NHTSA  Tween  Seat  Belt  Use  Research  Program                                                                          ...
NHTSA  Tween  Seat  Belt  Use  Research  Program                                 Coordinators                             ...
NHTSA  Tween  Seat  Belt  Use  Research  Program    Table  of  Contents  Special  Thanks  ...................................
NHTSA  Tween  Seat  Belt  Use  Research  Program      Special  Thanks    South  Loop  Solutions  would  like  to  express ...
NHTSA  Tween  Seat  Belt  Use  Research  Program      Executive  Summary    Seat  belt  safety  has  been  a  concern  for...
NHTSA  Tween  Seat  Belt  Use  Research  Program    Introduction      Research  conducted  by  NHTSA  revealed  that  “lap...
NHTSA  Tween  Seat  Belt  Use  Research  Program    For  our  last  objective,  our  goal  was  to  determine  the  best  ...
NHTSA  Tween  Seat  Belt  Use  Research  Program    (whether  or  not  the  child  was  wearing  a  seat  belt  and  if  i...
NHTSA  Tween  Seat  Belt  Use  Research  Program    when  parents  make  the  decision,  compared  to  only  half  of  Twe...
NHTSA  Tween  Seat  Belt  Use  Research  Program    motivated  and  influenced  by  different  peer  groups.    The  artic...
NHTSA  Tween  Seat  Belt  Use  Research  Program    Primarily  starting  in  1995,  a  significant  percentage  of  child ...
NHTSA  Tween  Seat  Belt  Use  Research  Program    Generally,  Tweens  die  in  car  crashes  at  a  rate  of  more  than...
NHTSA  Tween  Seat  Belt  Use  Research  Program           There  are  some  ideas  what  can  be  done  to  help  promote...
NHTSA  Tween  Seat  Belt  Use  Research  Program    ARTICLE:  Safety  belt  use  laws  This  article  cites  that  of  the...
NHTSA  Tween  Seat  Belt  Use  Research  Program    Collection  Process  Data  was  collected  through  a  data  collectio...
NHTSA  Tween  Seat  Belt  Use  Research  Program                                                     Vehicle  Type        ...
NHTSA  Tween  Seat  Belt  Use  Research  Program                                         Driver  and  Seat  Belt          ...
NHTSA  Tween  Seat  Belt  Use  Research  Program    and  Sunday,  March  14th  from  12:00  PM  -­‐  2  PM  for  Universit...
NHTSA  Tween  Seat  Belt  Use  Research  Program    parents  do  not  tell  their  Tweens  to  wear  their  seat  belts  a...
NHTSA  Tween  Seat  Belt  Use  Research  Program    Sitting  in  the  car  Most  parents  think  the  safest  seat  in  th...
NHTSA  Tween  Seat  Belt  Use  Research  Program    Possible  Improvements  With  18  members  setting  up  the  focus  gr...
NHTSA  Tween  Seat  Belt  Use  Research  Program    Limitations  and  Caveats  Potential  Errors    The  biggest  problem ...
NHTSA  Tween  Seat  Belt  Use  Research  Program    Recommendations  Some  recommendations  that  would  promote  seat  be...
NHTSA  Tween  Seat  Belt  Use  Research  Program    schools.    Because  the  majority  of  our  contact  schools  are  lo...
