) is responsible for: • Commanding the color guard and drill team. • Assisting in the planning and coordination for all parades and ceremonies. • Providing instruction and supervision for all retreat and flag-raising ceremonies. • Performing other duties as assigned by the CSV/CC. The cadet logistics group commander (CLG/CC) is responsible for: • The appearance, discipline, effectiveness, training, and conduct of the cadet logistics group. • Attending wing staff meetings. • Performing other duties as assigned by the CWg/CC. The cadet logistics group deputy commander (CLG/CD) is responsible for: • Standardization evaluation (StanEval) for the cadet logistic group. • Ensuring all cadet logistics group activities are conducted in accordance with current regulations, directives, policies, and procedures. • Performing other duties as assigned by the CLG/CC. The cadet logistics support commander (CLGL/CC) is responsible for: • Coordinating logistical support. • Performing other duties as assigned by the CLG/CC. The cadet supply squadron commander (CLGS/CC) is responsible for: • Maintaining an inventory of on-hand supplies for the wing. • Coordinating, in writing, the requirements of the wing with the JROTC unit supply representative. • Distributing supplies to functional areas in the wing. • Performing other duties as assigned by the CLG/CC. Table 1–3 Continued CH01_LE1 7/9/05 3:02 PM Page 12
  14. 14. LESSON 1 ORGANIZATION OF THE AFJROTC 13 Table 1–4 Sample Unit Manning Document for a Cadet Wing Function Position Title Maximum Grade Authorized Commander (CC) Wing Commander Cadet Col 1 Vice Commander Cadet Lt Col 1 Command Chief Master Sgt Cadet CMSgt 1 Operations Group Operations Group Commander Cadet Lt Col 1 Drill Team Commander Cadet Capt 1 NCOIC Cadet SMSgt 1 Support Group Support Group Commander Cadet Lt Col 1 NCOIC Cadet SMSgt 1 Logistics Group Logistics Group Commander Cadet Lt Col 1 NCOIC Cadet SMSgt 1 Squadron Commander Cadet Maj 1 Superintendent Cadet SMSgt 1 First Sergeant Cadet MSgt 1 Guidon Bearer Cadet TSgt 1 Flight Commander Cadet Capt 1 Flight Sergeant Cadet MSgt 1 Guide Cadet SSgt 1 Element Element Leader Cadet SSgt 1 Assistant Element Leader Cadet SrA 1 CH01_LE1 7/9/05 3:02 PM Page 13
  15. 15. 14 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO AIR FORCE JUNIOR RESERVE OFFICER TRAINING CORPS Table 1–5 Sample Unit Manning Document for a Cadet Group Function Position Title Maximum Grade Authorized Commander (CC) Operations Group Commander Cadet Col 1 Deputy Commander Cadet Lt Col 1 Command Chief Master Sgt Cadet CMSgt 1 First Sergeant Cadet MSgt 1 Squadron Commander Cadet Lt Col 1 Superintendent Cadet SMSgt 1 First Sergeant Cadet MSgt 1 Guidon Bearer Cadet TSgt 1 Flight Flight Commander Cadet Maj 1 Flight Sergeant Cadet MSgt 1 Flight Guide Cadet SSgt 1 Element Element Leader Cadet SSgt 1 Assistant Element Leader Cadet SrA 1 Cadets receive permanent grades based on the number of years they have satisfactorily completed AFJROTC. Cadets receive this permanent grade the second semester of each year, providing they have made satisfactory progress that year. Satisfactory performance and behavior—as determined by the SASI—are the keys to retaining permanent grades in any cadet corps. Once a cadet holds the status of officer for two or more grading periods, he or she will remain an officer for the rest of the program. The SASI may make exceptions. Sometimes cadets are assigned to a position with a higher grade. As a result, the cadet may receive a temporary grade. Once the cadet has completed the duties assigned to that position, the cadet’s grade may revert to his or her permanent grade. However, if the cadet is a graduating senior or third-year cadet in a three-year program, the cadet may retain the higher grade. Temporary permanent grades are an administrative option to rotate responsibility and to avoid gross imbalances in grade structure. CH01_LE1 7/9/05 3:02 PM Page 14
  16. 16. LESSON 1 ORGANIZATION OF THE AFJROTC 15 The permanent grade for the first year of AFJROTC is cadet airman; for the second year, cadet airman first class; for the third year, cadet senior airman; and for the fourth year (if offered), cadet staff sergeant. At the SASI’s discretion, graduating seniors may retain the highest rank they held, regardless of course level. Similarly, third-year cadets in three-year programs may also retain the highest rank they held during their final year. The rank structure is kept low enough that there is room for later promotions. For example, when a cadet is initially assigned to a command or staff position, the cadet does not receive the highest rank possible within those positions. This allows the cadet to assume greater responsibility and grow within that position and to be promoted based on his or her actual performance. The SASI may authorize top NCO positions to outstanding second-year cadets in three- to four-year programs. Upper class cadets in four-year programs normally outrank lower class cadets. With the exception of temporary grade assignments, cadets only hold a grade that corresponds to their current position. The SASI may award flight commanders with one higher grade as a motivational device to promote highly qualified and deserving cadets. The highest authorized grade is cadet major. A flight commander should never outrank a squadron commander (time-in-grade or promotion line numbers should be used as a management tool when equal grades are involved). Ordinarily, a cadet serving in a staff position will be a senior NCO or officer. Promotions from cadet second lieutenant to higher grades should recognize and reward ability and effort. FIGURE 1–1. ASI providing direction to cadet after class. CH01_LE1 10/4/05 12:53 PM Page 15
  17. 17. 16 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO AIR FORCE JUNIOR RESERVE OFFICER TRAINING CORPS CHECKPOINTS Lesson 1 Review Using complete sentences, answer the following questions on a sheet of paper. 1. What does SASI stand for? 2. Who is responsible for the overall function and management of the Air Force Junior ROTC unit? 3. What is a flight? 4. What is a squadron? 5. What is a group? 6. Who was Lieutenant Edgar R. Steevers? 7. What did the National Defense Act of 1916 authorize? 8. What is Public Law 88-647? 9. What change did Public Law 93-165 formally bring to Junior ROTC? 10. What is the purpose of Air Force Junior ROTC? 11. What is the mission of Air Force Junior ROTC? 12. What are the objectives of the Junior ROTC program? Applying Leadership Skills 13. Develop a poster that describes the purpose and mission of Air Force Junior ROTC. With your SASI’s approval, post your poster in the classroom or elsewhere in the school to increase your fellow students’ understanding of AFJROTC. FIGURE 1–2. A cadet being interviewed for award of Cadet of the Month. CH01_LE1 7/9/05 3:02 PM Page 16
  18. 18. LESSON 2 THE MILITARY UNIFORM AND APPEARANCE STANDARDS 17 22 LessonLesson The Military Uniform and Appearance Standards Uniform Wear and History What is the first image that flashes into your mind when you think of someone in the military? Like most people, you probably pictured a person in uniform. The military uniform is more than just clothes. It is the public symbol of the nation’s defense forces. It represents a long and honorable tradition of devotion to duty in the service of one’s country. Therefore, the uniform should be worn proudly and—equally important—it should be worn properly. The manner in which you wear the uniform reflects upon the U.S. Air Force. Since you will often be in the public eye, you and your fellow cadets must maintain a high standard of dress and personal appearance while wearing the Air Force uniform. The key elements are neatness, cleanliness, safety, and military image. History of the Uniform The English word uniform comes from a combination of two Latin words, unus and forma, which means “one form.” The word uniform means a distinctive mode of dress. In ancient times, the Roman togas provided a unique dress. The toga, a loose outer garment worn by citizens appearing in public, came in several styles. The toga candida was a white garment worn only by candidates for public office. The toga palmata was a fancy toga worn to ceremonial affairs. The toga praetexta, a white toga with a purple border, was worn only by emperors. The toga sordida was worn by the lower classes, mourners, and people accused of crimes. Military dress in ancient times acquired a certain degree of sameness, but in a much different sense from modern military uniforms. The Athenian and Spartan soldiers dressed according to LEARN ABOUT... • history of the military uniform. • do’s and don’ts for wearing the Air Force uniform. • appearance and grooming standards. • grade insignia for Air Force and AF Junior ROTC. VOCABULARY • uniform • bulk • insignia List the first three things you think of when you see a person in uniform. Quick WriteQuick Write CH01_LE1 7/9/05 3:02 PM Page 17
