Artificial                                                              Touch                                              ...
Outline                                                  Artificial                                                   Touch...
Outline                                                  Artificial                                                   Touch...
Outline                                                  Artificial                                                   Touch...
Outline                                                  Artificial                                                   Touch...
Outline                                                  Artificial                                                   Touch...
Outline                                                  Artificial                                                   Touch...
Touch in Robotics I                                                                    Artificial                          ...
Touch in Robotics II                                                                                 Artificial            ...
For what?                  Artificial                   Touch                  L. Ascari               Introduction        ...
For what?                  Artificial                   Touch                  L. Ascari               Introduction        ...
For what?                  Artificial                   Touch                  L. Ascari               Introduction        ...
For what?                  Artificial                   Touch                  L. Ascari               Introduction        ...
SOA in robotic skins?                           Artificial                            Touch                           L. As...
Open Issues                        Artificial                         Touch                        L. Ascari               ...
Open Issues                        Artificial                         Touch                        L. Ascari               ...
Open Issues                        Artificial                         Touch                        L. Ascari               ...
Open Issues                        Artificial                         Touch                        L. Ascari               ...
Open Issues                        Artificial                         Touch                        L. Ascari               ...
Touch in Prosthetics - Commercial SoA                                           Artificial                                 ...
Touch in Prosthetics - Commercial SoA                                           Artificial                                 ...
Touch in Prosthetics - Commercial SoA                                           Artificial                                 ...
Touch in Prosthetics - Commercial SoA                                                  Artificial                          ...
Contemporary prosthetics: directions and openissues4                                                                      ...
Contemporary prosthetics: directions and openissues4                                                                      ...
Basic questions                                                           Artificial                                       ...
Basic questions                                                                Artificial                                  ...
Basic questions                                                                Artificial                                  ...
Basic questions                                                                Artificial                                  ...
Bio-inspired approach                                                                                   Artificial         ...
Bio-inspired approach                                                                                   Artificial         ...
The human hand: tactile structure                                                                   Artificial             ...
The human hand: tactile structure                                                                        Artificial        ...
Sensors performance...                              Artificial                               Touch... in engineering terms ...
The pick and lift task                                                              ArtificialTwo aspects are crucial for a...
The pick and lift task                                                              ArtificialTwo aspects are crucial for a...
On the need for feedback                                                                        Artificial                 ...
On the need for feedback                                                                        Artificial                 ...
On the need for feedback                                                                        Artificial                 ...
Biological vs Robotic worlds                                                                                              ...
Biological vs Robotic worlds                                                                                              ...
Biological vs Robotic worlds                                                                                       Artifici...
Biological vs Robotic worlds                                                                   Artificial                  ...
Multidisciplinarity — The animal model (touch)                                                                          Ar...
Multidisciplinarity — The animal model (touch)                                                                          Ar...
Multidisciplinarity — The animal model (touch)                                                                          Ar...
Multidisciplinarity — The animal model (vision)                                                        Artificial          ...
Multidisciplinarity — The animal model (vision)                                                        Artificial          ...
Multidisciplinarity — The animal model (vision)                                                        Artificial          ...
Multidisciplinarity — The animal model (vision)                                                        Artificial          ...
Multidisciplinarity — The animal model (vision)                                                        Artificial          ...
Multidisciplinarity — The animal model (vision)                                                             Artificial     ...
Multidisciplinarity — The computational model                                                                 Artificial   ...
Multidisciplinarity — The computational model                                                                 Artificial   ...
CNN characteristics I                                                                    Artificial                        ...
CNN characteristics II                                                                  Artificial                         ...
CNN core: the template                            Artificial                             Touch                            L...
Template meaning                      Artificial                       Touch                      L. Ascari                ...
Features of the ACE4K (16K) chip — 3TOps                                                                                  ...
Recall                                                                           Artificial                                ...
Outline                                                  Artificial                                                   Touch...
The MEMS mechanoreceptor                              Artificial                               Touch                       ...
The array — Fabrication steps                                   Artificial                                    Touch        ...
The whole system — HW                                                                     Artificial                       ...
The whole system — from HW to SW                                                                    Artificial             ...
Recap                                                                    Artificial                                        ...
Recap                                                                    Artificial                                        ...
Recap                                                                    Artificial                                        ...
Recap                                                                    Artificial                                        ...
Recap                                                                    Artificial                                        ...
Recap                                                                     Artificial                                       ...
Recap                                                                     Artificial                                       ...
The task controller — FSM                               Artificial                                Touch                    ...
The task controller — FSM                               Artificial                                Touch                    ...
The task controller — Features                                    Artificial                                     Touch     ...
Outline                                                  Artificial                                                   Touch...
The slip effect in robotic grasp                                                                       Artificial           ...
Definition of Tactile Events of interest                                                                  Artificial        ...
