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Presentation from a Cary Institute of Ecosystems Studies public forum on climate change by Perry Sheffield, Professor of Pediatrics and Preventative Medicine, Mount Sinai

Presentation from a Cary Institute of Ecosystems Studies public forum on climate change by Perry Sheffield, Professor of Pediatrics and Preventative Medicine, Mount Sinai

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  • 1. Human Health under a Changing Climate Perry Sheffield, MD, MPHAssistant Professor, Pediatrics and Preventive Medicine Mount Sinai S h l of M di i M t Si i School f MedicineCary Institute forum on “Climate Change in the Hudson Valley: Preparing at the Local Level” Level October 22, 2011
  • 2. Health Effects of Climate Change - Direct Climate Impacts Direct Health Effects More intense and Heat stress, frequent Heat Waves cardiovascular disease Stagnant Air Masses, Asthma, respiratory Air Pollution illness, cardiovascular , disease More Frequent Heavy Drowning, direct injury Rainfall Events Slide text from G. Luber, CDC.
  • 3. Health Effects of Climate Change - Indirect Climate Impacts Indirect Health Effects Effects on key Impacts on vector-borne and vector borne ecosystem parameters zoonotic disease Heavy precipitation Water-borne diseases, events will become harmful algal blooms, more frequent q Increase in areas Changes in food sources, affected by drought malnutrition, forced migration Slide text from G. Luber, CDC.
  • 4. Heat Waves and Public Health• Heat wave or extreme heat events – Period of very hot and humid weather that can make people very sick and even lead to death p p y• Scientists project that NYC could have 40 to 89 days annually with 90 degree heat – or hotter y y g• NYC August 2006: 40 heat stroke deaths and 100 more deaths than expected Slide text from Nathan Graber, NYC DOH
  • 5. Ground-level ozone (O3) from Queensland Government EPA,
  • 6. Change in O3-related asthma emergency department visits for children (0–17 years) in 2020s vs 1990s Sheffield et al, AJPM 2011.
  • 7. Climate, Pollen , and Asthma: possible mechanismsFrom: Beggs and Bambrick, EHP 2005
  • 8. West Nile virus in mosquitoes, New York State, 2008 NYSERDA ClimAID team, 2010.
  • 9. Vulnerability factors – extreme heat example1. Underlying medical conditions • Heart d lung di H t and l diseases, e.g.2. Demographics • Race, age, education R d ti3. Housing • Top floor apartments, air conditioning4. Community geography • Heat island, vegetation density O’Neill & Ebi, JOEM 2009
  • 10. Survey of local health departments in NYS Carr et al, JPHMP In press.
  • 11. Heat adaptation efforts• Policy: Emergency plan, weather service alerts• Surveillance S ill• Structural interventions: cooling centers, A/C’s• Education/outreach
  • 12. Take-Home Messages g Health effects from heat, air pollution, and pollen and other risks are more challenging to address as climate changes in the U.S. Along with climate change, vulnerability factors change will be key in determining health impacts More surveillance systems are needed to track key climate-health indicators Adaptation planning can begin now with currently available information