An Introduction To Business Budgeting

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To ensure your business achieves its targets and stays on course for reaching its full potential, it is critical to regularly measure its performance. This free resource will ensure that you have the proper understanding of why and how a business budget is the only tool that will enable you to do just that. Following this easy step-by-step guide will empower each and every business owner to take ownership of the business’ financial position and fully comprehend the importance of not only cashflowmanagement, but also cashflowplanning. Most importantly, it will assist you in implementing a financial control through which you can forecast the financial results of your business, consistently and timeously -all prerequisites for a system through which you can manage by the numbers.

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An Introduction To Business Budgeting

  1. 1. 13 7 BUDGETING FOR YOUR BUSINESS 2 489 50 6 AN INTRODUCTION TO BUDGETING IMPORTANCE OF BUDGETING FOR YOUR BUSINESS Share this E-bookhttp://www.linkedin.com/company/calypso-professional-accountants http://www.facebook.com/pages/Calypso-Accounting/215286755238093 https://twitter.com/SMEAccounting luan@calypsoaccounting.co.za A Publication By www.calypsoaccounting.co.za ©Copyright Calypso Accounting 2012
  2. 2. BUDGETING FOR YOUR BUSINESS IS THIS EBOOK RIGHT FOR ME? Not quite sure if this ebook is right for you? See the below description to determine if your level matches the content you are about to view. BEGINNER ( This E-Book) Beginner content is for business owners who are new to the subject. This content typically includes step-by-step instructions on how to get started with this aspect of creating a business budget and learn its fundamentals. After reading it, you will be able to execute basic financial management tasks related to the topic. INTERMEDIATE Intermediate content is for business owners who are familiar with the subject but have only basic experience executing strategies and tasks on the topic. This content typically covers the fundamentals and reveals more complex functions and examples. After reading it, you will feel comfortable leading projects where business budgeting is concerned. Share this E-bookhttp://www.linkedin.com/company/calypso-professional-accountants http://www.facebook.com/pages/Calypso-Accounting/215286755238093 https://twitter.com/SMEAccounting luan@calypsoaccounting.co.za www.calypsoaccounting.co.za ©Copyright Calypso Accounting 2012
  3. 3. BUDGETING FOR YOUR BUSINESS CALYPSO ACCOUNTING’S UNIQUE APPROACH TO MONTHLY ACCOUNTING SERVICES PARTNER http://www.calypsoaccounting.co.za/index.php/products/essentials-package http://www.calypsoaccounting.co.za/index.php/products/comprehensive-package REFERRAL http://www.calypsoaccounting.co.za/index.php/partner-referral-program PROGRAM Essential Accounting Service Comprehensive Accounting Service Benefit from client referrals http://www.calypsoaccounting.co.za/index.php/get-a-fixed-quote http://www.calypsoaccounting.co.za/index.php/products SERVICE OVERVIEW Share this E-bookhttp://www.linkedin.com/company/calypso-professional-accountants http://www.facebook.com/pages/Calypso-Accounting/215286755238093 https://twitter.com/SMEAccounting luan@calypsoaccounting.co.za www.calypsoaccounting.co.za ©Copyright Calypso Accounting 2012
  4. 4. BUDGETING FOR YOUR BUSINESS IN THISE-BOOK 1. Budget as part of your business plan 2. Creating a budget 3. Key steps in drawing up a budget 4. What your budget should cover 5. Using your budget to measure performance 6. Reviewing your budget regularly Share this E-bookhttp://www.linkedin.com/company/calypso-professional-accountants http://www.facebook.com/pages/Calypso-Accounting/215286755238093 https://twitter.com/SMEAccounting luan@calypsoaccounting.co.za www.calypsoaccounting.co.za ©Copyright Calypso Accounting 2012
  5. 5. 123 4 BUDGETING FOR YOUR BUSINESS 567 8 9 Enough available cash is the heart of any business and it is critical that you regularly review the financial performance INTRODUCTION 0 of your business. Tightly managing your business’ financials is only possible through a proper budgeting process. In this guide we outline the importance of BUDGETING as part of your financial management processes and explain how to implement this. It highlights action points to help you manage your business’ financial position more effectively and ensure your plans are practical. Tightly managing your business’ financials is only possible through a proper budgeting process. Share this E-bookhttp://www.linkedin.com/company/calypso-professional-accountants http://www.facebook.com/pages/Calypso-Accounting/215286755238093 https://twitter.com/SMEAccounting luan@calypsoaccounting.co.za www.calypsoaccounting.co.za ©Copyright Calypso Accounting 2012