Bio-inspired robotic touch
Bio-inspired robotic touch
Bio-inspired robotic touch
Bio-inspired robotic touch
Bio-inspired robotic touch
Bio-inspired robotic touch
Bio-inspired robotic touch
Bio-inspired robotic touch
Bio-inspired robotic touch
Bio-inspired robotic touch
Bio-inspired robotic touch
Bio-inspired robotic touch
Bio-inspired robotic touch
Bio-inspired robotic touch
Bio-inspired robotic touch
Bio-inspired robotic touch
Bio-inspired robotic touch
Bio-inspired robotic touch
Bio-inspired robotic touch
Bio-inspired robotic touch
Bio-inspired robotic touch
Bio-inspired robotic touch
Bio-inspired robotic touch
Bio-inspired robotic touch
Bio-inspired robotic touch
Bio-inspired robotic touch
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Bio-inspired robotic touch

1,155
-1

Published on

Published in: Technology, Business
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
1,155
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
49
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Bio-inspired robotic touch

  1. 1. Artificial Touch L. Ascari Artificial Touch Introduction Towards a new approach in prosthetics? The tactile system Modelling L. Ascari Validation Conclusions and Future HENESIS S.R.L. Options References Parma - February 22nd, 2012 —All the activity described in the presentation has been carried on while post-doc at Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna, Pisa (I)
  2. 2. Outline Artificial Touch1 Introduction L. Ascari Touch in Robotics Touch in Prosthetics - Commercial SoA Introduction Approach The tactile system The pick and lift task Modelling Bioinspiration Validation Conclusions2 The tactile system and Future Options Hardware References Software3 Modelling4 Validation5 Conclusions and Future Options
  3. 3. Outline Artificial Touch1 Introduction L. Ascari Touch in Robotics Touch in Prosthetics - Commercial SoA Introduction Approach The tactile system The pick and lift task Modelling Bioinspiration Validation Conclusions2 The tactile system and Future Options Hardware References Software3 Modelling4 Validation5 Conclusions and Future Options
  4. 4. Outline Artificial Touch1 Introduction L. Ascari Touch in Robotics Touch in Prosthetics - Commercial SoA Introduction Approach The tactile system The pick and lift task Modelling Bioinspiration Validation Conclusions2 The tactile system and Future Options Hardware References Software3 Modelling4 Validation5 Conclusions and Future Options
  5. 5. Outline Artificial Touch1 Introduction L. Ascari Touch in Robotics Touch in Prosthetics - Commercial SoA Introduction Approach The tactile system The pick and lift task Modelling Bioinspiration Validation Conclusions2 The tactile system and Future Options Hardware References Software3 Modelling4 Validation5 Conclusions and Future Options
  6. 6. Outline Artificial Touch1 Introduction L. Ascari Touch in Robotics Touch in Prosthetics - Commercial SoA Introduction Approach The tactile system The pick and lift task Modelling Bioinspiration Validation Conclusions2 The tactile system and Future Options Hardware References Software3 Modelling4 Validation5 Conclusions and Future Options
  7. 7. Outline Artificial Touch1 Introduction L. Ascari Touch in Robotics Touch in Prosthetics - Commercial SoA Introduction Touch in Robotics Approach Prosthetics SoA Approach The pick and lift task The pick and lift task Bioinspiration Bioinspiration The tactile system2 The tactile system Modelling Hardware Validation Software Conclusions and Future3 Modelling Options References4 Validation5 Conclusions and Future Options
  8. 8. Touch in Robotics I Artificial Touch L. Ascari IntroductionRobots are now very complex and sophisticated systems. Touch in RoboticsHigher computational requirements. Prosthetics SoA Approach The pick and lift task Automation robots: very high performing and reliable Bioinspiration machines. The tactile system Outside the factory floor: limited interaction with humans, Modelling specially in terms of autonomous behavior and of friendly Validation HMIs1 , Conclusions and Future despite a huge market is expected to develop rapidly2 . Options References
  9. 9. Touch in Robotics II Artificial Touch L. Ascari Tactile sensing can provide information about mechanical properties such as compliance, friction, and mass. Introduction Touch in Robotics Knowledge of these parameters is essential if robots are to Prosthetics SoA Approach reliably handle unknown objects in unstructured The pick and lift task Bioinspiration environments. For interaction, localization of the stimulus The tactile is essential3 . system Modelling Validation Conclusions 1 and Future J. Ayers et al. Neurotechnology for biomimetic robots. MIT Press, Options2002. References 2 WorldRobotics. World Robotics 2006. International Federation ofRobotics, Statistical Department, 2006. url:http://www.worldrobotics-online.org/. 3 R. D. Howe. “Tactile sensing and control of robotic manipulation”. In:Journal of Advanced Robotics 8 (1994), pp. 245–261.