NHTSA Case Study, Spring 2010
NHTSA Case Study, Spring 2010
NHTSA Case Study, Spring 2010
NHTSA Case Study, Spring 2010
NHTSA Case Study, Spring 2010
NHTSA Case Study, Spring 2010
NHTSA Case Study, Spring 2010
NHTSA Case Study, Spring 2010
NHTSA Case Study, Spring 2010
NHTSA Case Study, Spring 2010
NHTSA Case Study, Spring 2010
NHTSA Case Study, Spring 2010
NHTSA Case Study, Spring 2010
NHTSA Case Study, Spring 2010
NHTSA Case Study, Spring 2010
NHTSA Case Study, Spring 2010
NHTSA Case Study, Spring 2010
NHTSA Case Study, Spring 2010
NHTSA Case Study, Spring 2010
NHTSA Case Study, Spring 2010
NHTSA Case Study, Spring 2010
NHTSA Case Study, Spring 2010
NHTSA Case Study, Spring 2010
NHTSA Case Study, Spring 2010
NHTSA Case Study, Spring 2010
NHTSA Case Study, Spring 2010
NHTSA Case Study, Spring 2010
NHTSA Case Study, Spring 2010
NHTSA Case Study, Spring 2010
NHTSA Case Study, Spring 2010
NHTSA Case Study, Spring 2010
NHTSA Case Study, Spring 2010
NHTSA Case Study, Spring 2010
NHTSA Case Study, Spring 2010
NHTSA Case Study, Spring 2010
NHTSA Case Study, Spring 2010
NHTSA Case Study, Spring 2010
NHTSA Case Study, Spring 2010
NHTSA Case Study, Spring 2010
NHTSA Case Study, Spring 2010
NHTSA Case Study, Spring 2010
NHTSA Case Study, Spring 2010
NHTSA Case Study, Spring 2010
NHTSA Case Study, Spring 2010
NHTSA Case Study, Spring 2010
NHTSA Case Study, Spring 2010
NHTSA Case Study, Spring 2010
NHTSA Case Study, Spring 2010
NHTSA Case Study, Spring 2010
NHTSA Case Study, Spring 2010
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NHTSA Case Study, Spring 2010

  1. 1. NHTSA  Tween  Seat  Belt  Use  Research  Program             1   “Buckle  Up  For  The  Future”     “Buckle  Up  For  The  Future”  
  2. 2. NHTSA  Tween  Seat  Belt  Use  Research  Program     Coordinators     Laura  Swetin    Rachel  Reitemeier         Qualitative  Research     Alejandra  Mojica    Minh  Pham    Khrystyna  Prokhorenko   Joanna  Kowalczyk      Anna  Budz      Chardae  McCauley       Quantitative  Research     Ruth  Yang    Natalie  Cho    Steve  Braciszewicz                                                 Anna  Lyszczarczyk       Finance     Sagar  Shah    Colette  LaKoma    Rakhee  Bhakta                                         Marta  Lagowska       Advertising     Andrei  Piatsevich    Chris  Laskowski       2     “Buckle  Up  For  The  Future”  
  3. 3. NHTSA  Tween  Seat  Belt  Use  Research  Program    Table  of  Contents  Special  Thanks  ..............................................................................................................................................  4  Executive  Summary  ......................................................................................................................................  5  Introduction  ..................................................................................................................................................  6  Secondary  Research  Review  .........................................................................................................................  7  Methodology  for  Qualitative:  Observational  Study  ...................................................................................  14  Results  ........................................................................................................................................................  15  Limitations  and  Caveats   .............................................................................................................................  17   .Methodology  for  Qualitative:  Focus  Group   ...............................................................................................  17   .Results  ........................................................................................................................................................  18  Limitations  and  Caveats   .............................................................................................................................  20   .Methodology  for  Qualitative:  In-­‐Depth  Interview  .....................................................................................  21  Results  ........................................................................................................................................................  21  Limitations  and  Caveats   .............................................................................................................................  22   .Conclusions  .................................................................................................................................................  22  Recommendations  ......................................................................................................................................  