540 current issues demanding responses


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540 current issues demanding responses

  1. 1. Presented by LorenzaToussaint
  2. 2. Crucial Curriculum Issues <ul><li>Development of thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Competition in education with other nations </li></ul><ul><li>Vocational Education </li></ul><ul><li>Moral Education </li></ul><ul><li>School Safety </li></ul>
  3. 3. Curriculum for Thinking <ul><li>In 1894 – The Committee of Ten </li></ul><ul><li>- held that the chief purpose of </li></ul><ul><li>education was to “train the mind” </li></ul><ul><li>- compromised that all the principal subjects might </li></ul><ul><li>accomplish this purpose of consecutively taught so </li></ul><ul><li>that they would enhance the process of </li></ul><ul><li>observation, memory, expression, and reasoning. </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Focus of a Thinking Curriculum <ul><li>Contrast in Goals for Thinking </li></ul><ul><li>- a curriculum where students explore </li></ul><ul><li>issues affecting their lives and the </li></ul><ul><li>world. </li></ul><ul><li>Social Reconstructionists’ Goals of Thinking </li></ul><ul><li>- favor critical thinking </li></ul><ul><li>- Bloom’s Taxonomy (logical thinking and </li></ul><ul><li>reasoning </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Humanistic Goals for Thinking </li></ul><ul><li>- value creative thinking </li></ul><ul><li>- various exercises to explore the unfamiliar and </li></ul><ul><li>creating something new </li></ul><ul><li>- fluency (through such techniques as </li></ul><ul><li>brainstorming) </li></ul><ul><li>- flexibility (changing the focus of thought) </li></ul><ul><li>- elaborating ( adding new material to existing </li></ul><ul><li>ideas </li></ul><ul><li>- risk taking (trying out a new idea) </li></ul>Cont’d
  6. 6. Cont’d <ul><li>Academicians’ Goals for Thinking </li></ul><ul><li>- prize the paradigmatic or logico- </li></ul><ul><li>scientific mode of thinking </li></ul><ul><li>- based on categorization, conceptualization and the </li></ul><ul><li>operations for establishing and relating categories. </li></ul><ul><li>- 3 kinds of knowledge are taught: </li></ul><ul><li> 1. Curriculum for Teaching Basic Operations </li></ul><ul><li>-classifying, generalizing, deducing </li></ul>
  7. 7. Cont’d <ul><li>2. Curriculum for Teaching Problem Solving </li></ul><ul><li>-students learn the heuristics (helping to learn) of </li></ul><ul><li>diagramming breaking a problem into sub problems, </li></ul><ul><li>finding analogous problems and working backwards. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Domain-Specific Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>-current focus is not on the acquisition and coverage of </li></ul><ul><li>subject matter but on how the subject can be taught so that </li></ul><ul><li>students think about the content in fresh ways and acquire </li></ul><ul><li>intellectual tools that can be useful in other contexts. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Curriculum Competition: An International Comparison <ul><li>See Table 11.1 – Results of the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) </li></ul><ul><li>- U. S. ranked 24 th among nations whose 18-24 year olds are </li></ul><ul><li>earning advanced science or engineering degrees. </li></ul><ul><li>- Poor performance of U. S. students on conceptual tasks may </li></ul><ul><li>reflect U. S. teachers’ traditional practice of emphasizing </li></ul><ul><li>procedures rather than connecting concepts to acting. </li></ul><ul><li>- Is the curriculum in the U. S. schools lagging behind those in other </li></ul><ul><li>countries? If so, why and what should be done about it? </li></ul>
  9. 9. Cont’d <ul><li>PISA (Program for International Studies Assessment, 2000) results indicated five factors that are necessary for success in school learning and continued study and learning: </li></ul><ul><li> - using strategies for learning </li></ul><ul><li>- enjoying reading </li></ul><ul><li>- taking responsibility for reaching both goals set </li></ul><ul><li>by teachers and one’s own goals. </li></ul><ul><li>- believing in one’s ability to learn and achieve. </li></ul><ul><li>- knowing situations where cooperative or </li></ul><ul><li>competitive learning is more appropriate. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Vocational Education <ul><li>Education “ through ” work </li></ul><ul><li> - subjects are coordinated with work-related </li></ul><ul><li>experiences (Ex. Cooperative Education) </li></ul><ul><li>Education “ about ” work </li></ul><ul><li> - examine the world of work—become aware of </li></ul><ul><li>career choices. </li></ul><ul><li>Education “ for ” work </li></ul><ul><li>- prepared for entry into a “family” of occupations for </li></ul><ul><li>specific careers. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Cont’d <ul><li>4 issues face curriculum planners: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Purpose – should it aim at broad intellectual </li></ul><ul><li>development and guidance. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Access - should it open to the slow as well as to the </li></ul><ul><li>gifted? </li></ul><ul><li>3. Content - how well does it match the present and </li></ul><ul><li>future needs of the economy? </li></ul><ul><li>4. Organization - should it be restructured in order to </li></ul><ul><li>close the gap between the vocational programs of </li></ul><ul><li>the school and the requirements of work? </li></ul>
