A Novel Process for Biological Nitrogen Removal from Dairy Wastewater in Constructed Wetlands

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A Novel Process for Biological Nitrogen Removal from Dairy Wastewater in Constructed Wetlands

  1. 1. Group Members Jing Wang Larry Hill Lynn Metcalf “ A Novel Process for Biological Nitrogen Removal from Dairy Wastewater in Constructed Wetlands”
  2. 2. “ A Novel Process for Biological Nitrogen Removal from Dairy Wastewater in Constructed Wetlands” U.S. EPA P3 Program: A National Student Design Competition for Sustainability Focusing on People, Prosperity, and the Planet Funded by SUNY - ESF Faculty Advisors Wendong Tao, Stewart Diemont, James Hassett - Department of Environmental Resources and Forest Engineering at SUNY-ESF “ Sustainability in the developed and developing world requires scientific and technical innovations to create designs that enable the Earth and its inhabitants to prosper. The Expo and the EPA’s P3 Award are demonstrating the possibilities of innovative designs to simultaneously benefit people, prosperity, and the planet.” http://www.esf.edu/erfeg/tao/P3.html
  3. 3. Presentation Outline <ul><li>Project Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Anammox: What & Why </li></ul><ul><li>Materials & Methods </li></ul><ul><li>Results & Discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions & Recommendations </li></ul><ul><li>Q & A </li></ul>
  4. 4. Objectives Phase I – Anammox Enrichment Phase II – Seeded Treatment Wetland Seed wetland treatment systems with bacteria from phase I + Remove ammonia from dairy wastewater using partial nitrification and anammox Build and operate two biofilters to cultivate anammox bacteria + Compare effectiveness of two different filter media sizes for ammonia removal
  5. 5. What is Anammox <ul><li>an abbreviation for anaerobic ammonium oxidation . </li></ul><ul><li>In this biological process, nitrite and ammonium are converted directly into nitrogen gas and nitrate. </li></ul><ul><li>NH 4 + + NO 2 - + HCO 3 - + H + -> N 2 + NO 3 - + H 2 O </li></ul><ul><li>Optimal Conditions for Anammox Bacteria Biomass Enrichment </li></ul><ul><li>Temp:20-43°C </li></ul><ul><li>pH: 6.7-8.3 </li></ul><ul><li>Anaerobic condition(inhibited by O 2 ) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Why Use Anammox? <ul><li>High nitrogen removal </li></ul><ul><li>Requires less input of oxygen (energy) </li></ul><ul><li>Slower bacterial growth rates produce less sludge </li></ul><ul><li>Autotrophic bacteria do not require input of organic substrate </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction in greenhouse gas emission (CO 2 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Reactions occur in same physical space </li></ul>Nitrification / Denitrification vs Partial Nitrification / Anammox
  7. 7. Fundamentals of Project <ul><li>Partial Nitrification </li></ul><ul><li>NH 3 + O 2 -> NO 2 − + 3H + </li></ul><ul><li>NO 2 − + H 2 O -> NO 3 − + 2H + </li></ul><ul><li>Anammox </li></ul><ul><li>NH 4 + + NO 2 - + HCO 3 - + H + -> N 2 + NO 3 - + H 2 O </li></ul><ul><li>TN = NH 4 + + NO x - </li></ul>
  8. 8. Influent storage Effluent Influent application Sampling ports Pump Baffle Filter media (marble) Photo courtesy of Dr. Wendong Tao: Faculty of Environmental Resources and Forest Engineering at SUNY ESF
  9. 9. Marble Substrate Small Substrate Large Substrate
  10. 10. Close up Pumps Influent tub Foil to block UV light
  11. 11. Equipment D.O. Meter Temp/pH/ORP Meter
  12. 12. Sampling and Data Acquisition Take Samples From: Remaining Influent Effluent Wells Fresh Influent At Sample Locations Measure: Dissovled Oxygen pH Temperature Oxidation Reduction Potential From Samples Determine Concentrations of: Ammonium (NH 4 + ) Nitrite (NO 2 - ) Nitrogen Oxides (NO x )
  13. 13. Influent Constituents Trace Element Solution 1: DisodiumEDTA-Dihydrate FeSO 4 .7H 2 O Trace Element Solution 2: ZnSO 4 .7H 2 O CoCl 2 .6H 2 O MnCl 2 .4H 2 O CuSO 4 .5H 2 O Na 2 MoO 4 .2H 2 O NiCl 2 .6H 2 O Na 2 SeO 4 .10H 2 O H 3 BO 3 Influent Solution: NH 4 Cl NaNO 2 NaHSO 3 NaHCO 3 KH 2 PO 4 MgSO 4 .7H 2 O CaCl 2 2H 2 O
  14. 14. Methods <ul><li>Influent Preparation </li></ul><ul><li>Total volume :180 L </li></ul><ul><li>C(NH 4 + ) = 60 mgN/L </li></ul><ul><li>C(NO 2 - ) = 5 mgN/L </li></ul><ul><li>To reduce DO : NaHSO 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrients : NaHCO 3 , KH2PO4, MgSO4.7H2O, CaCl 2 -2H 2 O, Trace Element Solution 1 & Solution 2 </li></ul><ul><li>HRT= 7 days </li></ul>
  15. 19. Ammonia
  16. 20. Nitrite
  17. 21. NO x -
  18. 22. Nitrate Accumulation
  19. 23. TN
  20. 24. Paired T-test for TN-S & TN-L <ul><li>N Mean StDev SE Mean </li></ul><ul><li>S 8 14.41 7.94 2.81 </li></ul><ul><li>L 8 13.61 9.74 3.44 </li></ul><ul><li>Difference 8 0.80 3.22 1.14 </li></ul><ul><li>95% CI for mean difference: (-1.89, 3.49) </li></ul><ul><li>T-Test of mean difference = 0 (vs not = 0): </li></ul><ul><li>T-Value = 0.70 P-Value = 0.505 </li></ul><ul><li>So… No difference based on current data! </li></ul>
  21. 25. Conclusion <ul><li>The concentrations of ammonia and nitrite decreased after 7 days’ treatment.Nitrate accumulation is increasing with time going on. TN removal rate is greater than 0, which indicates there is anammox bacteria activities. </li></ul><ul><li>Both of nitrification and anammox should be present in the system based on the changes of concentrations of NH 4 + , NO 2 - and NO 3 - , but we don’t know how much each of them contribute to the removal. </li></ul><ul><li>Without direct tracking of anammox growth, we can assume there is anammox activity in the biofilters based on effluent parameters and concentration reductions. </li></ul><ul><li>higher temperature, higher TN removal rate. </li></ul><ul><li>By comparing the systems with small gravels and with large gravels, the results show that there is no difference between them. </li></ul>
  22. 26. Recommendations <ul><li>Create a system log for any changes (ex: pump settings, heater, chemical inputs, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>More inter-group collaboration </li></ul><ul><li>Biomass tracking </li></ul><ul><li>Less fluctuation in system parameters (ex: flow rate, temperature, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>More data collection will lead to clearer results </li></ul>
  23. 27. Related Journal Articles O. Shipin, T. Koottatep, N.T.T. Khanh, and C. Polprasert; “Integrated natural treatment systems for developing communities: low-tech N-removal through the fluctuating microbial pathways”; Water Science & Technology VOL 51 No 12 p.299-306 Zequin Dong and Tieheng Sun; “A potential new process for improving nitrogen removal in constructed wetlands – Promoting coexistence of partial-nitrification and ANAMMOX”; Ecological Engineering 31 (2007) p.69-78

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