  6. 6. BUDGETING FOR YOUR BUSINESS chapter 1 BUDGET AS PART OF YOUR BUSINESS PLAN BUDGETING FOR YOUR BUSINESS Share this E-bookhttp://www.linkedin.com/company/calypso-professional-accountants http://www.facebook.com/pages/Calypso-Accounting/215286755238093 https://twitter.com/SMEAccounting luan@calypsoaccounting.co.za www.calypsoaccounting.co.za ©Copyright Calypso Accounting 2012
  7. 7. BUDGETING FOR YOUR BUSINESS 123 4 567 8 9 BUDGETING AS PART OF YOUR BUSINESS PLAN Your business plan is the GPS for your business’ future. It depicts the nature of your business, its goals and objectives, financial forecasts and your target market. It can help you secure external finance, measure results of your financial objectives and grow the business. However, for financial management purposes, budgeting can be the most effective way to control and free up sufficient cashflow to invest in new opportunities. As your business grows, you may not always be able to be hands-on with every part of it. You may have to split your budget up between different cost centers such as sales, production, marketing, etc. Cashflow may change direction as you grow and new cost centers or departments are added. Ensure that you stay in control of expenses through a well-managed budgeting system. Share this E-bookhttp://www.linkedin.com/company/calypso-professional-accountants http://www.facebook.com/pages/Calypso-Accounting/215286755238093 https://twitter.com/SMEAccounting luan@calypsoaccounting.co.za www.calypsoaccounting.co.za ©Copyright Calypso Accounting 2012
  8. 8. 1 BUDGETING FOR YOUR BUSINESS 4 238 5 7 06 9 BENEFITS OF A BUSINESS BUDGET A BUDGET IS A PLAN TO:  control your finances  ensure you can continue to fund your current commitments  enable you to make confident financial decisions and meet your objectives  ensure you have enough money for your future projects It outlines what you will spend your money on and how that spending will be financed. However, it is not a cashflow forecast. A forecast is a prediction of the future whereas a budget is a planned outcome that your business wants to achieve. There are a number of benefits of drawing up a business budget, including being better able to:  manage your money effectively  allocate appropriate resources to projects  monitor performance  meet your objectives  improve decision-making  identify problems before they occur - such as the need to raise finance or cashflow difficulties  plan for the future Share this E-bookhttp://www.linkedin.com/company/calypso-professional-accountants http://www.facebook.com/pages/Calypso-Accounting/215286755238093 https://twitter.com/SMEAccounting luan@calypsoaccounting.co.za www.calypsoaccounting.co.za ©Copyright Calypso Accounting 2012
  9. 9. BUDGETING FOR YOUR BUSINESS chapter 2 CREATING A BUDGET BUDGETING FOR YOUR BUSINESS Share this E-bookhttp://www.linkedin.com/company/calypso-professional-accountants http://www.facebook.com/pages/Calypso-Accounting/215286755238093 https://twitter.com/SMEAccounting luan@calypsoaccounting.co.za www.calypsoaccounting.co.za ©Copyright Calypso Accounting 2012
  10. 10. 123 4 0 BUDGETING FOR YOUR BUSINESS 567 8 9 CREATING A BUDGET Creating, monitoring and managing a budget is key to business success. It should help you allocate resources where they are needed, and should not be complicated. You simply need to work out what you are likely to earn and spend in the budget period. Most businesses start preparing a budget around two to three months before the start of a new financial year. GET STARTED BY ASKING THESE QUESTIONS: 1 What are the projected sales for the budget period? Be realistic - if you overestimate, it will cause you problems in the future. 2 What are the direct costs of sales - ie costs of materials, components or subcontractors to make the product or supply the service? 3 What are the fixed costs or overheads? Share this E-bookhttp://www.linkedin.com/company/calypso-professional-accountants http://www.facebook.com/pages/Calypso-Accounting/215286755238093 https://twitter.com/SMEAccounting luan@calypsoaccounting.co.za www.calypsoaccounting.co.za ©Copyright Calypso Accounting 2012