  19. 19. 18 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO AIR FORCE JUNIOR RESERVE OFFICER TRAINING CORPS their position in military formations during the Peloponnesian War in the fifth century B.C. The Greek heavy infantryman wore a helmet, breastplate, and armor covering his legs below the knee. He also carried a shield and sword. The light-foot soldier wore no armor and carried a lighter shield and a spear. These were military uniforms in the sense that all soldiers looked alike. To this extent, therefore, we assign the origin of the military uniform to an early date in Western civilization. During the Great Rebellion (1642–1646) in England, the English Parliament decided to raise and support an army. Thus, national armies, with standardized uniforms, came into being. The English uniform was red, with different colored facings for different regiments. These regiments were named by their facing’s colors: blue, red, orange, etc. The uniform styles were really just a version of civilian dress. The uniform had an ample coat, waistcoat, breeches, stockings, and shoes or, in the case of cavalry, boots. During the late 1600s, the armies of serfs and freemen had no distinctive dress and no standardized weapons of warfare. Colors and standards were used to identify units. Wealthy leaders dressed the troops who served under them in distinctive and colorful uniforms. From this start, the military uniform evolved. During this slow process, the uniform ranged from very ornamented to very drab. Some claim that the more colorful the uniform, the more uncomfortable the soldier. High, tight collars, tight breeches, and boots that restricted knee action looked fancy, but they weren’t good in action. Uniform Wear and Restrictions Air Force Junior ROTC cadets generally wear the same uniform—the standard Air Force service uniform—as that worn by active duty personnel in the Air Force. Cadets are expected to honor the uniform—to wear it properly and with pride. The uniform is an important aspect of Air Force Junior ROTC. Whenever you wear the uniform— during indoor and outdoor training periods, at cadet social functions, and during base visits—you represent the corps. How you wear the uniform exposes you and the Air Force to praise or fault from fellow cadets, fellow students, and society at large. Certain restrictions apply to wearing the military uniform. For example, cadets may not wear the uniform while hitchhiking, in student demonstrations, for crowd control, political events, or for any other inappropriate activity. (However, AFJROTC cadets may wear the uniform while acting as ushers, parking lot attendants, runners, etc., at the discretion of the Senior Aerospace Science Instructor [SASI].) Parts of the Hatch Act bar military personnel from engaging in any form of public political activity—such as attending rallies and political speeches or passing out political flyers—while in uniform. In addition, military personnel are prohibited from publicly supporting a particular candidate, party, or political issue when it is clear to others that they are members of the U.S. military. The intent of the law is to avoid the perception that any military official supports one political cause, candidate, or party over another. CH01_LE1 7/9/05 3:02 PM Page 18
  20. 20. LESSON 2 THE MILITARY UNIFORM AND APPEARANCE STANDARDS 19 The role of the military requires absolute obedience to direction from elected civilian leaders, so public perception regarding the allegiance of military members is critical. However, members of the military are actively encouraged to vote. They are also allowed to place political bumper stickers on their own vehicles and/or signs on their private property. They can participate in political events as long as they are not in uniform and do not identify themselves as military members. Since AFJROTC cadets wear a form of the U.S. Air Force uniform, they should also follow the Hatch Act terms while in uniform. Air Force Instruction (AFI) 36- 2903, Dress and Personal Appearance of Air Force Personnel, also forbids those in military uniform to participate in public speeches, rallies, interviews, picket lines, marches, or any other public demonstration where it might be implied that the Air Force supports a particular cause. Engaging in an activity that might imply Air Force endorsement of a commercial interest or engaging in private employment while in uniform is also banned. In addition, no item of the U.S. Air Force uniform may be worn by members of groups that sponsor the AFJROTC. Cadet auxiliary societies, for example, may not create a special uniform that includes any item of the U.S. Air Force uniform. This includes school faculty and sponsors other than the SASI or the Aerospace Science Instructor (ASI). AFJROTC Uniform Standards Most Air Force Junior ROTC units have published information on the cadet uniform and how to wear it. They base these directives, handbooks, or regulations on AFI 36-2903, Dress and Personal Appearance of Air Force Personnel; Air Force Junior ROTC Instruction (AFJROTCI) 36-2001, Air Force Junior ROTC Operations; and the AFJROTC Uniform and Awards Guide. These three publications provide complete details on fitting standards and wearing instructions for the uniform and personal grooming requirements for AFJROTC cadets. The AFJROTC Uniforms and Awards Guide and AFJROTCI 36-2001 include diagrams of uniforms for both female and male cadets. You can find all three of these publications online at the AFJROTC Cyber-Campus Web site. You can download or copy them for unit use. FIGURE 1–3. A male cadet in the standard service dress uniform. CH01_LE1 7/9/05 3:02 PM Page 19
  21. 21. 20 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO AIR FORCE JUNIOR RESERVE OFFICER TRAINING CORPS It is your responsibility to maintain all uniform items in a clean and orderly condition during the school year and when you turn your uniform in. Just as the person on active duty, you are also obligated to wear the uniform properly and proudly. In doing so, you uphold the dignity of the Air Force, your unit, your fellow cadets, and yourself. With practice and attention to detail, all the dos and don’ts about the proper wear and care of the uniform and personal appearance will become almost automatic. You should be proud of the uniform and the way it looks. A smart appearance is important, not only in drill practice, but also in performing various other duties and attending military functions. Standard Cadet Uniform The male service dress uniform consists of the dark blue service coat and trousers, light blue long sleeve shirt, and dark blue tie. The female service dress uniform consists of the dark blue service coat with slacks or skirt, light blue blouse, and tie tab. In both cases, the coat will be form fitted, meaning that it must not be tight in the shoulders, chest, and underarms. The sleeve length should extend to one-quarter inch from the heel of the thumb when the arms are hanging naturally at the sides. The bottom of the coat should extend 3 to 3.5 inches below the top of the thigh. The trousers for males must be trim-fitted with no bunching at the waist or bagging at the seat. Slacks for female cadets should fit naturally over the hips, with no bunching or bagging at the seat. The trousers or slacks should rest on the top of the shoe with a slight break in the crease. The backs of the trousers or slacks should be seven-eighths inch longer than the front. The proper length of the trousers or slacks can be determined while standing at attention. Uniform Do’s and Don’ts Here are a few general do’s and don’ts about wearing the AFJROTC uniform. Do’s • Wear the standard Air Force service uniform, as prescribed in AFI 36-2903, properly and with pride. • Wear the uniform on the day established by the SASI (usually at least one day each week). • Wear the uniform at other times specified by the SASI. • Wear the uniform when you fly on military aircraft. FIGURE 1–4. A female cadet in the standard service dress uniform. CH01_LE1 7/9/05 3:02 PM Page 20
  22. 22. LESSON 2 THE MILITARY UNIFORM AND APPEARANCE STANDARDS 21 • Wear the uniform when you participate in a color guard or on a drill team. • Keep your shoes polished and shined, including the heels and edges of soles. • Make sure your shoes are appropriate for the activity. For example, wear athletic shoes if you’re playing sports or boots if walking through heavy foliage. Safety is the major concern. • Ensure that badges, insignia, belt buckles, and other metallic devices are clean and free of scratches and corrosion. • Keep ribbons clean and replace them when they become worn, frayed, or faded. • If your unit is at a military high school, wear the distinctive uniform required by the institution for special occasions or ceremonies. Don’ts • Do not wear the Air Force commissioned officer sleeve braid or the officer silver thread on flight caps. • Do not wear the uniform with other clothing. • Do not lend your uniform to anyone who is not a member of the Air Force Junior ROTC program. • Do not allow articles such as wallets, pencils, pens, watch chains, checkbooks, handkerchiefs, and combs to be visible. (You may allow parts of pens and pencils to be exposed when you carry them in the left shirt pocket of the battle dress uniform [BDU].) • Do not wear earphones or headphones while in uniform, unless required for duty. • Do not carry pagers or cell phones, unless required for duty. (When required for duty, they must be clipped to the waistband or purse or be carried in the left hand when not in use.) Special Team Uniforms With the approval of AFOATS/JROS, color guards, honor guards, sabre teams, and drill teams may wear additional uniform items or wear a distinctive, yet conservative, uniform of military style. Greater latitude will be permitted in the design of open competition drill team uniforms where the intent is to allow maximum flexibility and freedom of movement in executing complex drill routines. Units using this style of uniform would normally be expected to have their regulation uniform or a second, more conservative military style uniform for the inspection and regulation drill requirements found in most drill meets. Ascots are authorized for wear at the discretion of the SASI. Except for shoulder cords, these items or uniforms are worn only when performing duty as a member of a specialized group. Only items listed in Allowance Standard 016, in accordance with AFOATSI 23-101, are provided by AFJROTC. This instruction is also posted on Cyber-Campus. Note: If your uniform does not fit properly, see the SASI or Aerospace Science Instructor (ASI). Do not wait until someone else calls attention to it. Check appearance in a mirror. Remember that how you look influences others. CH01_LE1 7/9/05 3:02 PM Page 21