  10. 10. For what? Artificial Touch L. Ascari Introduction Touch in Robotics Prosthetics SoA Approach Interaction The pick and lift task Bioinspiration The tactile system Modelling Validation Autonomy Conclusions and Future Options References Locomotion
  11. 11. For what? Artificial Touch L. Ascari Introduction Touch in Robotics Prosthetics SoA Approach Interaction The pick and lift task Bioinspiration The tactile system Modelling Validation Autonomy Conclusions and Future Options References Locomotion
  12. 12. For what? Artificial Touch L. Ascari Introduction Touch in Robotics Prosthetics SoA Approach Interaction The pick and lift task Bioinspiration The tactile system Modelling Validation Autonomy Conclusions and Future Options References Locomotion
  13. 13. For what? Artificial Touch L. Ascari Introduction Touch in Robotics Prosthetics SoA Approach Interaction The pick and lift task Bioinspiration The tactile system Modelling Validation Autonomy Conclusions and Future Options References Locomotion
  14. 14. SOA in robotic skins? Artificial Touch L. Ascari Introduction Touch in Robotics Prosthetics SoA Approach The pick and lift task Bioinspiration The tactile system Modelling Validation Conclusions and Future Options References
  15. 15. Open Issues Artificial Touch L. Ascari Introduction Touch in Robotics Prosthetics SoA wiring Approach The pick and lift task robustness Bioinspiration The tactile stretchability system Modelling bandwidth Validation processing Conclusions and Future Options References
  16. 16. Open Issues Artificial Touch L. Ascari Introduction Touch in Robotics Prosthetics SoA wiring Approach The pick and lift task robustness Bioinspiration The tactile stretchability system Modelling bandwidth Validation processing Conclusions and Future Options References
  17. 17. Open Issues Artificial Touch L. Ascari Introduction Touch in Robotics Prosthetics SoA wiring Approach The pick and lift task robustness Bioinspiration The tactile stretchability system Modelling bandwidth Validation processing Conclusions and Future Options References
  18. 18. Open Issues Artificial Touch L. Ascari Introduction Touch in Robotics Prosthetics SoA wiring Approach The pick and lift task robustness Bioinspiration The tactile stretchability system Modelling bandwidth Validation processing Conclusions and Future Options References
  19. 19. Open Issues Artificial Touch L. Ascari Introduction Touch in Robotics Prosthetics SoA wiring Approach The pick and lift task robustness Bioinspiration The tactile stretchability system Modelling bandwidth Validation processing Conclusions and Future Options References
  20. 20. Touch in Prosthetics - Commercial SoA Artificial TouchMore advanced: myoelectric control L. Ascari I-Limb Ultra from Touch Bionics Introduction Ultra from BeBionics Touch in Robotics Prosthetics SoA Approach The pick and lift task Bioinspiration The tactile system Modelling Validation Conclusions and Future Options References
  21. 21. Touch in Prosthetics - Commercial SoA Artificial TouchMore advanced: myoelectric control L. Ascari I-Limb Ultra from Touch Bionics Introduction Ultra from BeBionics Touch in Robotics Prosthetics SoA Approach The pick and lift task Bioinspiration The tactile system Modelling Validation Conclusions and Future Options ReferencesOften refused by patients!
  22. 22. Touch in Prosthetics - Commercial SoA Artificial TouchClassical prosthesis, cable actuated L. AscariOtto bock grippers Introduction Touch in Robotics Prosthetics SoA Approach The pick and lift task Bioinspiration The tactile system Modelling Validation Conclusions and Future Options References
  23. 23. Touch in Prosthetics - Commercial SoA Artificial TouchClassical prosthesis, cable actuated L. AscariOtto bock grippers Introduction Touch in Robotics Prosthetics SoA Approach The pick and lift task Bioinspiration The tactile system Modelling Validation Conclusions and Future Options ReferencesNot sensorized. Higher user acceptance. Why?
