Preventing prematurity & birth defects

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NURS 604

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  • 1. LuAnn Townsend, BSN, RN, CAPA
  • 2. Prematurity• Prematurity defined • gestation of >20 weeks &< 37 weeks• In 2005, 1 in 8 children born before 37 weeks• Cultural Significance  18.4% of non-Hispanic black  14.2 of American Indian/Alaska Native  12.2% of Hispanics  11.7% non-Hispanic white
  • 3. Prematurity2002 study  Preterm birth primary cause of death  Congenital anomalies secondary cause of deathMarch of Dimes 2009 U.S. report cardGlobal issues  4 million infants die each year within first 4 weeks of life  1.1 million of those because of prematurity
  • 4. High Risk Groups Previous history of preterm birth Younger than 17, older than 35 Domestic violence Non-Hispanic black Substance abuse Multiple sexual partners Diabetes Hypertension Clotting disorders
  • 5. Screening & Tools Must start before pregnancy  Good prenatal vitamins  National Health & Nutrition Exam Survey findings  Neural tube defects decreased 25%-30% after folic acid mandate  Balanced diet with adequate protein
  • 6. Screening & Tools Physical exam  Hypertension  Diabetes  Sexually transmitted infections Genetic counseling based on family history Lifestyle education  Alcohol/Drugs  Smoking  Vaccinations current  Care of pets/pet feces
  • 7. Birth Defects Affects 1 in 33 children  Most occur within first 3 months’ gestation  Neural tube defects, cleft palate  Some found during first year of life  Hearing loss, heart defect Severity range: mild to severe Center for Disease Control  #1 cause of infant mortality  More than 20% of total infant deaths
  • 8. Causes of Birth defects Causes  Genetics  Tay-Sachs  Environmental  Fetal Alcohol Syndrome  Multifactorial  Genetics and environmental exposure  Unknown