  23. 23. 22 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO AIR FORCE JUNIOR RESERVE OFFICER TRAINING CORPS Cadet Appearance and Grooming Guidelines When you wear the uniform, you are responsible for presenting a neat, clean, and professional military image. Appearance and grooming standards help cadets present the image of disciplined cadets who can be relied upon to do the job they are called on to do. A professional military image has no room for the extreme, the unusual, or the faddish. The standards for wearing the uniform consist of four elements: neatness, cleanliness, safety, and military image. The first three are absolute, objective criteria for the efficiency, health, and well-being of the force. The fourth standard, military image, is also a very important aspect of military appearance. People, both military and civilian, draw conclusions as to the military effectiveness of the Air Force by how they perceive those in uniform. The uniform standards in AFI 36-2903 are influenced to some extent by military tradition, and they reflect the image the Air Force desires to project to the civilian community. The basic concept of the Air Force uniform is that it is plain but distinctive dress, with an absolute minimum number of badges, insignia, and devices authorized for wear on it. Special Uniform and Appearance Rules Here are some additional guidelines about uniform and appearance. Complete details on uniform and personal grooming requirements for AFJROTC cadets can be found in the AFJROTC Uniform and Awards Guide, in AFJROTCI 36-2001, and in AFI 36-2903. Jewelry While in uniform, you may wear a wristwatch and rings, but no more than three rings at any one time. You may wear one bracelet if it is neat and conservative. However, the bracelet must not detract from military image, must not be wider than one inch, and must not subject anyone to potential injury. You may not wear ornaments on your head or around your neck. Female cadets in uniform may wear earrings if the earrings are conservative and kept within sensible limits. For example, you may wear one small spherical (diamond, gold, white pearl, or silver) pierced or clip earring on each earlobe. The earring worn in each earlobe must match. Earrings should fit tightly without extending below the earlobes, unless they are clip earrings. Male cadets in uniform may not wear earrings. Eyeglasses or Sunglasses If you wear glasses, they must not have any ornaments on the frames or lenses. Eyeglass lenses that are conservative, clear, slightly tinted, or have photosensitive lenses may be worn in uniform while indoors or while in military formation. When outdoors and in uniform, sunglasses and eyeglasses must have lenses and frames that are conservative; faddish or mirrored lenses are prohibited. Sunglasses are not allowed while in a military formation. Neither eyeglasses nor sunglasses can be worn around the neck while in uniform. CH01_LE1 7/9/05 3:02 PM Page 22
  24. 24. LESSON 2 THE MILITARY UNIFORM AND APPEARANCE STANDARDS 23 Tattoos or Brands Whether you are in or out of uniform, tattoos or brands anywhere on the body are not allowed if they are obscene or if they advocate sexual, racial, ethnic, or religious discrimination. Tattoos or brands that might harm good order and discipline or bring discredit upon the Air Force are also barred, whether you are in or out of uniform. Excessive tattoos or brands, even though they do not violate the prohibitions in the above paragraph, will not be exposed or visible (including visible through the uniform) while in uniform. Excessive is defined as any tattoo or brands that exceed one-quarter of the exposed body part, and those above the collarbone and readily visible when wearing an open collar uniform. Body Piercing and Other Attachments to Body Parts Cadets in uniform are not allowed to attach or display objects, articles, jewelry, or ornamentation to or through the ear, nose, tongue, or any exposed body part (including anything that might be visible through the uniform). Female cadets in uniform, however, are allowed to wear conservative earrings, pierced or clip style, in their earlobes. Specific Female Cadet Guidelines Here are some specific guidelines for female cadets. Hair Your hair should be no longer than the bottom of the collar edge at the back of the neck. Your hairstyle must be conservative—no extreme or faddish styles are allowed. It should also look professional and allow you to wear uniform headgear in the proper manner, so your hair must not be too full or too high on the head. In addition, your hairstyle shouldn’t need many grooming aids. If you use pins, combs, barrettes, or similar items, they must be plain, similar in color to your hair, and modest in size. Wigs or hairpieces must also conform to these guidelines. Skirts The length of your skirt may not vary beyond the top and bottom of the kneecap. Your skirt should fit smoothly, should hang naturally, and must not be excessively tight. You must wear hosiery with the skirt. Choose a sheer nylon in a neutral dark brown, black, off-black, or dark blue shade that complements the uniform and your skin tone. FIGURE 1–5. An example of a proper hair style for a female cadet in uniform. CH01_LE1 7/9/05 3:02 PM Page 23
  25. 25. 24 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO AIR FORCE JUNIOR RESERVE OFFICER TRAINING CORPS Specific Male Cadet Guidelines Here are some specific guidelines for male cadets. Hair Keep your hair clean, neat, and trimmed. It must not contain large amounts of grooming aids such as greasy creams, oils, and sprays that remain visible in the hair. When your hair is groomed, it should not touch your ears or eyebrows, and only the closely cut or shaved hair on the back of your neck should touch the collar. Your hair should not exceed 11 ⁄4 inch in bulk regardless of the length. Bulk is the distance that the hair projects from the scalp when groomed (as opposed to length of the hair). The bulk and length of your hair must not interfere with wearing any Air Force headgear properly, and it must not protrude below the front band of the headgear. Your hair must have a tapered appearance on both sides and back, both with and without headgear. A tapered appearance means that, when viewed from any angle, the outline of the hair on the side and back will generally match the shape of the skull, curving inward to the end point. Your hair may not contain or have attached to it any visible foreign items. If you dye your hair, it should look natural. You may not dye your hair an unusual color or one that contrasts with your natural coloring. You may have sideburns if they are neatly trimmed and tapered in the same manner as your haircut. Sideburns must be straight and of even width (not flared) and end in a clean-shaven horizontal line. They may not extend below the lowest part of the outer ear opening. No extreme or faddish hair styles are allowed. Insignia of Grade Members of the Air Force perform duties that reflect their skill and grade. This also applies to Air Force Junior ROTC. The higher the rank or grade, the more responsibility cadets are given. In turn, cadets are expected to perform their duties in accordance with this increased responsibility. Active Duty Insignia of Grade An insignia is a badge or mark of office or honor. Grade insignia identify the rank of each member of the Armed Forces. The Air Force grade insignia system is broken down into two categories: officer grades and enlisted grades. First we will review active duty grade insignia and follow with the Air Force JROTC grade insignia. (See Figure 1–7 for active duty officer and enlisted grade insignia.) FIGURE 1–6. A close-up of accoutrements placed on a male cadet uniform. CH01_LE1 7/9/05 3:02 PM Page 24
  26. 26. LESSON 2 THE MILITARY UNIFORM AND APPEARANCE STANDARDS 25 Officers Table 1–6 describes the grade insignia and provides the abbreviation and pay grade for each commissioned officer title. The “O” in the table indicates officer status. The subdued insignia worn on the BDU is made of cloth. Gold appears as brown and silver appears as dark blue. Proper methods of address when speaking to officers are • “Lieutenant” for a Second Lieutenant and a First Lieutenant. • “Colonel” for either a Lieutenant Colonel or a Colonel. • “General” for all generals. Use full titles for official correspondence. Air Force Grades and Insignia Enlisted Officer Airman Basic, E-1, no insignia Airman, E-2 Second Lieutenant O-1 First Lieutenant O-2 Captain O-3 Major O-4 Lieutenant Colonel O-5 Colonel O-6 Brigadier General O-7 Major General O-8 Lieutenant General O-9 General O-10 Airman First Class, E-3 Senior Airman, E-4 Staff Sergeant, E-5 Technical Seargeant, E-6 Master Seargeant, E-7* Senior Master Sergeant, E-8* Chief Master Sergeant, E-9* *Diamond denotes first sergeant status Chief Master Sergeant of the Air Force FIGURE 1–7. Active Duty Grades and Insignia. Sergeant, E-7* Sergeant, E-6 CH01_LE1 10/4/05 2:43 PM Page 25