  24. 24. Contemporary prosthetics: directions and openissues4 ArtificialDirections Touch autonomous control of low level tasks L. Ascari higher spatial resolution of the sensing system Introduction Touch in Robotics neural control (prototypes exist) Prosthetics SoA Approach feedback to the patient (preliminary results) The pick and lift task Bioinspiration The tactile systemOpen issues Modelling connection with tactile nerves Validation dexterity Conclusions and Future sensitivity Options References CONTROL (myo-electrical vs neural) feedback to the patient 4 R.G.E. Clement et al. “Bionic prosthetic hands: A review of presenttechnology and future aspirations”. In: The Surgeon 9.6 (12/2011),
  25. 25. Contemporary prosthetics: directions and openissues4 ArtificialDirections Touch autonomous control of low level tasks L. Ascari higher spatial resolution of the sensing system Introduction Touch in Robotics neural control (prototypes exist) Prosthetics SoA Approach feedback to the patient (preliminary results) The pick and lift task Bioinspiration The tactile systemOpen issues Modelling connection with tactile nerves Validation dexterity Conclusions and Future sensitivity Options References CONTROL (myo-electrical vs neural) feedback to the patient 4 R.G.E. Clement et al. “Bionic prosthetic hands: A review of presenttechnology and future aspirations”. In: The Surgeon 9.6 (12/2011),
  26. 26. Basic questions Artificial TouchSome fundamental questions L. Ascari What is the main issue with advanced prosthesis? Introduction Touch in Robotics Prosthetics SoA Is feedback to the user essential for this? Approach The pick and lift task Bioinspiration“Solved” Issues The tactile system low level control with many signals (here) Modelling parallel but portable processing (here) Validation Conclusions mechanics (single fingers, underactuation, . . . ) and Future Options References
  27. 27. Basic questions Artificial TouchSome fundamental questions L. Ascari What is the main issue with advanced prosthesis? Object Introduction Slippage and Grasp force control Touch in Robotics Prosthetics SoA Is feedback to the user essential for this? Approach The pick and lift task Bioinspiration“Solved” Issues The tactile system low level control with many signals (here) Modelling parallel but portable processing (here) Validation Conclusions mechanics (single fingers, underactuation, . . . ) and Future Options References
  28. 28. Basic questions Artificial TouchSome fundamental questions L. Ascari What is the main issue with advanced prosthesis? Object Introduction Slippage and Grasp force control Touch in Robotics Prosthetics SoA Is feedback to the user essential for this? No! Approach The pick and lift task Bioinspiration“Solved” Issues The tactile system low level control with many signals (here) Modelling parallel but portable processing (here) Validation Conclusions mechanics (single fingers, underactuation, . . . ) and Future Options References
  29. 29. Basic questions Artificial TouchSome fundamental questions L. Ascari What is the main issue with advanced prosthesis? Object Introduction Slippage and Grasp force control Touch in Robotics Prosthetics SoA Is feedback to the user essential for this? No! Approach The pick and lift task Bioinspiration“Solved” Issues The tactile system low level control with many signals (here) Modelling parallel but portable processing (here) Validation Conclusions mechanics (single fingers, underactuation, . . . ) and Future Options References
  30. 30. Bio-inspired approach Artificial TouchWhy and to what extent? L. Ascari Ultimate model: man Man Larger dimensions, Introduction Touch in Robotics Infinite Complexity: higher densities Prosthetics SoA sensors and processing Approach The pick and lift task Technological, Bioinspiration wiring, processing The tactile limitations system Modelling Model and Simplification Principle Validation Lower complexity validation Conclusions Innovative approach sensory systems and Future Options •Technology References •Processing •Scalability Star-nosed mole
  31. 31. Bio-inspired approach Artificial TouchWhy and to what extent? L. Ascari Ultimate model: man Man Larger dimensions, Introduction Touch in Robotics Infinite Complexity: higher densities Prosthetics SoA sensors and processing Approach The pick and lift task Technological, Bioinspiration wiring, processing The tactile limitations system Touch sense Modelling Model and Simplification Principle Validation Lower complexity validation Conclusions Innovative approach and Future sensory systems Options •Technology References •Processing •Scalability Star-nosed mole
  32. 32. The human hand: tactile structure Artificial Touch L. AscariHuman hand touch Structure of the skin Introduction 3 major groups of afferent Touch in Robotics (tactile afferents, joint Prosthetics SoA Approach mechanoreceptors, spindles) The pick and lift task Bioinspiration The glabrous skin has 17.000 The tactile system tactile units Modelling 4 main types of Validation mechanoreceptors (Ruffini, Conclusions and Future Pacini, Merkel, Meissner) for Options intensity, pressure, acceleration References stimuli
  33. 33. The human hand: tactile structure Artificial Touch L. AscariHuman hand touch Structure of the skin Introduction 3 major groups of afferent Touch in Robotics (tactile afferents, joint Prosthetics SoA Approach mechanoreceptors, spindles) The pick and lift task Bioinspiration The glabrous skin has 17.000 The tactile system tactile units Modelling 4 main types of Validation mechanoreceptors (Ruffini, Conclusions and Future Pacini, Merkel, Meissner) for Options intensity, pressure, acceleration References stimulifrom Johansson and Westling (“Roles of glabrous skin receptors andsensorimotor memory in automatic control of precision grip whenlifting rougher or more slippery objects”)