  12. 12. Contrasting Purposes for Vocational Education <ul><li>Early Rationale </li></ul><ul><li>- offered manual training as complementary to </li></ul><ul><li>academic studies and necessary for the balanced education for </li></ul><ul><li>all students. It was a more meaningful way of learning by doing. </li></ul><ul><li>Current Thinking about Purposes of Vocational Education </li></ul><ul><li>- rest on 3 arguments: </li></ul><ul><li>- national interest (pipeline programs with foundation </li></ul><ul><li>technical training and academic courses in high school and </li></ul><ul><li>advanced courses at the college level, with work-related </li></ul><ul><li>experiences. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Cont’d <ul><li>- equity (help the young, refugees, and the hard-to-employ to </li></ul><ul><li>find a place in the economy) </li></ul><ul><li>- human development (underscores the intrinsic value of work. </li></ul><ul><li>Students gain a sense of how things work – televisions, cars, </li></ul><ul><li>businesses. </li></ul><ul><li>Content of Vocational Education </li></ul><ul><li>Daniel Hull and Leno Pedrotti suggested a means of designing a curriculum for high tech occupations: </li></ul><ul><li>1. a common core consisting of basic units in mathematics, the </li></ul><ul><li>physical sciences, communications, and human relations. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Cont’d <ul><li>2. a technical core of units in electricity, electronics, </li></ul><ul><li>mechanics, thermics, computers, and fluids. </li></ul><ul><li>3. a sequence on specialization in lasers or electro- </li></ul><ul><li>optics, instrumentation and control, robotics, and </li></ul><ul><li>microelectronics. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Trends in Vocational Education <ul><li>a progressive innovation that introduces broad content. </li></ul><ul><li>dictated by economic rationalism aimed at sorting and ranking students as productive workers. </li></ul><ul><li>Congress has influenced curriculum by demanding that recipients of vocational education funds to teach job-specific skills and assist students from low-income families to go straight from high school into the job market. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Moral Education <ul><li>Phenix’s Basic Questions in Moral Education </li></ul><ul><li>- values, standards, or norms, and the sources and justification </li></ul><ul><li>for these norms. </li></ul><ul><li>4 approaches: </li></ul><ul><li>1. The Nihilistic Position – a denial that there are any standards of </li></ul><ul><li>right or wrong. </li></ul><ul><li>2. The Autonomic Position – view that norms or values are </li></ul><ul><li>defined by each person is the </li></ul><ul><li>cornerstone of the autonomic </li></ul><ul><li>position. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Cont’d <ul><li>3. The Heteronomic Position – asserts that known standards and </li></ul><ul><li>values can be taught and can </li></ul><ul><li>provide clear norms of judgment </li></ul><ul><li>for human conduct. </li></ul><ul><li>4. The Telenomic Position – holds that morality is grounded on a </li></ul><ul><li>comprehensive purpose. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Character Education <ul><li>During the 1960s through early 1980s, values clarification dominated moral education and the teaching of ethics. </li></ul><ul><li>Values clarificationists’ think that the exploration of personal preferences helps people to: </li></ul><ul><li>- be more purposeful because they must rank their priorities </li></ul><ul><li>- be more productive because they analyze where their </li></ul><ul><li>activities are taking them </li></ul><ul><li>- be more critical because they learn to see through the </li></ul><ul><li>foolishness of others </li></ul><ul><li>- be better able to handle relations with other. </li></ul>
  19. 19. School Safety <ul><li>Reece L. Peterson and Russell Skiba stress the importance of improving “school climates” to create safe schools by: </li></ul><ul><li>1. parent and community involvement </li></ul><ul><li>2. character education </li></ul><ul><li>3. violence-prevention and conflict-resolution </li></ul><ul><li>curricula </li></ul><ul><li>4. peer mediation </li></ul><ul><li>5. bullying prevention. </li></ul>