  27. 27. 26 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO AIR FORCE JUNIOR RESERVE OFFICER TRAINING CORPS Noncommissioned Officers Enlisted grades are subdivided into two categories: Noncommissioned Officer (NCO) and airman grades. NCOs are airmen serving in the grades of staff sergeant through chief master sergeant. NCOs play such an important role in troop leadership that there are five distinct grade insignia to identify them. The “E” in the table indicates enlisted status. (See Table 1–7.) The NCO chevron has changed a great deal since the Continental Army, when a brightly colored ribbon tied around the arm identified NCOs. Through the years, the American NCO’s chevron has varied in design and has been worn in different locations. It has been worn not only above the elbow, as it is today, but also below the elbow. The inverted and curved chevron of today’s Air Force is distinct from that of the NCOs and petty officers of other branches of the U.S. Armed Forces. The background of the chevrons for NCOs is blue, and the stripes are silver with a silver star in the center. The subdued insignia worn on the BDU uniform consists of dark blue stripes on a green background with a dark blue star. (The pay grade is always one number higher than the number of stripes worn.) First sergeants wear a diamond device above the star on their chevrons. The diamond device stands for a job position only. First sergeants may hold the rank of Master Sergeant, Senior Master Sergeant, or Chief Master Sergeant. These top senior NCOs hold a position of trust and responsibility as the link between the commander and unit personnel. As this vital link, the first sergeant must make sure all enlisted personnel know their commander’s policies. He or she also represents the interests of enlisted personnel to the commander. The first sergeant promotes the welfare, morale, and health of enlisted personnel by working with base agencies on special issues. The first sergeant helps the commander maintain discipline and standards of conduct. He or she also provides professional guidance on matters of leadership, military justice, and customs and courtesies. Table 1–6 Officer Grade Insignia Title Pay Grade Grade Insignia Second Lieutenant (2d Lt) 0–1 a gold bar First Lieutenant (1st Lt) 0–2 a silver bar Captain (Capt) 0–3 two connected silver bars Major (Maj) 0–4 a gold leaf Lieutenant Colonel (Lt Col) 0–5 a silver leaf Colonel (Col) 0–6 a silver eagle Brigadier General (Brig Gen) 0–7 a silver star Major General (Maj Gen) 0–8 two silver stars in a line Lieutenant General (Lt Gen) 0–9 three silver stars in a line General (Gen) 0–10 four silver stars in a line CH01_LE1 7/9/05 3:02 PM Page 26
  28. 28. LESSON 2 THE MILITARY UNIFORM AND APPEARANCE STANDARDS 27 A Chief Master Sergeant is addressed as “Chief.” All other sergeants are addressed as “Sergeant.” Full titles are used in official correspondence. The highest position held by any enlisted personnel is Chief Master Sergeant of the Air Force (CMSAF). The CMSAF acts as personal advisor to the Air Force Chief of Staff and Secretary of the Air Force, providing information about the welfare, effective use, and progress of the enlisted force. The grade insignia is a chevron of eight stripes with a wreath around the bottom and sides of the star and the Great Seal of the United States of America with two stars in the upper blue field (see Figure 1–7). The CMSAF position was created to add prestige to the NCO Corps. Air Force Chief of Staff General John P. McConnell announced the creation of this position on October 24, 1966. The first CMSAF was Chief Paul W. Airey. He was awarded the unique insignia with the wreath around the star in April 1967. Over the next decade, support for the office grew among both the senior Air Force leadership and the enlisted force. The creation of this office, as well as the appointment of command chief master sergeants and the granting of more responsibility to all senior NCOs, represented the Air Force’s concrete recognition of the professionalism of its enlisted force, especially its NCOs. Airmen There are four airman grades: 1. Airman Basic (AB) 2. Airman (Amn) 3. Airman First Class (A1C) 4. Senior Airman (SrA) An Airman Basic (AB) doesn’t wear any grade insignia (see Figure 1–7). An Airman’s grade insignia is a chevron of one silver stripe with a silver star in the middle. An AIC insignia is a chevron of two silver stripes with a silver star in the Table 1–7 Noncommissioned Officer Grade Insignia Title Pay Grade Grade Insignia Staff Sergeant (SSgt) E-5 Chevron of 4 stripes Technical Sergeant (TSgt) E-6 Chevron of 5 stripes Master Sergeant (MSgt) E-7 Chevron of 6 stripes with one stripe in inverted position above the star Senior Master Sergeant (SMSgt) E-8 Chevron of 7 stripes with two stripes in inverted position above the star Chief Master Sergeant (CMSgt) E-9 Chevron of 8 stripes with three stripes in inverted position above the star FIGURE 1–8. Chief Master Sergeant in standard blue uniform. CH01_LE1 10/4/05 1:00 PM Page 27
  29. 29. 28 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO AIR FORCE JUNIOR RESERVE OFFICER TRAINING CORPS middle. The Senior Airman grade insignia is a chevron of three silver stripes with a silver star in the middle. Pay grades for airmen are: AB (E-1), Amn (E-2), AIC (E-3), and SrA (E-4). (See Table 1–8 for Airmen Grade Insignia.) Air Force Junior ROTC Insignia of Grade Figure 1-9 shows Air Force Junior ROTC cadet grade insignia. Officers Table 1–9 describes the grade insignia for each cadet officer title. Grade insignia for active duty officers are very different from grade insignia for cadet officers. Enlisted A comparison of active duty insignia (Figure 1–7) and Junior ROTC cadet grade insignia (Figure 1–9) shows only slight differences between enlisted grades. The star inside the chevron for active duty personnel is replaced with a torch for cadets, and FIGURE 1–9. AFJROTC Cadet Grade Insignia Cadet 2d Lt Cadet 1st Lt Cadet Capt Cadet Major Cadet Lt Col Cadet Col Cadet Amn Cadet A1C Cadet SrA Cadet SSgt Cadet TSgt Cadet MSgt Cadet SMSgt Cadet CMSgt CH01_LE1 7/9/05 3:03 PM Page 28
  30. 30. LESSON 2 THE MILITARY UNIFORM AND APPEARANCE STANDARDS 29 the chevron is pointed at the bottom. Cadets, like active duty personnel, may wear other insignia. Figure 1–10 shows other insignia (badges) for Air Force Junior ROTC cadets and Figure 1–12 shows other insignia (badges) for active duty personnel, and Figure 1–13 displays the ribbons authorized for wear on the Air Force Junior ROTC uniform, as ribbons are awarded. Figure 1–13 shows the Air Force Junior ROTC ribbons. Table 1–8 Airmen Grade Insignia Title Pay Grade Grade Insignia Airman Basic (AB) E-1 none Airman (Amn) E-2 Chevron of 1 stripe Airman First Class (A1C) E-3 Chevron of 2 stripes Senior Airman (SrA) E-4 Chevron of 3 stripes Table 1–9 Cadet Officer Grade Insignia Title Grade Insignia Cadet Second Lieutenant (2d Lt) Chevron of 1 inverted stripe Cadet First Lieutenant (1st Lt) Chevron of 2 inverted stripes Cadet Captain (Capt) Chevron of 3 inverted stripes Cadet Major (Maj) Chevron of 1 double-wide inverted stripe Cadet Lieutenant Colonel (Lt Col) Chevron of 2 inverted stripes; 1 double-wide, 1 regular Cadet Colonel (Col) Chevron of 3 inverted stripes; 1 double-wide, 2 regular Table 1–10 Cadet Enlisted Grade Insignia Title Grade Insignia Cadet Airman (Amn) Pointed Chevron of 1 stripe, with torch in the middle Cadet Airman First Class (A1C) Pointed Chevron of 2 stripes, with torch in the middle Cadet Senior Airman (SrA) Pointed Chevron of 3 stripes, with torch in the middle Cadet Staff Sergeant (SSgt) Pointed Chevron of 4 stripes, with torch in the middle Cadet Technical Sergeant (TSgt) Pointed Chevron of 5 stripes, with torch in the middle Cadet Master Sergeant (MSgt) Pointed Chevron of 6 stripes, with one stripe inverted above the torch in the middle Cadet Senior Master Sergeant (SMSgt) Pointed Chevron of 7 stripes, with two stripes inverted above the torch in the middle Cadet Chief Master Sergeant (CMSgt) Pointed Chevron of 8 stripes, with three stripes inverted above the torch in the middle CH01_LE1 7/9/05 3:03 PM Page 29
  31. 31. 30 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO AIR FORCE JUNIOR RESERVE OFFICER TRAINING CORPS FIGURE 1–10. Air Force Junior ROTC Badges. FIGURE 1–11. A close-up of accoutrements placed on a female cadet uniform. CH01_LE1 7/9/05 3:03 PM Page 30
  32. 32. LESSON 2 THE MILITARY UNIFORM AND APPEARANCE STANDARDS 31 FIGURE 1–12. Air Force Active Duty Badges. CH01_LE1 7/9/05 3:03 PM Page 31
  33. 33. 32 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO AIR FORCE JUNIOR RESERVE OFFICER TRAINING CORPS FIGURE 1–13. Air Force Junior ROTC Ribbons. Lesson 2 Review CH01_LE1 10/4/05 1:03 PM Page 32