23  Methodology  for  Quantitative  ...................................................................................................................  23  Results  ........................................................................................................................................................  24   Demographic  Data  ..................................................................................................................................  24   Correlation  Analysis  Results  ...................................................................................................................  32   Regression  Analysis  Results  ....................................................................................................................  33  Limitations  and  Caveats   .............................................................................................................................  38   .Conclusions  .................................................................................................................................................  39  Recommendations  ......................................................................................................................................  41  Advertising  ..................................................................................................................................................  41  Campaign  Strategy   ......................................................................................................................................  54  Financial  Highlights  .....................................................................................................................................  51  APPENDIX  A  ................................................................................................................................................  54  APPENDIX  B  ................................................................................................................................................  58  APPENDIX  C   .................................................................................................................................................  67  APPENDIX  D  ................................................................................................................................................  69  APPENDIX  E  .................................................................................................................................................  70  APPENDIX  F  .................................................................................................................................................  71  APPENDIX  G  ................................................................................................................................................  72     3     “Buckle  Up  For  The  Future”  
  4. 4. NHTSA  Tween  Seat  Belt  Use  Research  Program      Special  Thanks    South  Loop  Solutions  would  like  to  express  our  deepest  gratitude  to  Tom  Cronin  and  Shannon  Conlon  of  EdVenture  Partners  for  making  this  project  possible  and  for  providing  us  the  opportunity  and  resources  to  generate  awareness  of  seat  belt  use  in  the  Chicagoland  metropolitan  area.  In  addition,  their  feedback  and  assistance  has  been  invaluable  and  has  helped  to  ensure  our  agency  stays  on  course  for  completion  of  our  project  and  its  stated  goals  and  objectives.  Through  their  consistent  guidance  and  critical  feedback  we  are  confident  that  the  results  contained  within  our  booklet  meet  their  expectations.  We  would  not  be  where  we  are  today  without  the  positive  influence  put  forth  by  Tom  and  Shannon.    We  would  also  like  to  thank  EdVenture  Partners  for  providing  us  with  a  great  opportunity  to  work  for  National  Highway  Transportation  Safety  Administration  (NHTSA).    Our  resources  for  our  project  were  both  comprehensive  and  supportive  and  provided  the  framework  necessary  to  be  successful.  Their  ability  to  provide  us  with  great  assistance  that  enabled  us  to  carry  out  this  research  project  is  deeply  appreciated.    Their  professionalism  provided  us  with  a  vast  learning  experience  that  will  definitely  help  us  in  our  future  endeavors.      We  would  like  to  thank  all  the  local  businesses  and  organizations  that  were  able  to  assist  us  in  funds  and  donations  for  our  campaign.  Through  the  aid  of  these  groups,  we  were  able  to  maximize  the  value  of  budget  while  still  staying  within  the  budget.  