  34. 34. Sensors performance... Artificial Touch... in engineering terms L. Ascari Introduction Touch in Robotics Prosthetics SoA Approach The pick and lift task Bioinspiration The tactile system Modelling Validation Conclusions and Future Options References
  35. 35. The pick and lift task ArtificialTwo aspects are crucial for a stable grasp: Touch L. Ascari the ability of the HW/SW system to avoid object slip Introduction to control in real-time the grasping force. Touch in Robotics Prosthetics SoA ApproachHuman physiology of the task The pick and lift task Bioinspiration The tactile system Modelling Validation Conclusions and Future Options References
  36. 36. The pick and lift task ArtificialTwo aspects are crucial for a stable grasp: Touch L. Ascari the ability of the HW/SW system to avoid object slip Introduction to control in real-time the grasping force. Touch in Robotics Prosthetics SoA ApproachHuman physiology of the task The pick and lift task Bioinspiration The tactile system Modelling Validation Conclusions and Future Options References
  37. 37. On the need for feedback Artificial Touch L. AscariEvidence Where? Introduction Johansson measured Touch in Robotics 50-60ms of reaction Prosthetics SoA Approach time The pick and lift task Bioinspiration incompatible with The tactile system propagation time to the Modelling motor cortex Validation evidence of circuit Conclusions and Future closed at subcortical Options level (olivo-cerebellar References system and thalamus).from Johansson and Westling (“Roles of glabrous skin receptors andsensorimotor memory in automatic control of precision grip whenlifting rougher or more slippery objects”)
  38. 38. On the need for feedback Artificial Touch L. AscariEvidence Where? Introduction Johansson measured Touch in Robotics 50-60ms of reaction Prosthetics SoA Approach time The pick and lift task Bioinspiration incompatible with The tactile system propagation time to the Modelling motor cortex Validation evidence of circuit Conclusions and Future closed at subcortical Options level (olivo-cerebellar References system and thalamus).from Johansson and Westling (“Roles of glabrous skin receptors andsensorimotor memory in automatic control of precision grip whenlifting rougher or more slippery objects”)
  39. 39. On the need for feedback Artificial Touch L. AscariEvidence Where? Introduction Johansson measured Touch in Robotics 50-60ms of reaction Prosthetics SoA Approach time The pick and lift task Bioinspiration incompatible with The tactile system propagation time to the Modelling motor cortex Validation evidence of circuit Conclusions and Future closed at subcortical Options level (olivo-cerebellar References system and thalamus).from Johansson and Westling (“Roles of glabrous skin receptors andsensorimotor memory in automatic control of precision grip whenlifting rougher or more slippery objects”)
  40. 40. Biological vs Robotic worlds Artificial TouchDo we have these limitations (signaling speed) in robots? L. Ascari Man Introduction Biological models for the Touch in Robotics design of biomimetic robots Prosthetics SoA Approach The pick and lift task Nerves Brain Limbs Bioinspiration The tactile system Interfacing Bio and Modelling Robotics Validation Robot Conclusions and Future Options • Robots as physical platforms for validating biological models References Artificial Electric Artificial Brain wires limbs 3
  41. 41. Biological vs Robotic worlds Artificial TouchDo we have these limitations (signaling speed) in robots? L. Ascari Man Introduction Biological models for the Touch in Robotics design of biomimetic robots Prosthetics SoA Approach The pick and lift task Nerves Brain Limbs Bioinspiration The tactile system Interfacing Bio and Modelling Robotics Validation Robot Conclusions and Future Options • Robots as physical platforms for validating biological models References Artificial Electric Artificial Brain wires limbs 3No, but other constraints exist. Ex: computational power
  42. 42. Biological vs Robotic worlds Artificial TouchDo we have these limitations (signaling speed) in robots? L. Ascari Ultimate model: man Introduction Man Larger dimensions, Touch in Robotics Infinite Complexity: higher densities Prosthetics SoA sensors and processing Approach The pick and lift task Technological, Bioinspiration wiring, processing The tactile limitations Touch sense system Model and Modelling Simplification Principle Lower complexity validation Validation Innovative approach sensory systems Conclusions •Technology and Future Options •Processing References •Scalability Star-nosed moleNo, but other constraints exist. Ex: computational power
  43. 43. Biological vs Robotic worlds Artificial TouchDo we have these limitations (signaling speed) in robots? L. Ascari Man Ultimate model: man Introduction Touch in Robotics Prosthetics SoA Approach The pick and lift task Bioinspiration The tactile system Touch sense Modelling Validation Lower complexity Innovative approach sensory systems Conclusions and Future •Technological Options •Processing References •Scalability Star-nosed moleNo, but other constraints exist. Ex: computational power