  34. 34. LESSON 2 THE MILITARY UNIFORM AND APPEARANCE STANDARDS 33 CHECKPOINTS Using complete sentences, answer the following questions on a sheet of paper. 1. What is bulk? 2. What is grade insignia? 3. What are the two categories of the Air Force insignia system? 4. What do the grade insignia look like for the following Air Force ranks? • Major • Brigadier General • Major General • Captain • General • Staff Sergeant • Master Sergeant • Chief Master Sergeant • Airman Basic • Senior Airman 5. What device is worn by first sergeants on their chevrons to distinguish them? 6. What are some of the duties of a first sergeant? 7. What is the highest position held by any enlisted personnel? 8. Why was the position of CMSAF created? 9. What do the grade insignia look like for the following Air Force Junior ROTC ranks? • Second Lieutenant • Captain • Major • Colonel • Senior Airman Applying Leadership Skills 10. Look at the appearance and grooming standards for cadets. How well do you meet these standards? Are there any improvements you would like to make? Write your goals for meeting the standards. CH01_LE1 10/4/05 1:03 PM Page 33
  35. 35. 34 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO AIR FORCE JUNIOR RESERVE OFFICER TRAINING CORPS Customs and Courtesies for Air Force Junior ROTC 33 LessonLesson What Are Customs and Courtesies? Webster’s II New Riverside University Dictionary defines custom as a common tradition or usage so long established that it has the force or validity of law; a practice followed as a matter of course among a people; or the habit or practice of an individual. Although we often use the term, we rarely think about how customs affect our lives. Consider clothing. By custom, certain types of clothing are okay for some occasions but not for others. While shorts or jeans might be just right for a backyard cookout, they would be considered highly unsuitable for a formal dinner. Although there’s no logical connection between what someone wears and what or where that person eats, custom dictates that some functions require dressier attire than others. People who mock an established custom—by wearing shorts to a formal dinner, for example—show an indifference to or lack of consideration for the standards and feelings of other members of society. Every group involved in a common undertaking observes customs. Customs vary from family to family, from region to region, and from country to country. For example, families celebrate major holidays differently; lacrosse is a common school sport in some regions of this country and not in others; and many people in other countries bow, rather than shake hands, when they meet a friend. Even professions have customs. Doctors and lawyers, for example, respect the confidence of their patients or clients. If doctors gossip about their patients, they will lose them. If a lawyer violates the confidence of a client, the lawyer’s reputation Jot down three everyday customs you think are important. Why are they important? Quick WriteQuick Write LEARN ABOUT... • the difference between a custom and a courtesy. • the position of honor. • how, when, and whom to salute. • how to recognize an officer. • how to report to an officer. • the importance of military titles. • how to plan a Military Ball. CH01_LE1 7/9/05 3:03 PM Page 34
  36. 36. LESSON 3 CUSTOMS AND COURTESIES FOR AIR FORCE JUNIOR ROTC 35 and practice will suffer. In addition, professionals who betray their patients’ or clients’ confidentiality may be sued or subject to professional sanctions. Custom, then, is an unwritten law. People obey customs because they help us get along with others. People cannot create their own customs and expect others to follow them. As a member of the Air Force Junior ROTC, you will inherit many customs. Some customs began with the Army; others developed in the Air Force. All of these customs serve as a key to Air Force living. Paying attention to these customs will help you adjust to your Air Force Junior ROTC unit. Military customs and courtesies go beyond basic politeness. They help build morale, discipline, and esprit de corps, which is a common spirit of enthusiasm and devotion to a cause among the members of a group. By teaching respect for the flag, military customs remind us of our allegiance, which is loyalty or the obligation of loyalty, as to a person, nation, sovereign, or cause. They also remind us of the sacrifice required of all military personnel. Military customs and courtesies also contribute to a mission’s effectiveness. Customs and courtesies ensure proper respect for the chain of command, and they build the base for the self-discipline we need in times of crisis. Traditional ceremonies allow us to properly honor those who have served well and faithfully, and the customs and courtesies surrounding mass formation help develop units that act together in their efforts to reach a common goal. Historic Customs and Courtesies Many customs and courtesies have a long history as part of people’s behavior. Position of Honor We learn, as part of military courtesy, to walk or sit to the left of seniors. This custom began centuries ago when men still fought with swords. Because most men were right handed, the heaviest fighting occurred on the right. The shield was carried on the left arm, and the left side became defensive. Men and units were proud of their fighting ability; they considered the right of a battle line to be a post of honor. When an officer walks on your right, he or she is symbolically filling the position of honor. Hand Salute The hand salute is another example of a military custom that began long ago. In fact, it is so old that its origin is uncertain. Some say it began in later Roman times (1 A.D. to 500 A.D.), when assassinations were common. Others trace the beginnings of the hand salute to the Middle Ages. Knights wore suits of armor, which included a helmet and a visor. When two knights on horseback met, they would raise their visors to expose their faces. If the knights recognized one another as allies, they would leave VOCABULARY • custom • esprit de corps • allegiance • RHIP • taboo • court martial • dining-in • dining-out • protocol • comradeship CH01_LE1 7/9/05 3:03 PM Page 35
  37. 37. 36 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO AIR FORCE JUNIOR RESERVE OFFICER TRAINING CORPS their visors up and drop their hands. This was always done with the right hand, since the left hand held the horse’s reins. The salute changed when European free men who served as soldiers began carrying their own weapons. When these soldiers met, they would raise their right hands to show that they held no weapons and that the meeting was friendly. This practice gradually became a way of showing respect. In early American history, the custom sometimes involved removing the hat. By 1820, this was modified to touching the hat. Since then, the hand salute has become the one used today. All military personnel—regardless of differences in military grade—greet one another with a hand salute. Though it varies in form across the globe, the hand salute says, “I greet you.” It is also customary to greet another member of the military with words when you meet face-to-face. When you salute an officer, say, “Good morning, sir/ma’am,” “Good afternoon, sir/ma’am,” or “Good evening, sir/ma’am,” depending on the time of day. By returning the salute you say, “I return your greeting.” Salute your fellow cadets and officers with pride in a friendly, cheerful, and willing manner. The salute signals that you recognize and respect your comrades in the honorable profession of arms. When you honor the Colors with a hand salute, you show respect for your country. How you salute tells a lot about your attitude as a cadet. If you salute proudly and smartly, it shows your personal pride and your pride in the unit. It shows that you have confidence in your abilities as a cadet. A sloppy salute, on the other hand, shows a lack of confidence. People may think that you do not understand the meaning of the salute or that you are not proud of the unit. How to Salute To execute the hand salute (Figure 1–14), raise your right hand smartly so the tip of your forefinger touches the lower part of your headgear just to the right of your right eye. When you are not wearing headgear, your forefinger should just touch your right eyebrow. Your arm, shoulder to elbow, should be parallel to the ground at a natural angle (about 115 degrees forward) from your body. Your thumb and fingers should be extended and joined, FIGURE 1–14. A hand salute. CH01_LE1 7/9/05 3:03 PM Page 36