It  is  because  of  the  support  we  received  from  these  businesses  and  organizations  that  we  were  able  to  allocate  our  funds  in  areas  that  needed  more  monetary  resources  than  others.  Their  assistance  allowed  us  to  maximize  our  resources  and  contributed  to  the  successful  attainment  of  our  goals.    Finally,  we  would  like  to  give  a  special  thanks  to  our  coordinators,  Rachel  Reitemeier  and  Laura  Swetin.  Without  whom  this  marketing  campaign  would  have  been  impossible.  Under  their  direction,  South  Loop  Solutions  has  been  able  to  finish  our  objectives  in  a  timely  manner  regardless  of  all  the  obstacles  we  had  to  overcome.  Laura  and  Rachel  have  dedicated  a  lot  of  time  and  energy  into  this  campaign  and  it  truly  shows  through  the  success  we  have  experienced.  Due  to  the  fact  that  our  project  required  extensive  out  of  class  time  and  travel  it  was  imperative  to  have  diligent  leadership  to  coordinate  the  efforts  of  our  team.         4     “Buckle  Up  For  The  Future”  
  5. 5. NHTSA  Tween  Seat  Belt  Use  Research  Program      Executive  Summary    Seat  belt  safety  has  been  a  concern  for  decades  throughout  the  United  States.  Despite  multiple  campaigns  to  promote  the  usage  of  seat  belts  such  as  “Click  It  or  Ticket”  and  “Buckle  up  America”,  a  problem  remains  concerning  a  percentage  of  vehicle  passengers  who  do  not  regularly  follow  these  safety  guidelines.  This  portion  of  the  population  continues  to  put  their  lives  at  risk  on  a  daily  basis  due  to  poor  decision  making  and  negative  habitual  behavior.  In  particular,  NHTSA  is  focusing  on  the  safety  of  Tweens,  who  are  composed  of  children  between  the  ages  of  8  and  12.  “Motor  vehicle  accidents  across  the  nation  are  currently  the  leading  cause  of  death  between  kids  of  this  age  level”  (Edventure  Partners).The  goal  of  this  research  study  is  to  provide  insight  on  the  perceptions  of  seat  belt  usage  and  recommend  ways  to  positively  influence  all  Tween  passengers  to  wear  their  seat  belts  on  a  regular  basis.  The  ultimate  purpose  of  the  group’s  study  is  to  identify  the  missing  factors  that  are  linked  to  Tween’s  decision  to  buckle  up,  as  well  as  reduce  the  number  of  Tween  fatalities  and  injuries  in  future  years  to  come  related  to  motor  vehicle  accidents.  This  age  group  has  a  moldable  mindset,  meaning  that  what  is  implemented  into  their  actions  now  can  affect  the  decisions  they  make  in  future  years  of  their  life.  This  enables  NHTSA  to  fortify  positive  associations  with  seat  belt  usage  into  the  minds  of  Tweens  to  prevent  future  deaths  on  the  roads  of  America.  We  had  an  extensive  research  group  consisting  of  several  different  areas  including:  surveys,  focus  groups,  observational  studies,  and  in-­‐depth  interviews.  We  exceeded  the  minimal  NHTSA  requirements,  providing  us  with  a  more  effective  and  accurate  sample.  First,  we  had  to  find  our  participants  and  then  we  collected  data  based  on  the  information  that  we  were  given.  After,  we  analyzed  the  data  and  formed  conclusions  to  assist  our  client  in  ongoing  research.    Financially,  the  group  was  provided  a  $1,000  budget.  After  all  our  costs  were  incurred,  we  were  able  to  establish  a  return  on  investment  of  116%,  more  than  doubling  the  value  of  our.  Through  the  aid  of  business  contacts,  we  were  able  to  acquire  donations,  discounts  and  support  to  help  maximize  our  limited  budget  and  carry  out  a  financially  successful  campaign.  Advertising  became  incorporated  into  the  research  study  as  well  during  the  middle  of  the  semester.  We  created  an  advertising  campaign  and  developed  ten  visualizations  using  Adobe  Photoshop.  The  agency  that  our  team  created  is  named  South  Loop  Solutions.  The  information  which  we  collected  proved  that  not  all  of  our  initial  assumptions  were  correct.  However,  many  variables  proved  to  be  significant  and  played  an  important  role  in  our  conclusions.  All  of  our  conclusions  were  based  upon  statistical  analysis  and  client  objectives.  Based  upon  our  research  analysis,  NHTSA  needs  to  emphasize  the  importance  of  seat  belt  use  into  the  minds  of  Tweens.  An  effective  way  to  approach  this  is  to  incorporate  new  ad  campaigns.  Also,  our  results  indicate  that  parents  play  a  major  influential  role  and  the  NHTSA  needs  to  focus  their  attention  on  relaying  this  message  to  the  parents  and  influencers.       5     “Buckle  Up  For  The  Future”  
