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  • 1. The spatial dimension of urban marginality The french case Luca Daconto - l.daconto@campus.unimib.itPh.D student in Urban and Local European Studies University of Milan - Bicocca
  • 2. Table of contents Urban marginality as product of metropolization-globalization processes; Area effects in deprived neighbourhoods: hypothesis VS evidences; The spatialisation of social problems: some effects in french cities;02.05.12 Luca Daconto - The spatial dimension of urban marginality 2
  • 3. Urban marginality as product of metropolization and globalization processes Transition to post-fordist society: internationalization, financialization, knowledge and service economy, ICT, recoiling of welfare state; New paradigm: inclusion / exclusion; → Polarization of society, which is increasingly more segregated; Dual society manifests itself in a dual city. At the most, «three-speed city»: gentrification, periurbanization, relegation; Overlap between social and spatial exclusion;02.05.12 Luca Daconto - The spatial dimension of urban marginality 3
  • 4. The ideal-type of poor neighbourhood and its inhabitants ? Territory: The spatial confinement - lack of opportunities (goods, service, of vulnerable populations, relations) due to - marginal position in the metropolitan system (low accessibility) macrosocial processes, - slum housing produces negative area effectsΣ that exacerbate Inhabitants: their social exclusion. - poor, unemployement, one-parent family, large family, immigrants, elderly Consequently, people → lack of capitals stigmatization of - low mobility (physical, residential, territory and residents social) 02.05.12 Luca Daconto - The spatial dimension of urban marginality 4
  • 5. Area effects in deprived neighbourhoods: hypothesis . . . « the area effects or neighbourhood effects are the independent, separable effects on life chances that arise from living in a particular neighbourhood » (Atkinson & Kintrea 2004, p. 438) Most of research has studied poor neighbourhoods Localization effects: effects low accessibility; lack of opportunities; spatial mismatch; Social relationship effects: effects 1. strong ties ; bonding social capital; 2. negative socialisation, lack of various role models, culture of «ghetto»;02.05.12 Luca Daconto - The spatial dimension of urban marginality 5
  • 6. . . . and evidences Research on physical (1) and residential (2) mobility in french poor neighbourhoods;(1) Main findings: low mobility, local dependence - The local context is a source of resources, a hub of social networks, based on strong ties, which form an «autochthony capital». This «autochthony capital» enables to plug a gap in other capitals and to reach other opportunities: ex. informal car sharing(2) Main findings: high mobility, high turn-over, signs of ethnic discrimination - Confinement? No, high mobility - Negative effects on life chances? No, upward trajectories - Segregation due to macrosocial processes? Yes, but also strategies of avoidance by social groups02.05.12 Luca Daconto - The spatial dimension of urban marginality 6
  • 7. Area effects in poor neighbourhoods« the area (in which individuals reside) [...] is a «milieu», [...] a productive entity, withproperties that have specific effects on the «course of human actions» [... ]But, [...], if the milieu-neighborhood has specific effects, that is to say [...] «effectsthat cant be derived by the social structure» these effects «are not autonomous , that isto say, [they] can be understood only from the social structure.» [...]The effects of social characteristics of milieu-neighborhoods dont operateindependently from social properties of individuals and their history.»(Authier, 2007, pp. 209-211, my translation)« the conclusions tend to support a middle-range position within the area effectsdebate that is, that both structure and agency are important in influencingneighbourhood problems »(Atkinson & Kintrea, 2001, p. 2295)« area effects […] could be positive and negative […] Many residents in the deprivedareas are content with the familiarity and support found in their locality and it wouldbe unwise to suggest that their social relations are impaired or deficient »(Atkinson & Kintrea, 2004, p. 452) 02.05.12 Luca Daconto - The spatial dimension of urban marginality 7
