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  1. 1. Low Vision and Blindness Lois Gumataotao and Gladys Uy ED 443G: Assistive/ Adaptive Technology November 5, 2008 Dr. Jacqui Cyrus
  2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>1. Be able to divide visual disabilities into two functional subgroups </li></ul><ul><li>2. Discuss ways to accommodate the general education setting for students with visual disabilities </li></ul><ul><li>3. Describe types of assistive technology that benefit people with visual disabilities at school, in the workplace and in independent living. </li></ul>
  3. 3. IDEA Definition <ul><li>...means an impairment in vision that, even with correction, adversely affects a child’s educational performance. The term includes both partial sight and blindness. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Types of Visual Loss <ul><li>Activities: </li></ul><ul><li>Tunnel Vision </li></ul><ul><li>Peripheral Vision </li></ul><ul><li>Temporary Blindness </li></ul>
  5. 5. Prevalence/ Incidence <ul><li>Nationally: </li></ul><ul><li>1.3 million Americans are legally blind </li></ul><ul><li>10 million have low vision </li></ul><ul><li>About 23,973 students between ages 6-17 receive SPED because of low vision or blindness </li></ul><ul><li>Locally: </li></ul><ul><li>GPSS is servicing 10 students that are legally blind or have visual inpairments for SY 08-09 </li></ul>
  6. 6. Signs of Visual Problems <ul><li>Appearance of the eyes: </li></ul><ul><li>Excessively watery </li></ul><ul><li>Are red or continually inflamed </li></ul><ul><li>Appear crusty </li></ul><ul><li>Are swollen </li></ul><ul><li>Problems with School Work: </li></ul><ul><li>The student has difficulty: </li></ul><ul><li>Reading small print </li></ul><ul><li>Identifying details in pictures </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty distinguishing letters </li></ul>
  7. 7. Causes and Prevention <ul><li>Causes: </li></ul><ul><li>Prenatal factors…heredity </li></ul><ul><li>Treatments: </li></ul><ul><li>Laser treatment, surgery, corneal implants </li></ul><ul><li>Prevention: </li></ul><ul><li>Wear protective eye gear </li></ul><ul><li>Eat vegetables high in Vitamin A </li></ul>
  8. 8. Assessment <ul><li>Two types of eye specialists provide diagnosis and treatment: </li></ul><ul><li>Ophthalmologists (medical </li></ul><ul><li>doctors who specialize </li></ul><ul><li>in eye disorders) </li></ul><ul><li>Optometrists (professionals </li></ul><ul><li>who measure vision and </li></ul><ul><li>prescribe corrective lenses </li></ul>
  9. 9. Early Intervention <ul><li>Ophthalmologist </li></ul><ul><li>Occupational therapist </li></ul><ul><li>Physical therapist </li></ul><ul><li>Orientation and mobility instructor </li></ul><ul><li>Social worker </li></ul>
  10. 10. Teaching Tips <ul><li>Understand the child’s visual functioning capabilities </li></ul><ul><li>Learn the child’s nonverbal cues indicating interest </li></ul><ul><li>Identify visual features that enhance the child’s visual functions (color, contrast, size) </li></ul>
  11. 11. Accommodating for Inclusive Environments <ul><li>Making the Classroom safe : </li></ul><ul><li>Open or close the doors fully </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminate clutter from the room, especially from the aisles and movement paths </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t leave the room without telling the student. </li></ul><ul><li>Supplement Instruction : </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare enlarge-print or braille handouts, summarizing key points </li></ul><ul><li>Audio record lectures </li></ul>
  12. 12. Assistive Technology Devices: <ul><li>Walking Canes </li></ul><ul><li>Magnifiers </li></ul><ul><li>Talking watches </li></ul><ul><li>Talking calculators </li></ul><ul><li>Braille Books </li></ul>
  13. 13. Transition <ul><li>Postsecondary Options: </li></ul><ul><li>Begin the search for the right college program </li></ul><ul><li>Register for classes as early as possible </li></ul><ul><li>Contact readers, locate assistive devices and arrange for accommodations </li></ul><ul><li>Stay in close communication with faculty </li></ul><ul><li>Transition to work: </li></ul><ul><li>Community employment during high school </li></ul><ul><li>Internships in real work settings during high school </li></ul>
  14. 14. Collaboration <ul><li>Teachers should collaborate with the </li></ul><ul><li>same professionals as in early intervention </li></ul><ul><li>processes. They are experts in their fields and are able to assist for effective instruction. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Youtube <ul><li>12 year old blind boy plays football </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  16. 16. References <ul><li>Smith, Deborah (2007), Introduction to Special Education: Making a Difference 6th Edition. Pearson Education, Inc. </li></ul><ul><li>Youtube </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Mr.Jason Cruz </li></ul>
  17. 17. Thought Provoking Questions <ul><li>If a blind student refuses an auditory/oral test and insists on a braille one, yet you have no materials, what would you do? </li></ul><ul><li>What kind of classroom rules would you implement if you had all visually impaired or blind students? </li></ul><ul><li>How would you teach a blind student if the parent refuses special education? </li></ul>
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