  6. 6. NHTSA  Tween  Seat  Belt  Use  Research  Program    Introduction      Research  conducted  by  NHTSA  revealed  that  “lap/shoulder  seat  belts,  when  used,  reduce  the  risk  of  fatal  injury  to  front-­‐seat  passenger  car  occupants  by  45  percent  and  the  risk  of  moderate-­‐to-­‐critical  injury  by  50  percent.  In  2006  alone,  seat  belts  saved  an  estimated  15,383  lives”  (Traffic  Safety  Facts:  2006  Data,  NHTSA,  DOT  HS  810807).  Even  though  seat  belt  usage  has  increased  tremendously  throughout  the  years  there  is  still  17%  of  vehicle  occupants  that  are  not  properly  restrained  while  in  a  motor  vehicle  according  to  NHTSA  (Traffic  Safety  Facts:  2008  Data,  NHTSA,  DOT  HS  811  036).  Included  in  this  17%  are  Tweens,  whom  face  the  leading  cause  of  deaths  due  to  motor  vehicle  crashes.  (Edventure  Partners).The  safety  of  younger  children  (younger  than  8)  and  older  teens  (16  years  and  older)  in  motor  vehicle  safety  has  been  given  extensive  attention,  but  Tweens,  ages  8  to  12,  have  not  received  thorough  attention.  Also,  with  the  current  law  structure  that  we  have  in  place,  Tweens  are  caught  in  between  state  child  passenger  safety  laws  and  adult  safety  laws,  which  mean  that  they  do  not  necessarily  fall  under  either  institution  of  laws.  In  addition,  the  Tween  segment  is  very  unique  in  nature  with  different  motor  vehicle  safety  needs.  Because  this  audience  is  developing  life-­‐long  habits  now,  it  is  the  time  to  enact  and  instill  practices  that  will  save  lives  and  prevent  injuries  on  the  road  (Edventure  Partners).Purpose  and  Objectives    The  ultimate  goal  for  conducting  this  research  is  to  provide  a  better  understanding  of  this  segment  in  order  to  assist  in  the  future  developments  of  campaigns  that  target  the  Tween  population  regarding  safe  seat  belt  habits.  In  order  to  do  that,  we  assessed  the  Tween  population  and  their  current  habits  regarding  seat  belt  usage.  We  collected  this  information  through  primary  research,  which  includes  a  survey,  focus  groups,  in-­‐depth  interviews,  and  an  observational  study.    Everything  that  we  did  answers  the  following  objectives:       ·∙            Determine  what  Tweens  think,  believe,  and  perceive  regarding  seat  belt  safety   ·∙            Identify  key  influencers  in  Tween’s  lives  that  motivate  their  behavior   ·∙            Recognize  the  most  appropriate  forms  of  communication  to  utilize  recommend  appropriate       messaging  and  modes  of  delivery  to  positively  influence  Tween  seat  belt  use  based  on   identification  of  key  influencers  supported  by  research  findings  in  reaching  the  key   influencers    In  reference  to  the  first  objective,  we  want  to  understand  the  current  Tween  market.    We  used  primary  research  to  determine  whether  or  not  Tweens  currently  wear  a  seat  belt.    If  they  do  wear  seat  belts,  do  they  wear  them  properly?  In  contrast,  if  they  do  not  wear  seat  belts,  what  is  the  reason  for  that?    Our  goal  was  to  learn  whether  or  not  Tweens  are  aware  of  the  importance  of  seat  belt  safety.    If  so,  how  did  they  learn  and  if  not,  has  anyone  tried  to  teach  them?        Ultimately  moving  forward  with  communication  recommendations,  we  determined  the  most  influential  individuals  in  a  Tween’s  life  so  that  we  can  target  them  as  modes  to  deliver  the  message  to  the  target  market.    Our  goal  was  to  determine  whom  the  Tweens  listen  to  most  often,  who  they  look  up  to,  and  whose  knowledge  and  advice  they  respect  the  most.    After  our  research,  we  can  now  utilize  them  to  relay  the  message  of  safety  to  Tweens.       6     “Buckle  Up  For  The  Future”  
  7. 7. NHTSA  Tween  Seat  Belt  Use  Research  Program    For  our  last  objective,  our  goal  was  to  determine  the  best  way  to  reach  out  to  those  Tween  influencers  found  in  objective  two.    The  ‘influencers’  referred  to  are  the  everyday  people  who  most  greatly  impact  the  Tweens  being  surveyed  and  talked  to.  Once  we  found  whom  to  target  to  relay  on  our  message  of  seat  belt  safety,  we  needed  to  determine  how  to  reach  these  people.  This  objective  also  includes  finding  the  best  form  of  communication  that  the  influencers  can  use  to  talk  to  Tweens  about  the  importance  of  seat  belts.      