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  1. 1. Communication Disorders: Speech and Language Impairments Presented By: Liwanag Dominguez Lois T. Gumataotao ED443/G: Assistive and Adaptive Technology Dr. J. Cyrus October 16, 2008
  2. 2. Activity #1 <ul><li>Pre-Test </li></ul>
  3. 3. By the end of this presentation the student will be able to . . . <ul><li>Understand the Communication Process </li></ul><ul><li>Describe Speech and Language Impairments </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the prevalence </li></ul><ul><li>List some causes of Communication Disorders </li></ul><ul><li>Know the benefits of AAC and Graphic Organizers </li></ul><ul><li>Help in the development of children’s language </li></ul>
  4. 4. Communication Disorder according to ASHA (American Speech Language and Hearing Association) <ul><li>A communication disorder is an impairment in the ability to receive, send, process and comprehend concepts of verbal, nonverbal and graphic symbol systems. A communication disorder maybe evident in the process of hearing, language, and or speech. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Communication Process <ul><li>Communication symbols </li></ul><ul><li>Communication signals </li></ul>
  6. 6. Communication Process continued . . . <ul><li>Respiratory system </li></ul><ul><li>Vibrating system </li></ul><ul><li>Resonating system </li></ul><ul><li>Speech mechanisms </li></ul>Chest Nasal cavities Mouth Throat Hard / Soft Palate Teeth, lips, tongue, jaw
  7. 7. What is Speech Impairment? <ul><li>Speech Impairment is abnormal speech that is unintelligible, is unpleasant, or interferes with communication </li></ul>
  8. 8. Forms of Speech Impairments <ul><li>Articulation: The abnormal production of speech sounds. (SODA) </li></ul><ul><li>Voice: Abnormal spoken language production, characterized by unusual pitch, loudness, or quality of sounds </li></ul><ul><li>Fluency: Hesitations or repetitions of sounds or words that interrupt a person’s flow of speech. (i.e. stuttering) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Characteristics of Speech Impairments: <ul><li>Makes consistent and age-inappropriate articulation errors </li></ul><ul><li>Exhibits dysfluencies </li></ul><ul><li>Has poor voice quality </li></ul><ul><li>Is excessively loud or soft </li></ul>
  10. 10. Video Clip <ul><li>Hi, my name is RM. I am autistic and have a speech and language impairment, so they say. So please view my video clip and tell me what you think! </li></ul>
  11. 11. Some causes of Speech Impairments: <ul><li>Brain damage / Aphasia </li></ul><ul><li>Autism </li></ul><ul><li>Malfunction of the respiratory or speech mechanisms </li></ul><ul><li>Malformation of the articulators </li></ul><ul><li>Physical or organic problem (cleft palate, cleft lip) </li></ul><ul><li>Stuttering </li></ul><ul><li>Voice problems (abuse, arthritis) </li></ul>
  12. 12. How teachers can make a difference: <ul><li>All peers are supportive of each other </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain eye contact with the speech impaired student during the whole conversation </li></ul><ul><li>Do not finish sentences or fill in words for the individual who stutters. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Activity #2 <ul><li>Say what you hear! </li></ul>
  14. 14. What is Language Impairment? <ul><li>A Language Impairment is the difficulty or inability to master the various systems of rules in language, which then interferes with communication. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Forms of Language Impairment <ul><li>Form of Language </li></ul><ul><li>- Phonology </li></ul><ul><li>- Morphology </li></ul><ul><li>- Syntax </li></ul><ul><li>Content of Language </li></ul><ul><li>- Semantics </li></ul><ul><li>Use of Language </li></ul><ul><li>- Pragmatics </li></ul>
  16. 16. Characteristics of Language Impairments: <ul><li>Is unable to follow oral directions </li></ul><ul><li>Is unable to match letters with sounds </li></ul><ul><li>Cannot create rhymes </li></ul><ul><li>Cannot break words into syllables </li></ul>
  17. 17. Characteristics of Language Impairments continued . . . <ul><li>Has an inadequate vocabulary </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrates poor concept formation </li></ul><ul><li>Does not understand nuances, nonverbal messages, or humor </li></ul><ul><li>Has difficulty conveying messages or conversing with others </li></ul><ul><li>Has difficulty expressing personal needs </li></ul>
  18. 18. Some causes of Language Impairment <ul><li>Brain injury </li></ul><ul><li>Genetic causes </li></ul><ul><li>Autism </li></ul><ul><li>Ear infections </li></ul><ul><li>No appropriate role models/left alone often </li></ul><ul><li>Not spoken to frequently/punished for speaking </li></ul><ul><li>Ignored when trying to communicate </li></ul>
  19. 19. Assistive Adaptive Technology <ul><li>Kidspiration software </li></ul><ul><li>Graphic Organizer </li></ul><ul><li>Augmentative and alternative communication </li></ul>
  20. 20. Activity #3 <ul><li>Graphic Organizer </li></ul>
  21. 21. Tips for Teachers: Best Practices <ul><li>Be near the student when giving instructions. </li></ul><ul><li>Speak slowly and deliberately. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide step by step directions. </li></ul><ul><li>Use gestures that support understanding. </li></ul><ul><li>Model correct speech patterns. </li></ul><ul><li>Touch base with the speech/language. </li></ul><ul><li>Be patient when the child is speaking. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Prevalence <ul><li>2 nd largest category (19% of all students with Speech and Language impairments with learning disabilities, nationally. </li></ul><ul><li>Locally there are 900+ students with Speech and Language impairments with other learning disabilities (to include Early Intervention up to high school and private schools) </li></ul>
  23. 23. Activity #4 <ul><li>Post-Test </li></ul>
  24. 24. Summary <ul><li>Oral communication is the primary mode on how we interact with each other to share knowledge, information, to socialize and express feelings. Therefore, the most important goal for students with speech or language impairment is that they need to be competent in communication by knowing about language to express their thoughts. Language is the foundation of learning. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Questions for Discussion <ul><li>1. As a regular classroom teacher, what teaching strategies will you use to educate the child with a communication disorder? </li></ul><ul><li>2. How would you include the child with a communication disorder to participate in oral activities? </li></ul><ul><li>3. How will you account for questions #1 and #2 above? </li></ul>
  26. 26. Reference <ul><li>Define Communication Disorder </li></ul><ul><li>Name of Website: American Speech-Language and Hearing </li></ul><ul><li>Association (ASHA) </li></ul><ul><li>http:// www.asha.org/public/speech/disorders/ChildSandL.htm </li></ul><ul><li>Graphic Organizer </li></ul><ul><li>Name of Website: Graphic.Org </li></ul><ul><li>http:// www.graphic.org / </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction to Special Education: Making a Difference </li></ul><ul><li>Name of Author: Deborah Deutsch Smith </li></ul><ul><li>Augmentative and Alternative Communication Device </li></ul><ul><li>Name of Website: AbilityHub </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.abilityhub.com/aac/aac-devices.htm </li></ul><ul><li>Kidspiration </li></ul><ul><li>Name of Website: Inspiration Software, Inc. </li></ul><ul><li>www.inspiration.com </li></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>Thank you for allowing us to communicate this information to you. We hope that you find it resourceful to better understand this disability. So we hope that you will join us in making a difference! </li></ul>