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  • 1. Low Vision and Blindness Lois Gumataotao and Gladys Uy ED 443G: Assistive/ Adaptive Technology November 5, 2008 Dr. Jacqui Cyrus
  • 2. Objectives
    • 1. Be able to divide visual disabilities into two functional subgroups
    • 2. Discuss ways to accommodate the general education setting for students with visual disabilities
    • 3. Describe types of assistive technology that benefit people with visual disabilities at school, in the workplace and in independent living.
  • 3. IDEA Definition
    • ...means an impairment in vision that, even with correction, adversely affects a child’s educational performance. The term includes both partial sight and blindness.
  • 4. Types of Visual Loss
    • Activities:
    • Tunnel Vision
    • Peripheral Vision
    • Temporary Blindness
  • 5. Prevalence/ Incidence
    • Nationally:
    • 1.3 million Americans are legally blind
    • 10 million have low vision
    • About 23,973 students between ages 6-17 receive SPED because of low vision or blindness
    • Locally:
    • GPSS is servicing 10 students that are legally blind or have visual inpairments for SY 08-09
  • 6. Signs of Visual Problems
    • Appearance of the eyes:
    • Excessively watery
    • Are red or continually inflamed
    • Appear crusty
    • Are swollen
    • Problems with School Work:
    • The student has difficulty:
    • Reading small print
    • Identifying details in pictures
    • Difficulty distinguishing letters
  • 7. Causes and Prevention
    • Causes:
    • Prenatal factors…heredity
    • Treatments:
    • Laser treatment, surgery, corneal implants
    • Prevention:
    • Wear protective eye gear
    • Eat vegetables high in Vitamin A
  • 8. Assessment
    • Two types of eye specialists provide diagnosis and treatment:
    • Ophthalmologists (medical
    • doctors who specialize
    • in eye disorders)
    • Optometrists (professionals
    • who measure vision and
    • prescribe corrective lenses
  • 9. Early Intervention
    • Ophthalmologist
    • Occupational therapist
    • Physical therapist
    • Orientation and mobility instructor
    • Social worker
  • 10. Teaching Tips
    • Understand the child’s visual functioning capabilities
    • Learn the child’s nonverbal cues indicating interest
    • Identify visual features that enhance the child’s visual functions (color, contrast, size)
  • 11. Accommodating for Inclusive Environments
    • Making the Classroom safe :
    • Open or close the doors fully
    • Eliminate clutter from the room, especially from the aisles and movement paths
    • Don’t leave the room without telling the student.
    • Supplement Instruction :
    • Prepare enlarge-print or braille handouts, summarizing key points
    • Audio record lectures
  • 12. Assistive Technology Devices:
    • Walking Canes
    • Magnifiers
    • Talking watches
    • Talking calculators
    • Braille Books
  • 13. Transition
    • Postsecondary Options:
    • Begin the search for the right college program
    • Register for classes as early as possible
    • Contact readers, locate assistive devices and arrange for accommodations
    • Stay in close communication with faculty
    • Transition to work:
    • Community employment during high school
    • Internships in real work settings during high school
  • 14. Collaboration
    • Teachers should collaborate with the
    • same professionals as in early intervention
    • processes. They are experts in their fields and are able to assist for effective instruction.
  • 15. Youtube
    • 12 year old blind boy plays football
  • 16. References
    • Smith, Deborah (2007), Introduction to Special Education: Making a Difference 6th Edition. Pearson Education, Inc.
    • Youtube
    • Mr.Jason Cruz
  • 17. Thought Provoking Questions
    • If a blind student refuses an auditory/oral test and insists on a braille one, yet you have no materials, what would you do?
    • What kind of classroom rules would you implement if you had all visually impaired or blind students?
    • How would you teach a blind student if the parent refuses special education?