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Dr. M’hammed AbdousMOOCsMassive Open Online CoursesA Passing Fad or a DisruptiveTechnology?Credit: Giulia Forsythe
Outline• What is a MOOC?• Who are the key players?• How does it work?• What are the skeptics and the enthusiasts saying?– A passing fad or a disruptive innovation?• What is at stake?– Institution, Faculty, Student• What are some of the challenges?– Assessment, identity verification, plagiarism, quality, intellectualproperty, copyright• Who is crediting MOOCs?• Are MOOCs self-sustaining?• What are some of the opportunities?
Massive : Unlimited number of studentsOpen : No admission requirementsOnline : Web-basedCourse : Traditional course structureExpand access to worldtop-class educationto anyone, anywhere,anytime - for free“Improving teaching and learningfor students on our campusesis one of our primary goals”WHAT WHYMOOCs> MOOC by DefinitionWhat is a MOOC?
http://www.nature.com/news/online-learning-campus-2-0-1.12590#/risingMOOCs> Key PlayersCoursera Numbers…Number of coursesavailable on the platformSupplyandDemandNumber of user accountson the platform (millions)StudentoriginsUnited StatesIndiaBrazilUnited KingdomSpainCanadaAustraliaRussiaRest of worldInformationtechnologyArts andhumanitiesScienceMathematicsBusinessCoursesofferedMOOCsrisingOver little more than a year, Coursera in Mountain View, California — the largest of three companies developing and hostingmassive open online courses (MOOCs) — has introduced 328 different courses from 62 universities in 17 countries (left). Theplatform’s 2.9 million registered users come from more than 220 countries (centre). And courses span subjects as diverse aspre-calculus, equine nutrition and introductory jazz improvisation (right).February 2012 March 2013
https://www.coursera.org/#about/howitworksMOOCs> Pedagogical ModelsHow Does a MOOC Work?Choose from 300+ courses in over 20 categoriescreated by 62 Universities from 16 countries.Discover a course you’re interested in andenroll todayWatch short video lectures, take interactive quizzes,complete peer graded assessments, and interact livewith your new classmates and teachers.Learn with 3 million CourseriansFinish your class, receive recognition for a job welldone, and achieve your goals, whether they be career,personal, or educational.Achieve your learning goalsand build your portfolio
http://www.iversity.org/MOOCs> Pedagogical ModelsiVersity MOOCs ModelAnswering a few multiple-choicequestions allows students to check forthemselves whether they grasped the keyconcepts. Such interactive elements keepstudents engaged, ensure that they stayon track from week to week and provideimmediate feedback to the instructor.Core elements of an Open CourseMassive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) are more than filmed lectures or static e-learning resources. They make use of online video innew ways and combine it with interactive elements as well as a social layer that encourages peer-to-peer learning.Online video instruction is the core ofopen course teaching. These videos breakdown the content of an hour-long lectureinto individual concepts that can beexplained in short videos that are just afew minutes long.Video FeedbackStudents can post, browse and respond toother student’s questions in the context ofa student forum. They can upvotequestions and answers that they foundparticularly helpful so that the best contentbubbles to the top.P2P-LearningWalker, J. (2012). Why MOOCs Might Be Hindered by the Definition of Correspondence Education?
Lecture-Dominated Form of Teaching• Sleep-inducing• Mass teaching model• Fails to support learning• Instructor bottleneck• One-to-many• Digitized TextbookMOOCs> The DebateThe Luddites… The SkepticsCan students really be taught critical thinking, civics, and citizenship skills in a standardizedformat that values conformity? Palermo, J.(2013). Pedagogy of the Depressed.Laurentius de Voltolinahttp://bo.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Laurentius_de_Voltolina_001.jpg
• A philanthropic form of continuing education• Undermining tradition of shared governance• ATM distributor for lectures and tests• Behaviorist model: lack of interaction with instructor• Good for self-directed learners: Darwinian conspiracy• Marketing tools for elite schools• Another passing fad…• Is this really an “altruistic venture”?“But the sun never rose on television as an educational‘delivery system…’” - Delbanco (2013)Delbanco, A. The Moocs of hazard. The New Republic, April 8, 2013.MOOCs> The DebateThe Luddites… The Skeptics
MOOCsMOOCs> Pedagogical ModelsAnother Fad…“A fashion that is taken up with great enthusiasm for a brief period of time; a craze.”The American Heritage Dictionary
• From blackboardto computers• Columbia’sFathom Project• AllLearn (Oxford,Stanford and Yale)• NYU Online• Cardean UniversityMOOCs> Next StepsEn L’AN 2000: Unfulfilled Promises of TechnologyIn 1841 the inventor of the blackboard system deserves to be ranked among thebest contributors to learning and science, if not among the greatest benefactors of mankind”MIT’s Seymour Papert wrote in 1984: “I think the computer will blow up the school.”