  11. 11. 123 4 0 1 BUDGETING FOR YOUR BUSINESS 567 8 9 YOU SHOULD BREAK DOWN THE FIXED COSTS AND OVERHEADS BY TYPE, EG:  cost of premises, including rent or mortgage, business rates and service charges  staff costs – salaries and wages, company contributions and benefits, PAYE/SDL/UIF  utilities - eg water and electricity, telephone, fax and internet connection  printing, stationery, courier and postage  legal and professional costs, including insurance and accounting fees  motor vehicle expenses  equipment costs  advertising and promotion  travel and subsistence expenses Depending on the nature of your business you may have different types of expenses, and you may need to divide the budget by department. Most of the time business owners forget two critical components in their budgets. 1 How much they need to pay themselves, and 2 to include an allowance for tax. If you haven’t been trading long enough to know how much your tax provision should be, you can ask your accountant for some assistance. Share this E-bookhttp://www.linkedin.com/company/calypso-professional-accountants http://www.facebook.com/pages/Calypso-Accounting/215286755238093 https://twitter.com/SMEAccounting luan@calypsoaccounting.co.za www.calypsoaccounting.co.za ©Copyright Calypso Accounting 2012
  12. 12. 1 BUDGETING FOR YOUR BUSINESS 40 238 5 7 6 9 The budget should be in place before the start of the financial year. This will enable you to communicate the responsibility for maximising revenue and managing expenditure to all staff members. Your business plan should help in differentiating between projected sales, cost of sales, fixed costs and overheads, so it would be worthwhile preparing this first. Once you have figures for income and expenditure, you can work out how much money you’re making. Regularly reviewing expenses and working out ways to reduce them, will greatly assist in increasing your profitability. Your budget should also be able to highlight if and when you are likely to have cashflow problems - giving you time to do something about them. Y should stick to ou your budget as far as possible, but review and revise it as needed. Share this E-bookhttp://www.linkedin.com/company/calypso-professional-accountants http://www.facebook.com/pages/Calypso-Accounting/215286755238093 https://twitter.com/SMEAccounting luan@calypsoaccounting.co.za www.calypsoaccounting.co.za ©Copyright Calypso Accounting 2012
  13. 13. BUDGETING FOR YOUR BUSINESS chapter 3 DRAWING UP A BUDGETBUDGETING FOR YOUR BUSINESS Share this E-bookhttp://www.linkedin.com/company/calypso-professional-accountants http://www.facebook.com/pages/Calypso-Accounting/215286755238093 https://twitter.com/SMEAccounting luan@calypsoaccounting.co.za www.calypsoaccounting.co.za ©Copyright Calypso Accounting 2012
  14. 14. 1 BUDGETING FOR YOUR BUSINESS 40 238 5 7 69 KEY STEPS IN DRAWING UP A BUDGET There are a number of key steps you should follow to make sure your budgets and plans are as realistic and useful as possible. 1 Step Make time for budgeting If you invest some time in creating a comprehensive and realistic budget, it will be easier to manage and ultimately more effective. Step2 Use last year’s figures - but only as a guide Collect historical information on sales and costs if they are available - these could give you a good indication of likely future sales and costs. It’s also essential to consider what your sales plans are, how your sales resources will be used and any changes in your market or the competitive environment. Share this E-bookhttp://www.linkedin.com/company/calypso-professional-accountants http://www.facebook.com/pages/Calypso-Accounting/215286755238093 https://twitter.com/SMEAccounting luan@calypsoaccounting.co.za www.calypsoaccounting.co.za ©Copyright Calypso Accounting 2012
  15. 15. BUDGETING FOR YOUR BUSINESS 123 4 0 57 8 69 Step3 Create realistic budgets Use historical information, your business plan and any changes in operations or priorities to budget for overheads and other fixed costs. It’s useful to work out the relationship between variable costs and sales and then use your sales forecast to project variable costs. For example, if your unit costs reduce by 10 per cent for each additional 20 per cent of sales, how much will your unit costs decrease if you have a 33 per cent rise in sales? Make sure your budgets contain enough information for you to easily monitor the key drivers of your business such as sales, costs and working capital. Accounting software can help you manage your accounts. Step4 Involve the right people It’s best to ask staff with financial responsibilities within the business to provide you with estimates of figures for your budget - for example, sales targets, production costs or specific project control. If you balance their estimates against your own, you will achieve a more realistic budget. This involvement will also give them greater commitment to meeting the budget. You could also ask your accountant to review your budget figures or to put the final budget figures together. Share this E-bookhttp://www.linkedin.com/company/calypso-professional-accountants http://www.facebook.com/pages/Calypso-Accounting/215286755238093 https://twitter.com/SMEAccounting luan@calypsoaccounting.co.za www.calypsoaccounting.co.za ©Copyright Calypso Accounting 2012