  44. 44. Multidisciplinarity — The animal model (touch) Artificial Touch L. AscariCondylura Cristata A nose to see / Eimer Introduction 12 mobile appendages Touch in Robotics covered with more than Prosthetics SoA Approach 25.000 tactile receptors The pick and lift task Bioinspiration (Eimer organs) The tactile system Structure of the Eimer Modelling organ: a sort of pillar with Validation 3 nervous terminations Conclusions (for constant pressures, and Future Options vibrations, fine surface References details); foveated tactile vision.from Catania and Kaas (“Somatosensory Fovea in the Star-NosedMole: Behavioral Use of the Star in Relation to Innervation Patterns
  45. 45. Multidisciplinarity — The animal model (touch) Artificial Touch L. AscariCondylura Cristata A nose to see / Eimer Introduction 12 mobile appendages Touch in Robotics covered with more than Prosthetics SoA Approach 25.000 tactile receptors The pick and lift task Bioinspiration (Eimer organs) The tactile system Structure of the Eimer Modelling organ: a sort of pillar with Validation 3 nervous terminations Conclusions (for constant pressures, and Future Options vibrations, fine surface References details); foveated tactile vision.from Catania and Kaas (“Somatosensory Fovea in the Star-NosedMole: Behavioral Use of the Star in Relation to Innervation Patterns
  46. 46. Multidisciplinarity — The animal model (touch) Artificial Touch L. AscariCondylura Cristata A nose to see / Eimer Introduction 12 mobile appendages Touch in Robotics covered with more than Prosthetics SoA Approach 25.000 tactile receptors The pick and lift task Bioinspiration (Eimer organs) The tactile system Structure of the Eimer Modelling organ: a sort of pillar with Validation 3 nervous terminations Conclusions (for constant pressures, and Future Options vibrations, fine surface References details); foveated tactile vision.from Catania and Kaas (“Somatosensory Fovea in the Star-NosedMole: Behavioral Use of the Star in Relation to Innervation Patterns
  47. 47. Multidisciplinarity — The animal model (vision) Artificial Touch L. AscariHoneybee Fixed yet good eye Introduction Non-mobile compound Touch in Robotics eyes (ommatidia); Prosthetics SoA Approach The pick and lift task 3000-4000 facets each eye Bioinspiration ( = 64x64 pixel array); The tactile system spatial resolution = 1/60 Modelling of the human eye; Validation No distance information Conclusions and Future from stereo vision; Options References Center facets larger than the peripheral sensors. yet: high performance
  48. 48. Multidisciplinarity — The animal model (vision) Artificial Touch L. AscariHoneybee Fixed yet good eye Introduction Non-mobile compound Touch in Robotics eyes (ommatidia); Prosthetics SoA Approach The pick and lift task 3000-4000 facets each eye Bioinspiration ( = 64x64 pixel array); The tactile system spatial resolution = 1/60 Modelling of the human eye; Validation No distance information Conclusions and Future from stereo vision; Options References Center facets larger than the peripheral sensors. yet: high performance
  49. 49. Multidisciplinarity — The animal model (vision) Artificial Touch L. AscariHoneybee Fixed yet good eye Introduction Non-mobile compound Touch in Robotics eyes (ommatidia); Prosthetics SoA Approach The pick and lift task 3000-4000 facets each eye Bioinspiration ( = 64x64 pixel array); The tactile system spatial resolution = 1/60 Modelling of the human eye; Validation No distance information Conclusions and Future from stereo vision; Options References Center facets larger than the peripheral sensors. yet: high performance
  50. 50. Multidisciplinarity — The animal model (vision) Artificial Touch L. AscariHoneybee Fixed yet good eye Introduction Non-mobile compound Touch in Robotics eyes (ommatidia); Prosthetics SoA Approach The pick and lift task 3000-4000 facets each eye Bioinspiration ( = 64x64 pixel array); The tactile system spatial resolution = 1/60 Modelling of the human eye; Validation No distance information Conclusions and Future from stereo vision; Options References Center facets larger than the peripheral sensors. yet: high performance
  51. 51. Multidisciplinarity — The animal model (vision) Artificial Touch L. AscariHoneybee Fixed yet good eye Introduction Non-mobile compound Touch in Robotics eyes (ommatidia); Prosthetics SoA Approach The pick and lift task 3000-4000 facets each eye Bioinspiration ( = 64x64 pixel array); The tactile system spatial resolution = 1/60 Modelling of the human eye; Validation No distance information Conclusions and Future from stereo vision; Options References Center facets larger than the peripheral sensors. yet: high performance
  52. 52. Multidisciplinarity — The animal model (vision) Artificial Touch L. AscariHoneybee Fixed yet good eye Introduction Non-mobile compound Touch in Robotics eyes (ommatidia); Prosthetics SoA Approach The pick and lift task 3000-4000 facets each eye Bioinspiration ( = 64x64 pixel array); The tactile system spatial resolution = 1/60 Modelling of the human eye; Validation No distance information Conclusions and Future from stereo vision; Options References Center facets larger than the peripheral sensors. optical flow balance yet: high performance motion detection (Flicker effect)
  53. 53. Multidisciplinarity — The computational model Artificial Touch L. AscariCellular non linear networks Parallel topological Introduction CNN is a massive parallel architecture Touch in Robotics computing paradigm defined Prosthetics SoA Approach in discrete N-dimensional The pick and lift task Bioinspiration spaces. The tactile system A CNN is an N-dimensional Modelling regular array of elements Validation (cells); Conclusions and Future Cells are multiple input-single Options output analog processors, all References described by one or just some few parametric functionals.from Chua and Roska (Cellular Neural Networks and VisualComputing: Foundations and Applications)
