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    Wacquant  Urban Marginality - slides daconto Wacquant Urban Marginality - slides daconto Presentation Transcript

    • Luca DacontoPh.D student in Urban and Local European StudiesUniversity of Milan-Bicoccal.daconto@campus.unimib.it Wacquant L. (2008), Logics of Urban Polarization from Below, in Wacquant L., Urban Outcasts. A Comparative Sociology of Advanced Marginality, Polity Press 14/03/2012 The spatial impact of globalization: urban segregation 1
    • COORDINATESWhat? → new regime of urban marginality;Where? → advanced societies of the capitalist West;When? → the turn of the XXth century;Why? → end of fordist age; process of polarization from below and process of polarization from above;How?→ redrawing social and spatial structure of the big cities;14/03/2012 The spatial impact of globalization: urban segregation 2
    • WACQUANTS TOPICS 1. Characterization of new regime of urban marginality; 2. Convergence of urban poverty regimes across the Atlantic on the US pattern; 3. New urban marginality and policies;14/03/2012 The spatial impact of globalization: urban segregation 3
    • WHATS HAPPENED? Accelaration of the process of capitalist rationalization; Transition from FORDIST SOCIETY to POST-FORDIST SOCIETY;- standardized industrial production; - financialization;- mass consumption; - new international division of labour;- patriarchal nuclear family; - knowledge-intensive industries;- Keynesian social contract; - information technologies; - dual occupational structure; 14/03/2012 The spatial impact of globalization: urban segregation 4
    • URBAN MARGINALITY Before: Now: ● residual or cyclical; ● persistent and permanent; ● embedded in working-class ● social isolation; communities; ● fixated upon neighbourhoods of ● geographically diffuse; relegation; ● remediable by means of ● disconnected from macroeconomic economic growth; fluctuations;New urban marginality is not aaresidue from the past or aatransitional phenomenon New urban marginality is not residue from the past or transitional phenomenon ( (cf. deindustrialization and spatial mismatch theories) cf. deindustrialization and spatial mismatch theories) City is the site and the fount of new urban marginality City is the site and the fount of new urban marginality 14/03/2012 The spatial impact of globalization: urban segregation 5
    • NEW REGIME OF URBAN MARGINALITY It is the product of 4 logics: 1. Macrosocial dynamic → occupational dualization and the resurgence of inequality; 2. Economic dynamic → the desocialization of wage labour; 3. Political dynamic → the recoiling of the social state; 4. Spatial dynamic → concentration and defamation; «The consolidation of this new regime […] is treading diverse routes and taking different «The consolidation of this new regime […] is treading diverse routes and taking differentconcrete forms […] in keeping with the variety of national modalities of organization of concrete forms […] in keeping with the variety of national modalities of organization of capitalism» p. 261 capitalism» p. 261 cf. Streeck, Esping-Andersen cf. Streeck, Esping-Andersen 14/03/2012 The spatial impact of globalization: urban segregation 6
    • 1. Macrosocial dynamic: occupational dualization and the resurgence of inequality● Multiplication of highly skilled and highly remunerated positions;● Deskilling and outright elimination of millions of jobs as well as the swelling of casual employment slots for uneducated workers;● Jobless production and growth in many economic sectors are a reality; Urban marginality is rooted deep Urban marginality is rooted deep in the very structure of the new capitalism in the very structure of the new capitalism Rising inequality in aacontext of Rising inequality in context of rapid economic advancement and overall prosperity rapid economic advancement and overall prosperity14/03/2012 The spatial impact of globalization: urban segregation 7
    • 2. Economic dynamic: the desocialization of wage labourDouble transformation of the sphere of work:QUANTITATIVE: - disappearance of millions of low-skilled jobs; - occupational structure towards personal and business services;QUALITATIVE: - deterioration and dispersion of basic conditions of employment, remuneration and social insurance; A significant fraction A significant fraction of the working class of the working class Wage labour doesnt have aa Wage labour doesnt have constitutes constitutes common temporal and social framework common temporal and social framework an absolute surplus population: an absolute surplus population: «Economic growth and expansion of the wage sector «Economic growth and expansion of the wage sector are part of the problem are part of the problem for those at the foot of the occupational ladder» p.267 for those at the foot of the occupational ladder» p.267 14/03/2012 The spatial impact of globalization: urban segregation 8
    • 3. Political dynamic: the [recoiling of]the social state Welfare states are major producers and shapers of urban inequality: - they provide or preclude access to adequate schooling and job training; - they set conditions for labour market entry and exit; - they stipulate basic employment conditions and minimal standards of consumption; - they distribute (or fail to distribute) basic public goods; - they provide supplementary income through the mediation of public aid, social transfers and public services; «It is imperative «It is imperativeto bring the state back to the epicentre of the comparative sociology of urban marginality to bring the state back to the epicentre of the comparative sociology of urban marginality as aagenerative institution, aaforce that not only can cure as generative institution, force that not only can cure but paradoxically coproduces the problems of the neighbourhoods of relegation» but paradoxically coproduces the problems of the neighbourhoods of relegation» p.270 p.270 14/03/2012 The spatial impact of globalization: urban segregation 9
    • 4. Spatial dynamic: concentration and defamation Advanced marginality displays a tendency to conglomerate in «urban infernos»: territorial stigma; creatures of state policies in matters of housing, urban development, regional planning; sharp diminution of identification and attachment to a community of fate; neighbourhood no longer offers a shield against the insecurities and pressures of the outside world; empty space of competition and conflict; negative social and symbolic capital; retreat into the sphere of privatized consumption and stimulates strategies of mutual distancing and denigration; «In the final analysis, their possible dispersion or rebuilding […] «In the final analysis, their possible dispersion or rebuilding […] is an eminently political question» p. 272 is an eminently political question» p. 27214/03/2012 The spatial impact of globalization: urban segregation 10
    • NEW URBAN MARGINALITY AND POLICIES Nation-states face a policy choice with a three-pronged alternative: 1. Patching up and redeploying the existing programmes of the welfare state. → can contribute to perpetuating the process of polarization from below; 2. Criminalize via the punitive containment of the poor. → the atrophy of the social state and the hypertrophy of the penal state in the US are two correlative and complementary transformations; 3. Offensive reconstruction of the social state: → structure and policies in accord with the emerging economic conditions, the transformation of family forms ant the remaking of gender relations; → innovations are needed to expand the sphere of social rights and check the deleterious effects of the fragmentation of wage labour, such as: - institution of a «citizens wage»; - free education and job training through the lifecourse; - effective guarantee of universal access to the 3 essential public goods: housing, health, transportation; In these contexts, In these contexts,whats the possible role played by sociologists, urban planners, architects?whats the possible role played by sociologists, urban planners, architects? A possible answer de Biase A. (2011), Replacer le regard, créer des écarts A possible answer de Biase A. (2011), Replacer le regard, créer des écarts 14/03/2012 The spatial impact of globalization: urban segregation 11