  38. 38. LESSON 3 CUSTOMS AND COURTESIES FOR AIR FORCE JUNIOR ROTC 37 with a straight line between the tip of your middle finger and your elbow. Your posture should be erect and alert; head and eyes should be turned toward the person being saluted. Be careful not to tilt your head toward your hand; bring your hand all the way up. Drop the salute smartly. Move your hand smoothly to your side in one motion without slapping your side. Never have anything in your mouth or your right hand when saluting. Individuals must be in one of the following positions before rendering the salute: standing at attention or marching at attention. The junior member should begin the salute in time for the senior to return it before passing the junior. When rendering a salute to an officer or to the Colors, or when returning a salute, turn your head and eyes toward the officer or the Colors, and salute. While you are saluting an officer, extend a verbal greeting. Verbal greetings should always be rendered when officers or enlisted members meet face to face. Whom to Salute Salute the President of the United States, all commissioned and warrant officers of the United States Armed Forces, and officers of friendly foreign nations. Usually, you should also salute the Secretary of Defense and the Secretary of the Air Force. Officer Recognition Even though you may not be able to distinguish the specific rank, you can recognize an officer by: • service hat visor or band • the hat/beret insignias • flight cap In addition, marked government vehicles and staff cars also indicate that an officer is on board. When to Salute Members of the Armed Forces, which are a nation’s military forces, exchange salutes in many situations when in uniform. The person who is saluted always returns the salute, unless he or she is unable to do so because of physical incapacity or when the right hand cannot be freed, as in carrying packages. A superior whose hands are full with packages, etc., need not return the salute. However, the junior member must salute and the senior member should nod in return or verbally acknowledge the salute. An exchange of verbal greetings is also appropriate if the junior member is carrying articles in both hands. Tradition has it that if you are of junior rank, you salute first. The only exception to this occurs when a unit commander gives an official report to an adjutant who might be junior. Military officers are to be saluted while in civilian clothes, if recognized by the junior military member. Always return salutes by those of lower rank. CH01_LE1 10/4/05 1:04 PM Page 37
  39. 39. 38 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO AIR FORCE JUNIOR RESERVE OFFICER TRAINING CORPS The basic rule is that, upon recognition, the military hand salute is rendered to all officers outdoors with some exceptions. The military hand salute is not rendered indoors, except when performing a formal report to an officer or when receiving a formal award from an officer. Salutes are also exchanged at the conclusion of a conversation. Distance and uniform should not be criteria for saluting. When outdoors, salute your seniors whether they are in uniform or civilian clothing. Salute them regardless of location. There often seems to be some misunderstanding about exactly when to salute. The following information should answer some common questions about when to salute. Outdoors Outdoor salutes are exchanged upon recognition between officers and warrant officers, and between officers or warrant officers and cadets or enlisted members of the Armed Forces. The term outdoors means being outside a building, including areas such as open porches, covered sidewalks, bus stops, covered or open entryways, and reviewing stands. Salutes will be exchanged outdoors any time officers and warrant officers and cadets or enlisted members of the Armed Forces cross paths. The salute will be exchanged with a person on the sidewalk or with a person approaching or in the same structure. This applies both on and off military installations. Even when two out-of-uniform members of the military are outdoors and recognize one another, they usually exchange salutes (if the exchange of salutes is otherwise appropriate). Exceptions Here are some special circumstances when salutes may not be exchanged. Marked Government Vehicles/Staff Cars: Military pedestrians (including gate sentries) and officers in moving military vehicles do not have to exchange salutes. However, when the passengers in a vehicle are easily seen to be officers (for example, officers in appropriately marked vehicles), they must be saluted. Standing in a Group: If you are part of a small group that is not in formation, the first person to see the officer calls the group to attention, and everyone should face the officer and salute. If an officer addresses the group or an individual in the group, everyone should remain at attention until the end of the conversation, unless otherwise ordered. At the end of the conversation, everyone should salute the officer. In Formation: If you are in formation and an officer approaches, the person in charge of the group calls the members to attention and salutes for the group. Work Details: If you are in charge of a work detail, salute for the entire group when you meet an officer. Civilian Clothes: Saluting is not required if a person is wearing civilian clothes, but it is not prohibited. Rank, Recognition, and Respect Common acts of courtesy among all Air Force personnel help maintain discipline and promote the smooth conduct of military affairs. When courtesy is not maintained CH01_LE1 7/9/05 3:03 PM Page 38
  40. 40. LESSON 3 CUSTOMS AND COURTESIES FOR AIR FORCE JUNIOR ROTC 39 within a unit, discipline also decreases and the success of the mission can be put in danger. Although many Air Force courtesies involve the salute, other courtesies are also important. Reporting to an Officer When you have officially asked for and received permission to speak to an officer—or if you have been notified that an officer wishes to speak to you—you are required to report to the officer. The manner in which you report to an officer will create a good or bad impression. Remember that your advancement in Air Force Junior ROTC depends partly on the impression you make on the SASI and ASI. You will make a good impression if you report to an officer properly and demonstrate good military bearing. The reporting procedure is broken down into three separate steps: entrance, reporting, and departure. Entrance Before entering the room or office, knock once firmly and loudly enough to be heard in an average-sized room. If you don’t get an answer in a reasonable amount of time, knock again. When told to enter, march in at the position of attention. Take the most direct route to the officer. Halt approximately two paces from the officer or from the desk if the officer is seated. Always halt in a way that places you squarely facing the officer. Reporting Reporting is the most critical step. Report in a military manner with snap and precision, but do not exaggerate the movements. The first thing to do is to salute properly. Begin your reporting statement at the time your hand reaches the saluting position. Speak in a clear, conversational tone of voice. If you were told to report, say “Sir/Ma’am, Cadet (your last name) reports as ordered.” If you are reporting on your own, say “Sir/Ma’am, Cadet (your last name) reports.” Hold the salute until you have completed the reporting statement and the officer has returned your salute. Stand at attention unless ordered otherwise. When the conversation is finished—or the officer has dismissed you—come to attention and properly salute. Hold the salute until the officer returns it, then drop the salute. FIGURE 1–15. Lower ranking cadet saluting a higher ranking cadet who has both hands occupied carrying a heavy object. CH01_LE1 10/4/05 1:06 PM Page 39
  41. 41. 40 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO AIR FORCE JUNIOR RESERVE OFFICER TRAINING CORPS Departure As soon as you drop the salute, complete the appropriate facing movement (about face, left face, right face, or a face in marching) and march or walk at the position of attention. Take the most direct route. Maintain proper military bearing at all times. Personal Courtesies When you are involved with officers—whether they are Air Force Junior ROTC cadet officers or commissioned officers in any branch of the military—always take care to observe personal courtesies. These courtesies are usually simple acts of politeness anyone would follow. Only a few courtesies are unique to the military or the Air Force. As mentioned earlier, walk, ride, or sit to the left of a senior person. That means to always give the senior person, whether an officer or enlisted personnel, the place of honor. If you are seated when a senior officer speaks to you, stand. If you are in a parked vehicle, always get out before speaking to or replying to a senior who is not in the vehicle. When military personnel enter an automobile, the senior officer enters last. Juniors enter a vehicle first and take the seat that will be to the senior’s left. Since the senior gets in last, he or she will be the first one out. This allows the senior officer to be the first one greeted by any waiting parties. One military rule states: “The senior will never think of the difference in grade; the junior will never forget it.” Whether you are the junior or the senior in any type of relationship, this is an excellent rule to remember. In some official situations, the senior officer may prefer to call the junior by the cadet’s first name. Assignments requiring close and frequent contact between seniors and juniors usually tend to create an air of informality. In such instances, the junior cadet must remember to display proper respect to the senior, so the relationship stays between junior and senior, not between peers. Officers should practice common courtesy and good human relations with enlisted personnel. They must realize that NCOs are valuable members of the Air Force team and must be treated as such. Officers should also provide NCOs with the proper amount of status, authority, and practical support to carry out their responsibilities. The letters RHIP stand for “rank has its privileges.” Why does rank have privilege, in FIGURE 1–16. A cadet gives a senior cadet the place of honor. CH01_LE1 7/9/05 3:03 PM Page 40