• Game changer, disruptive technology– Traditional HE institutions, for-profit institutions• Promote life-long learning• Embrace openness• Make HE accessible and affordable tounderprivileged groups• Explore new pedagogical practices• Design flexible learning paths• Consider alternative business models• Solve HE problems: increase productivity, reduce cost,reduce graduation time (6 years on average), etc.MOOCs> The DebateThe Enthusiasts or The Techno-dreamers
The Debate …. Dr. Gregarious Vs. Dr. Precarious
• Disrupt status quo forcing HE torethink existing model• Enabling limitless scalability, cost reduction,efficient delivery platform• Challenge conventional delivery modeassumptions: residential, hybrid, online• Forcing roles change: faculty and studentsMOOCs> Institutional PerspectiveFrom the Institutional Standpoint…
• Offers new opportunities and challenges– Intellectual property– Copyright– Credentialism• Challenge/complement/replacethe on-campus learning experience• Lessen the existing stigmaassociated with online learning• Extend institutional reach, visibility,influence, and brandMOOCs> Institutional PerspectiveFrom the Institutional Standpoint…
• Faculty driven…Emerged from individual faculty efforts:– Sebastian THRUN, co-founder of Udacity, sharedthat “One of the most amazing things I’ve ever donein my life is to teach a class to 160,000 students.”– “Volunteer students translated some of our classesinto over 40 languages; and in the end wegraduated over 23,000 students from 190 countries.In fact, Peter and I taught more students AI, than allAI professors in the world combined.”– “Having done this, I can’t teach at Stanford again.”MOOCs> Faculty PerspectiveFrom the Faculty’s Standpoint…
Sebastian Thrun .. The Red Pill and the Blue Pill
• Excellent opportunity to rethink/renew theirteaching practices• Analytics: assignment completion, participation,progress• Engage and interact with students: live chat (selectand reward high participants, enrich content, askstudents to vote on topics, etc.)• Develop a research agenda around MOOCs learning(http://change.mooc.ca)• Elevate status for best teachers: stars, superstars,megastars and the rest….MOOCs> Faculty PerspectiveFrom the Faculty’s Standpoint…
• Lifelong learning• Curiosity,social experience• Convenience• Prepare for F2F courses• Test driveonline courses• Career-switcherwarm-upMOOCs> Students’ PerspectiveFrom the Students’ Standpoint…http://www.technologyreview.com/news/506351/the-most-important-education-technology-in-200-years
MOOCs> Students’ PerspectiveFrom the Student’s Standpoint…• Self-organized groups: learning goals, common interests• Collaborate, engage, vote on questions, etc.• Median response time to students questions is 22 minutes• BostonX to improve educational access for residentsCourseraMeetupsIn 1,492 citiesStanfordNew YorkLondon - 04/02BangaloreSan FranciscoMoscowAthens - 04/25Toronto - 04/05Mumbai - 04/07Kyyiv - 04/03ChicagoHong KongDelhi - 04/07Madrid - 04/06Pune - 04/07Seattle - 04/30ChennaiNashvilleBeijing - 04/07Paris - 04/02PhiladelphiaAtlanta - 04/04Rio de JaneiroVancouverWarsawMountain ViewThessalonikiLima - 04/06Jakarta - 04/07Lisbon - 04/05PortlandSan DiegoPrague - 04/06Denver - 04/11BrisbaneDublin - 04/10México CityAnn ArborPittsburgDhaka - 04/13Lahore - 04/06DubaiFind your localhttp://www.flickr.com/photos/courosa/8400361742/
• Use of data mining and analytics tools to personalizestudent learning experience– demographic, cognitive, non-cognitive,learning habits, learning path– customize learning experienceby adapting content, text, images,pace to match individual learners’abilities and traits– “Data is the real asset”26MOOCs> Students’ PerspectiveFrom the Students’ Standpoint…
• Live proctoring: Major exams• Automated grading: Quizzes, programmingsimulators• Peer review: Small rotating groups• Peer grading: Wikipedia modelInstructor Responsibility:• Provide detailedguidelines for grading• Comparecrowdsourcing resultsto personal gradingConsiderations:• Lack of consistency• Largest peer gradingpipeline• Expert vs.Novice GradersMOOCs> Common Instructional IssuesAssessment Conundrum