  • 8. The «spatialisation» of social problems: the french politique de la ville Spatial concentration of social problems → Spatial concentration is the explanatory factor of social problems → effects = cause Policy against exclusion led by the State in partnership with local communities (governance) in favor of urban areas where social deprivation is high Wide range of interventions: urban planning, economic development, social action, education, safety, etc. - Solidarity and urban renewal law 2000 → mixité sociale - Borloo law 2003 → ANRU (National Agency for Urban Renovation) → demolition (of social housing) / reconstruction (of middle-class housing);02.05.12 Luca Daconto - The spatial dimension of urban marginality 8
  • 9. Demolition and re-housing effects Source: http://www.laa-courneuve.net/ 50% rehousing within 1 km; 73% within 5 km → mobility of proximity (wish to stay «chez eux» ; estate of social housing providers) Re-housing in very close spatially and/or socially areas → NO, upward residential mobility Destabilization of the resources associated with the inclusion into social networks rooted in the neighbourhood (for both, who leave and who remain) Mixité sociale VS Right to housingIs spatialisation of social problems effective to struggle urban marginality? 02.05.12 Yes, Luca Daconto - The spatialNo, forofpeople for territory / dimension urban marginality 9
  • 10. Conclusions Urban marginality theory: -Micro-level (individual capitals / social networks) -Meso-level (place resources, image-history-culture of territory) -Macro-level (competitiveness, cohesion, state/communal processes of distribution and allocation) Social exclusion = spatial concentration of marginalized people No, spatialisation of social problems02.05.12 Luca Daconto - The spatial dimension of urban marginality 10
  • 11. ReferencesActes du colloque « Des ‘effets de quartier’ à la politique de la ville - Perspectives internationales », Centre d’analyse stratégique, 24 novembre 2011Atkinson R., Kintrea K., Disentangling Area Effects: Evidence from Deprived and Non-deprived Neighbourhoods, Urban Studies, Vol. 38, No. 12, 2277–2298, 2001Atkinson R., Kintrea K., ‘Opportunities and Despair, It’s All in There’: Practitioner Experiences and Explanations of Area Effects and Life Chances, Sociology 2004 38: 437Authier, Bacqué, Guérin-Pace, a cura di (2006), Le quartier. Enjeux scientifiques, action politique et pratiques sociales, Paris : La Découverte, pp. 206-216.Authier J-Y., Grafmeyer Y., Mallon I., Vogel M. (2010), Sociologie de Lyon, La Découverte, ParisBéhar D. (1995), Banlieues ghettos, quartiers populaires ou ville éclatée ? Lespace urbain à lépreuve de la nouvelle question sociale, Annales de la recherche urbaine, 68-69Castel R. (1995), Les métamorphes de la question sociale. Une chronique du salariat, Fayard, ParisCastells M., Globalisation, Networking, Urbanisation: Reflections on the Spatial Dynamics of the Information Age, Urban Studies, 2010, 47:2737Dangschat J., Space Matters ― Marginalization and Its Places, International Journal of Urban and Regional Research. Volume 33.3 September 2009 835–40Donzelot, J. (2009), La ville à trois vitesse, éditions de la Villette, ParisFol S. (2009). La mobilité des pauvres. Paris: BelinGilbert P., « Ghetto », « relégation », « effets de quartier ». Critique d’une représentation des cités. », Métropolitiques, 9 février 2011. URL : http://www.metropolitiques.eu/Ghetto-relegation-effets-de.htmlLelévrier C. (2010), La mixité dans la rénovation urbaine : dispersion ou re-concentration ?. Espaces et sociétés 140- 141 pp. 59-74Lévy-Vroelant C., Urban Renewal in France, Innovation: The European Journal of Social Sciences; Jun2007, Vol. 20 Issue 2, p109-118, 10pSassen S. (2010), Cities in a World Economy, SageWacquant L., Urban Outcasts. A Comparative Sociology of Advanced Marginality, Polity Press, 200802.05.12 Luca Daconto - The spatial dimension of urban marginality 11