  42. 42. LESSON 3 CUSTOMS AND COURTESIES FOR AIR FORCE JUNIOR ROTC 41 addition to higher pay and prestige? Because privilege and responsibility go hand-in- hand. The two are inseparable in the Air Force, just as they are in civilian life. A person who assumes more responsibility should enjoy a few special privileges and courtesies. The President of the United States, as head of our government’s executive branch, for example, enjoys privileges such as living in the White House and having government transportation and personal protection. Depending upon their rank and position, members of the Air Force also enjoy certain privileges. For example, NCOs are exempt from manual labor while supervising work details. And senior ranking officials often receive reserved parking spaces. However, one precaution must be heeded in the area of RHIP. Positions must never be abused. NCOs who use airmen to run personal errands are misusing their positions and their privileges. Always remember that the mission, along with the unit’s morale, must come first. Whenever you are awarding or receiving privileges ask: How will this affect the mission and the unit? Problems may arise if members of the unit feel that a privilege has been undeserved or is unfair. As a result, morale might decrease, and disciplinary problems could affect the mission. The privileges of rank and position are indeed worth working for and attaining. But the best privileges are those you earn, not those you take and have not earned. Use of Military Titles Using correct titles is another important act of military courtesy. It shows respect for the individual’s grade. You might wonder why the Air Force places so much emphasis on titles, but consider for a moment what a title is. It is a formal name given to a person because of office, grade, hereditary privilege, or as a mark of respect. In the Air Force, individuals hold a title that matches a particular grade. As members move from one grade to the next, they also earn the title associated with each grade. You will find that Air Force personnel are proud of their titles because they signify hard work and success. When you address personnel by their titles, you are showing proper courtesy and respect to them as individuals as well as to their grade. In addition, you are demonstrating your professionalism and discipline as a military member. Even though the Air Force encourages the use of official military titles, seniors may address those under them by their first names. However, juniors must not communicate with seniors in such an informal manner. The correct use of military titles depends on whether communication is informal or formal. Use the title Lieutenant for a second or first lieutenant in informal communication. Use the full title in the address element and the salutation of official written correspondence. When you address officers orally, use their correct military titles, such as Captain or Major. You many also use Sir or Ma’am, depending upon the officer’s grade. Address a Chief Master Sergeant as Chief Master Sergeant or Chief. Address NCOs below the grade of Chief Master Sergeant by their full title or Sergeant. Address airmen by their full title or Airman. Address civilians as Mr., Mrs., CH01_LE1 7/9/05 3:03 PM Page 41
  43. 43. 42 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO AIR FORCE JUNIOR RESERVE OFFICER TRAINING CORPS Miss, or Ms. In addition, you may address medical and dental officers, as well as veterinarians, as Doctor. A chaplain in the Air Force is officially designated Chaplain, regardless of grade. A chaplain may also be addressed by more traditional titles such as Father, Reverend, or Rabbi. Address Air Force senior and junior ROTC cadets as Mister/Miss, Cadet, or by cadet rank followed by the last name. Retirees are an integral part of the Air Force. Treat them with the same respect and courtesies you show active duty members. By public law, they have earned and are entitled to enjoy certain benefits, rights, and privileges from the U.S. government. One of these rights is that retired military members are entitled to be addressed, both in written and verbal communication, by their retired rank. “Once an Air Force member, always an Air Force member.” Additional Courtesies Calling a Room to Attention When an officer enters a room, stand at attention. If more than one person is present, the first person to see the officer calls the group to attention. However, if an officer of equal or higher rank is already in the room, do not call the room to attention. Call the room to attention again as the officer departs. If you are by yourself, do not call the room to attention; however, you must stand at attention. Showing Respect Show respect to the person in authority at all times by recognizing the person’s presence and by being courteous and respectful in bearing, behavior, and speech. An example of this is standing up and extending a verbal greeting when someone of senior rank enters the room or approaches, whether it’s in an office area, classroom, or elsewhere. Courtesy is contagious. Don’t Keep People Waiting One of the most valuable habits you can develop is to always be on time. Nothing is more irritating than being asked to be somewhere at a specific time and then having to wait after you arrive. At times, you may not be able to avoid being late. If this happens, call ahead to inform those who are waiting for you that you are going to be late or to reschedule the appointment. Taboos Avoiding taboos goes hand in hand with observing customs and courtesies. A taboo is a prohibition excluding something from use, approach, or mention. Taboos may be the result of long tradition or the requirements of good taste. We may feel inclined to scoff at taboos when they strike us as absurd. But taboos, like customs and courtesies, are part of our traditions. The Senior’s Desk It is disrespectful to lean or flop against the SASI’s or ASI’s desk. Always maintain the proper military bearing when in the presence of a senior. CH01_LE1 7/9/05 3:03 PM Page 42
  44. 44. LESSON 3 CUSTOMS AND COURTESIES FOR AIR FORCE JUNIOR ROTC 43 Showing Disrespect to the Uniform Bad conduct in uniform is a longstanding taboo. Aside from the disrespect a person reaps as a result of bad conduct, it is a disgrace to the uniform and the branch of service represented. The good impression created by a large number of cadets who have dressed and behaved properly in public can be destroyed by just one person who presents a poor appearance or acts poorly. You can be court-martialed for disgracing the uniform through bad conduct or by violating the regulations that govern wearing of the uniform again and again. A court martial is a military or naval court of officers and, occasionally, enlisted personnel appointed by a commander to try offenders under military law. Part of the Air Force mission is to keep people of the United States interested in airpower. As a result, anything that detracts from a favorable impression also detracts from the success of the Air Force mission. Courting Favor If you court favor with a superior, you will earn the dislike of your peers. Such practice is beneath the conduct expected of officers and enlisted personnel. “Bootlicking” marks individuals as incapable of making their own way on personal ability. It is regarded as a display of weakness. The Old Man or Old Lady The commander is often referred to as the Old Man or Old Lady. The term is one of admiration; it refers to position, not age. However, never use the term in the commander’s presence. Using the term in the commander’s presence would show disrespect. Gossip Gossip, because it often causes quarrels and disputes, is considered taboo. A unit’s morale may be damaged by feuds that arise from gossip. Vulgar Conduct and Language Vulgar conduct and language are definitely taboo. Neither cadets nor officers should lose their temper to the point of using profanity, particularly in addressing a junior. Officers and cadets who use abusive and profane language to make a point show lack of self-control, as well as a very limited vocabulary. Cadets and officers risk receiving an official reprimand if their conduct is poor. Worse, they undermine their effectiveness as leaders. Dining-In and Dining-Out You should be familiar with the terms dining-in and dining-out, which refer to formal military dinners. Dining-in is a formal dinner for members of the military only. Dining-out is a formal dinner to which non-military guests are invited. The protocol for these affairs often reflect long-standing traditions within a unit of the armed forces. Protocol is a code of precedence in rank and status and of correct procedure in ceremonies; a form of etiquette observed in ceremonies; a combination of good CH01_LE1 7/9/05 3:03 PM Page 43