  54. 54. Multidisciplinarity — The computational model Artificial Touch L. AscariCellular non linear networks Parallel topological Introduction CNN is a massive parallel architecture Touch in Robotics computing paradigm defined Prosthetics SoA Approach in discrete N-dimensional The pick and lift task Bioinspiration spaces. The tactile system A CNN is an N-dimensional Modelling regular array of elements Validation (cells); Conclusions and Future Cells are multiple input-single Options output analog processors, all References described by one or just some few parametric functionals.from Chua and Roska (Cellular Neural Networks and VisualComputing: Foundations and Applications)
  55. 55. CNN characteristics I Artificial Touch L. Ascari Locality of the connections between the units: in fact the Introduction Touch in Robotics main difference between CNN and other Neural Networks Prosthetics SoA Approach paradigms is the fact that information are directly The pick and lift task exchanged just between neighbouring units. Of course this Bioinspiration The tactile characteristic allows also to obtain global parallel system processing. Modelling Validation A cell is characterized by an internal state variable, Conclusions sometimes not directly observable from outside the cell and Future Options itself; References More than one connection network can be present;
  56. 56. CNN characteristics II Artificial Touch L. Ascari A CNN dynamical system can operate both in continuous Introduction (CT-CNN) or discrete time (DT-CNN), with analogical Touch in Robotics Prosthetics SoA signals from different sources; Approach The pick and lift task CNN data and parameters are typically real values; Bioinspiration The tactile CNN operate typically with more than one iteration, i.e. system they are recurrent networks; It is a Universal Machine Modelling (CNN-UM); Validation Conclusions It offers Stored programmability; and Future Options a Hardware implementation exists. References
  57. 57. CNN core: the template Artificial Touch L. Ascari Introduction Touch in Robotics Prosthetics SoA Approach The pick and lift task Bioinspiration The tactile system Modelling Validation Conclusions and Future Options References
  58. 58. Template meaning Artificial Touch L. Ascari Introduction Touch in Robotics Prosthetics SoA Approach The pick and lift task Bioinspiration The tactile system Modelling Validation State-out Conclusions and Future Options References in
  59. 59. Features of the ACE4K (16K) chip — 3TOps Artificial Touch System Desktop PC, PC-104 industrial PC, Windows NT, 2000 L. Ascari Bus PCI, 33 MHz, 32 bit data width; Visual Microprocessor type ACE4k, 64x64 processor array Introduction Grayscale image download (64x64) 2688 frame/sec 372 !s Touch in Robotics Prosthetics SoA Grayscale image readback (64x64) 3536 frame/sec (compensated through look-up table); 283!s Approach Binary image download (64x64) 44014 frame/sec; 22.72 !s The pick and lift task Bioinspiration Binary image readback (64x64) 23937frame/sec; 41.78 !s Array operation (64x64) 9 !s + N*100ns The tactile Logical operation (64x64) 3.8 !s system DSP type Texas TMS320C6202; 250MHz, 1600 MIPS operation Modelling Memory 16MB, SDRAM 125 MHz; 2Mbyte FLASH (bootable) Validation Serial Ports 3 Other features Watch Dog, Timer Conclusions and Future Options Programmability C language, native languages References Image processing library Several image processing functions optimized for CVM Application Program Interface (API) Integrate the Aladdin systerm into different environments
  60. 60. Recall Artificial Touch FINAL GOAL COMPUTATIONAL PLATFORM L. Ascari Introduction ROBOTIC Touch in Robotics PLATFORM Prosthetics SoA Approach The pick and lift task Tactile Bioinspiration system SW The tactile system Modelling TASK CONTROLLER Validation Tactile system HW Conclusions and Future Options References TASK, PHYSIOLOGICAL STRATEGY
  61. 61. Outline Artificial Touch1 Introduction L. Ascari Touch in Robotics Touch in Prosthetics - Commercial SoA Introduction Approach The tactile system The pick and lift task Hardware Software Bioinspiration Modelling Validation2 The tactile system Conclusions Hardware and Future Options Software References3 Modelling4 Validation5 Conclusions and Future Options
  62. 62. The MEMS mechanoreceptor Artificial Touch L. Ascari Introduction The tactile system Hardware Software Rpu Vc Modelling R1 R2 Validation V13 V24 Conclusions R3 R4 and Future Options References 0
  63. 63. The array — Fabrication steps Artificial Touch L. Ascari Introduction The tactile system Hardware Software Modelling Validation Conclusions and Future Options References
  64. 64. The whole system — HW Artificial Touch L. Ascari Introduction The tactile system Hardware Software Modelling Validation Conclusions and Future Options ReferencesFrom L Ascari et al. “A miniaturized and flexible optoelectronicsensing system for tactile skin”. In: Journal of Micromechanicsand Microengineering 17.11 (11/2007), pp. 2288–2298. issn:0960-1317. doi: 10.1088/0960-1317/17/11/016. url:http://ejournals.ebsco.com/direct.asp?ArticleID=4A9A98E0B7D16F0C429C