Our  goal  for  the  qualitative  portion  of  our  research  was  to  conduct  at  least  3  focus  groups  (both  with  Tweens  and  the  parents/guardians/influencers  of  Tweens)  or  10  in  depth  interviews  with  each  of  our  target  markets.    We  also  wanted  to  participate  in  several  observations  of  Tweens  and  their  influencers  to  fully  understand  their  current  habits.  Good  behavior  of  parents  and  influencers  usually  motivates  the  Tweens  to  act  in  the  same  manner.  By  understanding  how  the  parents  or  guardians  of  the  Tweens  behave,  we  now  have  a  better  working  knowledge  of  why  Tweens  buckle  up  or  do  not  buckle  up.  Our  main  goal  for  the  quantitative  portion  included  developing  and  implementing  a  questionnaire  to  a  sample  of  at  least  200  Tween  parents  and  50  Tweens,  at  a  minimum.      Secondary  Research  Review    Secondary  resources  were  researched  to  examine  seatbelt  use  amongst  Tweens.  The  resources  were  assessed  in  February  in  the  city  of  Chicago.    For  a  detailed  listing  of  sources,  refer  to  this  report’s  “Works  Cited”  section.      When  gathering  secondary  research,  the  team  focused  its  efforts  on  key  areas  of  interest  in  regards  to  the  Tween  population.    Specifically,  articles  relating  to  Tween  seatbelt  use,  injuries,  traffic  safety,  and  seatbelt  laws  were  investigated,  and  the  results  are  presented  in  the  following  section  by  the  articles  researched.    ARTICLE:    Injuries  to  belted  older  children  in  motor  vehicle  crashes    There  has  been  plenty  attention  given  to  the  safety  of  child  passengers  and  using  child  restraints  for  children  under  the  age  of  eight.    No  attention  has  been  paid  to  the  ages  of  8-­‐12  because  there  is  an  assumption  that  seat  belts  should  provide  adequate  protection  for  the  older  kids  as  well  in  case  of  a  crash.  It  is  currently  recommended  that  all  children  under  the  age  of  13  sit  in  the  back  seat  and  use  the  vehicle  seat  belts,  unless  they  are  less  than  57  inches  tall,  in  which  case  they  have  to  use  either  a  booster  or  car  seat.    Approximately  one  Tween  passenger  is  killed  in  a  car  crash  each  day  and  70,000  are  injured  within  one  year.        A  study  has  been  conducted  to  describe  the  characteristics  of  older  children  sitting  in  the  back  seat,  to  estimate  their  risk,  and  to  find  out  the  risk  factors  for  injury.  State  Farm’s  insurance  claims  were  the  source  of  subjects  with  telephone  survey  and  on-­‐site  crash  investigations  acting  as  primary  research.    The  subjects  that  qualified  for  the  study  were  State  Farm  insured  cars  from  model  year  1990  or  newer,  which  were  involved  in  a  car  crash  with  at  least  one  child  occupant  under  the  age  of  16.    When  a  policyholder  fit  the  requirements  and  gave  consent  to  participate  in  the  study,  limited  data  was  transferred  from  State  Farm  and  a  telephone  survey  was  conducted  with  the  driver.    The  things  discussed  in  the  survey  were  seating  row  and  seating  position  (front  or  back  seat),  restraint  status   7     “Buckle  Up  For  The  Future”  
  8. 8. NHTSA  Tween  Seat  Belt  Use  Research  Program    (whether  or  not  the  child  was  wearing  a  seat  belt  and  if  it  was  worn  properly),  the  injury  status  of  the  child,  and  the  severity  of  the  crash  (this  was  determined  by  the  damage  done  to  the  car).      The  results  showed  that  71%  of  Tweens  rode  in  the  back  seat  but  this  proportion  decreased  with  age.    From  the  study  of  the  7,285  children  in  the  back  seat,  6,680  wore  seat  belts,  114  were  in  booster  seats,  and  491  did  not  have  either.  The  kids  who  did  not  have  any  safety  restraint  had  an  injury  risk  of  3.1%  and  those  that  did  have  seat  belts  on  only  had  an  injury  risk  of  .3%.    Additionally,  87.2%  of  the  kids  in  the  study  were  using  lap/shoulder  belts,  but  only  80.1%  used  them  properly,  so  the  other  7.1%  had  the  strap  behind  the  back  or  underneath  the  arm.      In  conclusion,  the  study  showed  that  the  overall  risk  of  injury  in  crashes  is  1.3%  for  those  Tweens  who  sat  buckled  up  in  the  back  seat.  The  most  common  injuries  in  the  reported  crashes  were  injuries  to  the  head,  abdomen,  and  upper  extremity.  It  is  concluded  from  this  study,  that  8-­‐12  year  olds  do  not  get  the  same  protection  from  vehicle  restraints  in  crashes  as  younger  children  do.  The  8-­‐12  age  group  risk  is  1.3%,  which  seems  low,  but  the  risk  of  injury  for  1-­‐7  years  olds  is  under  1%.  