  45. 45. 44 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO AIR FORCE JUNIOR RESERVE OFFICER TRAINING CORPS manners and common sense that facilitates effective communication. The intent is to promote cordiality, comradeship, which is companionship, and esprit de corps. Some believe that dining-in extends back to the Roman practice of holding great banquets to celebrate victory and parade the spoils of war. However, most believe that dining-in began as a custom in English monasteries. It was then adopted by the early universities. Later, it spread to military units when the officers’ mess began. The customs and traditions of our modern dining-in come from those of the British Army Regimental Mess. The British mess was an occasion to observe the unit’s long- standing customs and traditions. It also provided a time for satire, solemn formality, horseplay, and an excuse for living beyond one’s means. The first recorded American dining-in occurred in September 1716 when Governor Spotswood of Virginia, along with a company of Rangers, celebrated after crossing the mountains and descending into the Shenandoah Valley. Air Force dining-in began in the Air Corps when the late General Henry H. (Hap) Arnold held his famous “wing- dings.” The custom also grew in popularity during World War II, when the U.S. Army Air Corps participated in British dinings-in. The dining-in is now recognized as an occasion where ceremony and tradition combine with good fellowship as an important element in Air Force life. The primary elements are a formal setting, posting of the Colors, invocation, traditional toasts (may be at the conclusion of dinner), a fine dinner, comradeship of cadets, benediction, and retirement of the Colors. The dining-in and dining-out provide an opportunity to recognize individual, flight, and unit achievements for the school year. They also give cadets an opportunity to honor teachers, principals, and other school personnel. The dining-in can also be used to present individual and/or unit awards. As such, the dining-in helps build esprit de corps within Air Force Junior ROTC; it also provides an enjoyable time for cadets. In addition, a dining-out may include entertainment after the formal portions, such as a concert band or dancing. Toasting at a Dining-In Toasting is a universal custom. It is a simple courtesy to the person being honored. It is improper to drain the glass after each toast; it is also improper to raise an empty glass to make a toast. You need to know how many toasts are being given so you can gauge how much to drink with each toast. Toasts are made standing up. One person will present the toast by saying, “Ladies and Gentlemen, the President of the United States” or “Ladies and Gentlemen, I propose a toast to the President of the United States.” All will then raise their glasses and say “The President” or “To the President,” respectively. On the presentation and retirement of the Colors, face toward the Colors at attention until the ceremony is completed. Remain standing for the toasts and the CH01_LE1 7/9/05 3:03 PM Page 44
  46. 46. LESSON 3 CUSTOMS AND COURTESIES FOR AIR FORCE JUNIOR ROTC 45 invocation at the beginning of the program. You are expected to rise again for the benediction at the end of the program The Military Ball Another widespread custom in Air Force Junior ROTC is the Military Ball. This formal event requires cadets and their guest to wear semiformal dress. The military ball presents certain rules, procedures, and protocol to be observed. For example, you must wear the uniform the SASI prescribes, and your date should also be dressed in appropriate attire. An important element of a military ball is the receiving line, which is made up of the official hosts and hostesses. We’ll learn more about proper etiquette for the receiving line in Unit 2. Planning a Military Ball Careful planning is needed to ensure that the Military Ball—or any social occasion—is successful. The first step is for the SASI to appoint a planning chairperson. This person should be given the authority to make many of the planning decisions, although some decisions may be subject to the SASI’s approval. One of the chairperson’s first duties should be to review the file reports on previous cadet balls. These reports will provide the chairperson with details on what must be done to ensure a successful ball. These activities include: • Establishing committees, appointing committee leaders, and providing them with the necessary people and other resources. The chairperson also is responsible for supervising these committees. At a minimum, the chairperson will need to create the following committees: • advertising • decorating • entertainment • food • fund-raising • invitations, including the special guests • program and seating arrangements • Establishing short-term and long-term goals, identifying the tasks necessary for the achievement of these goals, and delegating the tasks to committees for execution. • Identifying problem areas and lessons learned from previous cadet balls, and preventing them from reoccurring. FIGURE 1–17. Cadets at a Military Ball. CH01_LE1 7/9/05 3:04 PM Page 45
  47. 47. 46 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO AIR FORCE JUNIOR RESERVE OFFICER TRAINING CORPS The chairperson and all committee leaders should think through the details and develop a plan to get everything done. The chairperson should be sure to establish alternative (or back-up) plans where necessary. This will help avoid last-minute embarrassment. Invitations should be sent out as early as possible. If some guests do not accept, this allows time to invite others without offending them with a last-minute invitation. The invitation must clearly state the location, time, and dress requirements. Guests should know exactly what is being planned and what is expected of them. Helpful Planning Tips Helpful planning tips include: • Be sure that all arrangements are carefully made for the special guests. • Select a band that plays a variety of music, as well as music that does not offend anyone. Another option is a disc jockey (DJ). DJs can provide quality music at a reduced cost. If the ball is to be held during a holiday season, contact the band or booking agency at least six months in advance and provide them with a list of tentative dates. • Arrange to have a photographer. • Arrange to have several door prizes if you can find sponsors to donate them. • Give credit in the program to all sponsors, as well as to individuals and organizations that helped put the ball together. • Rehearse the Color Guard, the sequence of events, and any special activities at the actual location at least one day prior to the actual event. • Be sure that the staff at the site will prepare the correct number of meals and provide the correct number of chairs and tables, and check that the seating arrangements match the seating chart. Other pointers include: • Sign a contract that specifies the date, fees, and total hours the hall or ballroom will be available. The hours need to include time before the ball for decorating, as well as time after the ball for cleaning up. The band or DJ contract should specify the hours the band will play. • Reserve the site and the band early, so you can be sure they are available on the desired date. A National Guard armory, officer or NCO club, American Legion hall, or high school gym are some of the appropriate places for a cadet ball. The location you choose should include a kitchen. • Set a working budget. Expenses include band or music fees, rent for the dance hall, security guard(s), decorations, tickets, food, flowers, invitations, and postage. • Appoint a ticket chairperson if cadets are going to be charged in order to pay for the ball. Ticket sales should start early, and then be cut off at least one week before the ball. Ending sales a week before the ball gives you an accurate count of the number of people who will attend. Even if your unit has plenty of money, cadets should be charged a minimum amount for the ball, so they will value the event. • Appoint a publicity chairperson to write up a series of news stories before and after the ball. Photos should be taken to go with the stories. CH01_LE1 7/9/05 3:04 PM Page 46
  48. 48. LESSON 3 CUSTOMS AND COURTESIES FOR AIR FORCE JUNIOR ROTC 47 • The decorations chairperson should look over the site and start planning decorations. Supplies should be ordered or purchased at least one month in advance to ensure they are available. Major portions of the decorations should be completed no later than the day before the ball. • Mail handwritten or engraved invitations to faculty members and special guests at least three weeks before the event. Keep a list of responses, and provide nametags for all expected guests. • The food and refreshments chairperson must know how much money has been budgeted for food and refreshments. If catering is too expensive or inappropriate, cadets can contribute food items in lieu of paying for tickets. • Formal dances often provide a commercial photographer to take pictures of cadets and their dates. If a photographer is hired for this purpose, be sure that everyone knows how much the pictures will cost before they are taken. • If awards are to be presented, they should be ordered, engraved, picked up, and presentation scripts written. CHECKPOINTS Lesson 3 Review Using complete sentences, answer the following questions on a sheet of paper. 1. What is a custom? 2. What is esprit de corps? 3. How do you define allegiance? 4. Which civilians may be saluted by persons in uniform? 5. What clues would you look for to recognize an officer when you can’t distinguish a specific rank? 6. If you are the first person to see an officer and you’re part of a small group that is not in formation, what would you do? 7. What would you do if you were seated and a senior officer spoke to you? 8. In which order of rank do military personnel enter an automobile? 9. What should a cadet do when a senior official enters a room? 10. What is a taboo? 11. What is a court martial? 12. What are the differences between dining-in and dining-out? 13. What is a protocol? Applying Leadership Skills 14. Think about the esprit de corps of your AFJROTC unit. List three specific things you can do as an individual to contribute to your unit’s esprit de corps. CH01_LE1 7/9/05 3:04 PM Page 47

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