• Identity Verification–Signature Track program ($40 --$50 per course,with financial aid):• ID, live webcam, biometrics including typing• ID validation prior to test• Plagiarism– Coursera: Automatic plagiarismdetection programsMOOCs> Common Instructional IssuesStudent Identity and Plagiarism
• Rely on university brand– Institutional reputation at stake– Wisdom of the crowd– Feedback program• Risk of poor quality– Georgia Tech Course:• How do you organize 40,000students in groups?– UC Irvine• “I will not give on standards”MOOCs> Common Instructional IssuesQuality of Instruction
• Who owns the course materials?• What’s the impact of MOOCs on “fair use”on current EOR licensing and permission?• edX push for open content (Delft University):– Creative Common Licensing• What’s the role of the library?– Access tonon-copyrightedmaterial(international)– Research skillsand informationliteracyMOOCs> Common Instructional IssuesIntellectual Property & CopyrightPorter, (2013)
• Upon successful completion, the studentreceive:– Continuing education credit– Credential or license– Certificate– Badge– CreditMOOCs> Academic CreditAcknowledging Completion
American Council on Education– Recommends five MOOCs for CreditCalifornia Senate Draft Bill (SB 520)– 472,000 community college students waitlistedto complete their degree (85% of courses havewaiting lists)– Public Universities are asked to accept creditsearned in MOOCsThe State University of New York’s Board of Trustees– Add 100,000 enrollments within three yearsvia MOOCsMOOCs> Academic CreditWho is using MOOCs for Credit?
San Jose State University & Udacity– Freshman remediation: entry level(Circuits & Electronics)– Failure rate decreased: 41% to 9%Colorado State University’s GlobalCampus– Course completion, Proctored testsMOOCs for Credit in MagnoliaMOOCs> Academic CreditWho is Using MOOCs for Credit?Udacity and edXpartnered with Pearson VUEto allow students to take proctored exams
MOOC2Degree.com• “Students whosuccessfully completea MOOC2Degree courseearn academic creditstoward a degree,based upon criteriaestablished byparticipatinguniversities”http://www.mooc2degree.com/MOOCs> Academic CreditWho is Using MOOCs for Credit?
• Advertising• Employment recruitment• Proctoring• Course licensing andCustomization• Subscription• Sponsorship• Identity verification• Tutoring• Completion recognition• Start-up model:build fast and worryabout revenue streamlater• Unclear business model• 6-15% of the revenue• 20% of gross profit• Revenue generationor transfer of funds• Self-sustaining model• Donor fatigueMOOCs> Revenue Models> Self-Sustaining or Revenue-GeneratingIssues Impacting Revenue ModelHow can MOOCs be self-sustaining? $220K
http://www.katyjordan.com/MOOCproject.htmlMOOCs> Revenue Models> Low Rate of CompletionLow Rate of Completion: Sticking Point in MOOCs Debate12,725 Registered574 Earned Certificates< 5%5-10% total students, 30% from active students…
MOOCs> Revenue Models> Student Patters in MOOCsPatterns of Student Behavior Within MOOCs
Why would ODU jump on the MOOCs bandwagon?• “Everyone else is”• To expand institutional branding and marketing• To recruit new students• To contribute to the social good• To conduct research on online teachingand learning• To rethink and improve on-campus teaching andlearning practicesMOOCs> Next StepsHow Should we Proceed?
• Do you have faculty interested in developingMOOCs?–What areas? How many courses?• Do you have funds to supportMOOC development?–Faculty time, opportunity cost, TAs,production, maintenance, updates• Do you have pedagogical and technicalexpertise to support MOOC development?MOOCs> Next StepsBefore you “Go MOOC”, Ask…
• What type of partnerships should you pursue:for-profit or non-profit?• What type of licensing arrangementsshould you establish?• How are they aligned withyour own intellectual property policies?• Should you credit MOOCs taken by yourstudents?MOOCs> Next StepsBefore We “Go MOOC”, Ask…
• Where do MOOCs fit into our owndistance learning strategy?• What would be the impact of MOOCson your current DL efforts?• Should you encourage faculty to use MOOCsas part of a hybrid teaching strategy?• What role should faculty, DL and IT playin this discussion?• What are the organizational challengesassociated with MOOCs (accreditation)?MOOCs> Next StepsBefore We “Go MOOC”, Ask…?
Muchas gracias por su atenciónM’hammed Abdous, PhDmabdous@odu.edu