Notably,  a  large  percentage  of  kids  of  each  age  8-­‐12  did  not  meet  the  standards  to  use  a  seat  belt  without  a  booster  seat;  therefore,  suggesting  that  many  Tweens  may  benefit  from  using  the  belt-­‐positioning  booster  seat.    A  greater  level  of  attention  should  be  then  paid  to  the  Tween  age  group  (by  performing  research)  to  lower  the  risk  of  injury.      Source:  Garcia-­‐Espana  J.F.,  Durbin  D.R.  Injuries  to  belted  older  children  in  motor  vehicle  crashes   (2008)  Accident  Analysis  and  Prevention,  40  (6),  pp.  2024-­‐2028.    ARTICLE:    “‘Tween’  Traffic  Safety  Research  Yields  New  Safety  Tips”  The  Article  “‘Tween’  Traffic  Safety  Research  Yields  New  Safety  Tips”  was  based  on  studies  conducted  by  the  Automotive  Coalition  for  Traffic  Safety  (ACTS)  that  funded  two  projects  on  Tween  car  safety  in  Dallas,  TX  and  Joplin,  MO.    The  two  locations  consisted  of  different  populations:  inner  city,  largely  Hispanic  in  Dallas;  and  rural,  predominantly  Caucasian  in  Joplin.  Statistics  showed  that  about  63%  of  Joplin  Tweens  and  53%  of  Dallas  Tweens  said  they  always  wear  their  seat  belts.    As  children  get  older,  their  desire  to  sit  in  the  front  seat  was  greater.    Studies  in  Dallas  and  Joplin  indicated  that  about  50%  of  12-­‐year-­‐olds  usually  sat  in  the  front.    Research  shows  that  children  are  40%  less  likely  to  get  injured  in  the  back  seat  than  in  the  front  seat.    Nearly  half  of  the  Tweens  killed  in  car  crashes  in  this  country  each  year  were  riding  unrestrained  and  one  third  were  riding  in  a  front  seat.    The  surveys  found  that  parents  have  a  huge  impact  on  their  Tweens’  use  of  seat  belts.    Research  shows  that  the  older  children  get,  the  less  likely  they  are  to  use  seat  belts  or  to  sit  in  the  back  seat.    It  is  very  important  to  emphasize  and  encourage  seat  belt  use  to  Tweens  because  they  are  at  the  age  where  they  are  developing  habits  that  will  carry  on  into  their  teen  and  adult  years.    Research  suggests  that  parents  need  to  be  more  effective  at  getting  their  Tweens  properly  restrained  in  the  back  seat.    Tweens  are  safest  in  the  back  seat  in  an  age  and  size-­‐appropriate  restraint.        The  National  Transportation  Safety  Board  (NTSB)  recommended  that  states  should  strengthen  and  enforce  laws  requiring  children  to  buckle  up  in  the  back  seat.    If  we  have  strong  laws,  then  we  hope  that  these  laws  will  support  parents’  efforts  to  properly  restrain  their  children.    Surveys  showed  when  parents  take  control,  Tweens  tend  to  sit  in  the  back.    Two-­‐thirds  of  Tweens  sit  in  a  back  seat   8     “Buckle  Up  For  The  Future”  
  9. 9. NHTSA  Tween  Seat  Belt  Use  Research  Program    when  parents  make  the  decision,  compared  to  only  half  of  Tweens  who  independently  decide  where  to  sit.    If  the  law  does  not  require  Tweens  to  buckle  up,  that  does  not  mean  it  is  not  important.  Parents  should  understand  that  safety  of  their  children  is  more  important  than  the  law.  Peer  influence  is  very  important,  but  the  Tweens  perception  of  their  peers’  behavior  is  more  important  than  their  actual  behavior.    If  Tweens  think  most  other  kids  their  age  use  safety  restraints  and  sit  in  the  back  seat,  then  they  are  more  likely  to  do  those  things,  too.    Parents   are   the   role   models   that   children   admire   and   look   to   for   guidance.   Parents   and   drivers  should   make   sure   that   the   children   they   are   responsible   for   are   properly   buckled   into   the   safest  available  place  in  the  vehicle.    Surveys  show  if  parents  take  control,  “Tweens”  are  more  likely  to  sit  in  the  back  and  to  be  buckled  up.  It’s  their  job  to  set  the  rules  for  riding  and  stick  to  them.      The  Automotive  Coalition  for  Traffic  Safety  (ACTS)  came  up  with  a  clever  idea  for  how  to  spread  safety  awareness  to  parents  for  Valentine’s  Day.    The  tag  line  was  “Hold  on  to  the  One  You  Love  -­‐  With  A  Seat  Belt.”  ACTS  offered  parents  specific  suggestions  for  how  to  persuade  Tweens  to  buckle  up  in  a  back  seat:   If  parents  buckle  up,  then  their  children  will  do  the  same.    Research  shows  when  parents  are   restrained,  their  children  are  much  more  likely  to  be  as  well.   Parents  should  tell  their  children  that  seat  belts  are  mandatory  by  law.    