  16. 16. BUDGETING FOR YOUR BUSINESS chapter 4 WHAT YOUR BUDGET SHOULD COVER BUDGETING FOR YOUR BUSINESS Share this E-bookhttp://www.linkedin.com/company/calypso-professional-accountants http://www.facebook.com/pages/Calypso-Accounting/215286755238093 https://twitter.com/SMEAccounting luan@calypsoaccounting.co.za www.calypsoaccounting.co.za ©Copyright Calypso Accounting 2012
  17. 17. BUDGETING FOR YOUR BUSINESS 123 4 0 8 679 WHAT YOUR BUDGET SHOULD COVER You should first decide how many budgets you really need. Most small businesses will only have one overall operating budget which sets out how much money is needed to run the business over the coming period - usually a year. As your business however grows, it is likely that your total operating budget is made up of several individual budgets such as your marketing or sales budgets. WHAT YOUR BUDGET SHOULD INCLUDE 1 Projected cashflow - your cashflow forecast projects your future cash position on a month-by-month basis. Budgeting in this way is vital for small businesses as it can pinpoint any difficulties you might be having. It should be reviewed at least monthly. Most small businesses will only have one overall operating budget . Share this E-bookhttp://www.linkedin.com/company/calypso-professional-accountants http://www.facebook.com/pages/Calypso-Accounting/215286755238093 https://twitter.com/SMEAccounting luan@calypsoaccounting.co.za www.calypsoaccounting.co.za ©Copyright Calypso Accounting 2012
  18. 18. 1 BUDGETING FOR YOUR BUSINESS 40 238 5 7 2 Expenses - typically, your business will have three kinds of expenses: 6 9  fixed costs - items such as rent, rates, salaries and financing costs  variable costs - including raw materials, overtime and tax  once-off capital expenses - for example, purchases of computer equipment As a starting point to forecast your expenses, it may help to look at last year’s records and adjust for inflation as a percentage. 3 Revenues - sales or revenue forecasts are typically based on a combination of your sales history and how effective you expect your future efforts to be. Using your sales and expenditure forecasts, you can prepare projected profits for the next 12 months. This will enable you to analyse your margins and other key ratios such as your return on investment. Share this E-bookhttp://www.linkedin.com/company/calypso-professional-accountants http://www.facebook.com/pages/Calypso-Accounting/215286755238093 https://twitter.com/SMEAccounting luan@calypsoaccounting.co.za www.calypsoaccounting.co.za ©Copyright Calypso Accounting 2012
  19. 19. BUDGETING FOR YOUR BUSINESS chapter 5 USING YOUR BUDGET TO MEASURE PERFORMANCE BUDGETING FOR YOUR BUSINESS Share this E-bookhttp://www.linkedin.com/company/calypso-professional-accountants http://www.facebook.com/pages/Calypso-Accounting/215286755238093 https://twitter.com/SMEAccounting luan@calypsoaccounting.co.za www.calypsoaccounting.co.za ©Copyright Calypso Accounting 2012
  20. 20. BUDGETING FOR YOUR BUSINESS 123 4 0 567 8 9 USING YOUR BUDGET TO MEASURE PERFORMANCE Your budget can be a financial action plan. This can be useful, particularly if you review your budgets regularly as part of your annual planning cycle. Use your budget as:  an indicator of the costs and revenues linked to each of your activities  a way of providing information and supporting management decisions throughout the year  a means of monitoring and controlling your business, particularly if you regularly analyse the differences between your actual and budgeted figures. MEASUREMENT TOOLS Step 1 benchmarking performance Step 2 key performance indicators (kpis) Share this E-bookhttp://www.linkedin.com/company/calypso-professional-accountants http://www.facebook.com/pages/Calypso-Accounting/215286755238093 https://twitter.com/SMEAccounting luan@calypsoaccounting.co.za www.calypsoaccounting.co.za ©Copyright Calypso Accounting 2012