  65. 65. The whole system — from HW to SW Artificial Touch L. Ascari Introduction The tactile system Hardware Software Modelling Validation Conclusions and Future Options ReferencesFrom L. Ascari et al. “Bio-inspired grasp control in a robotichand with massive sensorial input”. In: Biological Cybernetics100.2 (2009), p. 109. doi: 10.1007/s00422-008-0279-0
  66. 66. Recap Artificial Touch L. Ascari We have an array of analog multidirectional tactile signals Introduction The load cell were NOT calibrated: qualitative and only The tactile loose orthogonality system Hardware we can load and process analog tactile images on the CNN Software Modelling chip at 400 Hz Validation 54 sensors wrapped around the thumb and index fingers of Conclusions a robotic underactuated hand and Future Options robotic arm controlled by DSP References
  67. 67. Recap Artificial Touch L. Ascari We have an array of analog multidirectional tactile signals Introduction The load cell were NOT calibrated: qualitative and only The tactile loose orthogonality system Hardware we can load and process analog tactile images on the CNN Software Modelling chip at 400 Hz Validation 54 sensors wrapped around the thumb and index fingers of Conclusions a robotic underactuated hand and Future Options robotic arm controlled by DSP References
  68. 68. Recap Artificial Touch L. Ascari We have an array of analog multidirectional tactile signals Introduction The load cell were NOT calibrated: qualitative and only The tactile loose orthogonality system Hardware we can load and process analog tactile images on the CNN Software Modelling chip at 400 Hz Validation 54 sensors wrapped around the thumb and index fingers of Conclusions a robotic underactuated hand and Future Options robotic arm controlled by DSP References
  69. 69. Recap Artificial Touch L. Ascari We have an array of analog multidirectional tactile signals Introduction The load cell were NOT calibrated: qualitative and only The tactile loose orthogonality system Hardware we can load and process analog tactile images on the CNN Software Modelling chip at 400 Hz Validation 54 sensors wrapped around the thumb and index fingers of Conclusions a robotic underactuated hand and Future Options robotic arm controlled by DSP References
  70. 70. Recap Artificial Touch L. Ascari We have an array of analog multidirectional tactile signals Introduction The load cell were NOT calibrated: qualitative and only The tactile loose orthogonality system Hardware we can load and process analog tactile images on the CNN Software Modelling chip at 400 Hz Validation 54 sensors wrapped around the thumb and index fingers of Conclusions a robotic underactuated hand and Future Options robotic arm controlled by DSP References
  71. 71. Recap Artificial Touch L. Ascari We have an array of analog multidirectional tactile signals Introduction The load cell were NOT calibrated: qualitative and only The tactile loose orthogonality system Hardware we can load and process analog tactile images on the CNN Software Modelling chip at 400 Hz Validation 54 sensors wrapped around the thumb and index fingers of Conclusions a robotic underactuated hand and Future Options robotic arm controlled by DSP ReferencesWhere is information? What kind of spatial and temporalpatterns? How to recognize and prevent slippage?
  72. 72. Recap Artificial Touch L. Ascari We have an array of analog multidirectional tactile signals Introduction The load cell were NOT calibrated: qualitative and only The tactile loose orthogonality system Hardware we can load and process analog tactile images on the CNN Software Modelling chip at 400 Hz Validation 54 sensors wrapped around the thumb and index fingers of Conclusions a robotic underactuated hand and Future Options robotic arm controlled by DSP ReferencesWhere is information? What kind of spatial and temporalpatterns? How to recognize and prevent slippage?We need to learn the tactile “alphabet”
  73. 73. The task controller — FSM Artificial Touch L. Ascari Introduction The tactile system Hardware Software Modelling Validation Conclusions and Future Options References
  74. 74. The task controller — FSM Artificial Touch L. Ascari Introduction The tactile system Hardware Software Modelling Validation Conclusions and Future Options References
  75. 75. The task controller — Features Artificial Touch L. Ascari Introduction The tactile system Hardware Software Modelling Validation Conclusions and Future Options References
  76. 76. Outline Artificial Touch1 Introduction L. Ascari Touch in Robotics Touch in Prosthetics - Commercial SoA Introduction Approach The tactile system The pick and lift task Modelling Bioinspiration Validation Conclusions2 The tactile system and Future Options Hardware References Software3 Modelling4 Validation5 Conclusions and Future Options
  77. 77. The slip effect in robotic grasp Artificial TouchSlip as vibrations. “Catch and snap” effect on the rubber L. Ascari(60Hz stable + initial 10Hz component). Recall FAII humanmechanoreceptors. Introduction The tactile system Modelling Validation Conclusions and Future Options ReferencesHolweg et al., “Slip detection by tactile sensors: algorithms andexperimental results”
  78. 78. Definition of Tactile Events of interest Artificial Touch L. Ascari Variations, oscillations, vibrations Introduction Time is divided in periods of The tactile duration T ∗ s system Modelling Variation change in signal Validation larger than σ in Conclusions same period and Future Options Oscillation seq. of 2 subsequent References variations of opposite sign in same T ∗ . (m,n) Vibration seq. of 2 oscillations in 2 adjacent periods σ = 2% dynamic range

×