  21. 21. BUDGETING FOR YOUR BUSINESS 1 34 0 2 85 7 Step 1 BENCHMARKING PERFORMANCE 69 Comparing your budget year on year can be an excellent way of benchmarking your business’ performance - for example, you can compare your projected figures with previous years to determine if you reached your financial targets. You can also compare your figures for projected margins and growth with those of other businesses in the same sector, or across different parts of your business. Step2 KEY PERFORMANCE INDICATORS (KPI’S) To boost your business’ performance you need to understand and monitor the key ‘drivers’ of your business - a driver is something that has a major impact on your business. There are many factors affecting every business’ performance, so it is vital to focus on a handful of these and monitor them carefully. The three key drivers for most businesses are:  sales  costs  working capital Any trends towards cashflow problems or falling profitability will show up in these figures when measured against your budgets and forecasts. They can help you spot problems early on if they are calculated on a consistent basis. Sales Costs Working capital THE THREE KEY DRIVERS FOR MOST BUSINESSES Share this E-bookhttp://www.linkedin.com/company/calypso-professional-accountants http://www.facebook.com/pages/Calypso-Accounting/215286755238093 https://twitter.com/SMEAccounting luan@calypsoaccounting.co.za www.calypsoaccounting.co.za ©Copyright Calypso Accounting 2012
  22. 22. BUDGETING FOR YOUR BUSINESS chapter 6 REVIEWING YOUR BUDGET REGULARLY BUDGETING FOR YOUR BUSINESS Share this E-bookhttp://www.linkedin.com/company/calypso-professional-accountants http://www.facebook.com/pages/Calypso-Accounting/215286755238093 https://twitter.com/SMEAccounting luan@calypsoaccounting.co.za www.calypsoaccounting.co.za ©Copyright Calypso Accounting 2012
  23. 23. BUDGETING FOR YOUR BUSINESS 123 4 0 2 567 8 9 REVIEWING YOUR BUDGET REGULARLY To use your budgets effectively, you will need to review and revise them frequently. This is particularly true if your business is growing and you are planning to move into new areas. Using up-to-date budgets will help you manage your cashflow effectively and identify what needs to be achieved in the next budgeting period. INCOME AND EXPENDITURE There are two main areas to consider when reviewing your budget. income VS Expenses Share this E-bookhttp://www.linkedin.com/company/calypso-professional-accountants http://www.facebook.com/pages/Calypso-Accounting/215286755238093 https://twitter.com/SMEAccounting luan@calypsoaccounting.co.za www.calypsoaccounting.co.za ©Copyright Calypso Accounting 2012
  24. 24. 134 BUDGETING FOR YOUR BUSINESS 2 85 7 income 69 Each month, you should compare your actual income with your sales budget. To do this, you should:  analyse the reasons for any shortfall - for example, lower sales volumes, flat markets and underperforming products  consider the reasons for a particularly high turnover - for example, whether your targets were too low  compare the timing of your income with your projections and check that they fit Analysing these variations will help you to set future budgets more accurately and also allow you to take action where needed. Expenses Regularly review your actual expenditure against your budget. This will help you to predict future costs with greater reliability. You should:  look at how your fixed costs differed from your budget  check that your variable costs were in line with your budget - normally variable costs adjust in line with your sales volume  analyse any reasons for changes in the relationship between costs and turnover  analyse any differences in the timing of your expenditure - for example, by checking suppliers’ payment terms Share this E-bookhttp://www.linkedin.com/company/calypso-professional-accountants http://www.facebook.com/pages/Calypso-Accounting/215286755238093 https://twitter.com/SMEAccounting luan@calypsoaccounting.co.za www.calypsoaccounting.co.za ©Copyright Calypso Accounting 2012
  25. 25. BUDGETING FOR YOUR BUSINESS START TO TRACK YOUR ACTUAL VS BUDGETED FIGURES MONTHLY FIND OUT HOW CALYPSO ACCOUNTING CAN ASSIST IN MANAGING YOUR BUDGET www.calypsoaccounting.co.za Share this E-bookhttp://www.linkedin.com/company/calypso-professional-accountants http://www.facebook.com/pages/Calypso-Accounting/215286755238093 https://twitter.com/SMEAccounting luan@calypsoaccounting.co.za www.calypsoaccounting.co.za ©Copyright Calypso Accounting 2012

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