Let  Tweens  know   belt  use  isnt  an  option;  its  the  law.   Tweens  said  being  in  control  of  the  radio  is  a  major  benefit  of  the  front  seat.  So,  let  your   Tween  pick  the  radio  station.    Make  a  deal  with  your  Tween:  If  he  or  she  sits  buckled  in  back,   then  he  or  she  can  choose.   Give  your  Tween  something  to  do  in  a  back  seat.  Electronic  games  can  be  stored  in  a  back   seat  and  make  games  in  the  front  seat  off  limits.   Let  Tweens  "own"  their  space  in  a  back  seat.  Tweens  are  eager  to  claim  their  own  space.  Let   them  set  up  places  to  keep  things  in  a  back  seat  so  thats  the  first  place  they  want  to  go.  According  to  Christene  Jennings,  ACTS  director  stated:  "Armed  with  this  information,  we  can  reach  out  to  Tweens,  their  parents  and  others  who  influence  their  behavior,  increase  the  number  who  are  properly  restrained  in  back  seats  and  most  importantly  decrease  the  risk  of  serious  or  fatal  injury  in  a  crash."      Source:  Tween  Traffic  Safety  Research  Yields  New  Safety  Tips.  14  February  2010.   <http://www.theautochannel.com/news/2006/02/14/210712.html>    ARTICLE:  Increasing  Seat  Belt  Use  Among  8-­‐12  Year  Olds  This  extensive  article  offers  plenty  of  information  on  a  previous  research  done  by  NHTSA.    NHTSA  did  intensive  research  on  Tweens  between  the  ages  of  8  –  12  and  their  seat  belt  use.    The  report  describes  research  that  was  conducted  with  in  depth  home  interviews  including  parents  and  Tweens,  and  focus  groups  with  parents  and  Tweens.    The  purpose  of  the  research  program  was  to  understand  why  Tweens  chose  whether  or  not  to  wear  their  seat  belts  and  also  determine  up  with  potential  incentives  for  the  Tweens  to  wear  their  seat  belts.    Tweens  were  separated  further  down  into  sub-­‐age  groups.    For  example,  ages  8-­‐10  are  young  Tweens,  11  and  12  are  the  older  Tweens.    The  reason  for  a  further  break  down  was  that  Tweens  seemed  to  be   9     “Buckle  Up  For  The  Future”  
  10. 10. NHTSA  Tween  Seat  Belt  Use  Research  Program    motivated  and  influenced  by  different  peer  groups.    The  article  describes  how  each  sub-­‐group  has  its  own  characteristics  and  attitudes  and  the  article  provides  a  greater  depth  on  this  subject.    The  research  below  includes  various  reasons  for  why  the  Tweens  chose  not  to  wear  their  seat  belts:     They  forget   Seat  belts  are  uncomfortable   Simply  because  they  don’t  want  to   The  seat  belts  are  broken  or  stuck   Car  does  not  have  safety  equipment   Not  enough  seat  belts  in  car    The  final  part  of  the  report  includes  concepts  that  motivate  Tweens  to  wear  their  seat  belts:     Having  an  assembly  with  student  speakers  their  age     Radio  lock,  where  the  radio  does  not  turn  on  until  all  seat  belts  are  fastened   Video  games  in  the  car  pertaining  to  wearing  a  seat  belt   Influence  by  sports/coaches    Source:  Increasing  Seat  Belt  Use  Among  8-­‐15  Year  Olds.  14  February  2010.   <http://www.nhtsa.dot.gov/staticfiles//DOT/NHTSA/Traffic%20Injury%20Control/Articles/Assoc iated%20Files/810965.pdf>    ARTICLE:    Safety  belts  and  teens  2003  Report    There  are  two  kinds  of  laws  that  are  created  to  help  people  remember  about  using  seat  belts.  A  primary  seat  belt  law  gives  a  permit  to  enforcement  officers  to  pull  a  driver  over  for  not  wearing  a  seat  belt,  and  there  is  no  need  for  any  other  traffic  offense.  Secondary  seat  belt  laws  say  that  enforcement  officers  may  issue  a  ticket  for  not  wearing  a  seat  belt  only  when  there  is  another  traffic  violation.  In  2002,  the  average  number  of  people  using  seat  belts  was  about  11  percent  higher  in  states  where  the  primary  law  was  used.      Car  accidents  are  the  cause  of  many  deaths  every  year,  and  to  bring  this  number  down,  Occupant  Protection  Selective  Traffic  Enforcement  Programs  was  created.  The  purpose  of  this  program  is  to  help  people  change  their  safety  belt  use  behavior  by  combining  safety  belt  law  enforcement  with  media  support.  People  are  more  likely  to  obey  the  law,  knowing  that  particular  State  is  very  serious  about  it.  Another  successful  campaign  that  was  formed  to  increase  seat  belt  usage  rate  was  the  "Click  It  or  Ticket  Campaign".      This  campaign  was  established  by  the  National  Highway  Traffic  Safety  Administration,  the  Air  Bag  &  Seat  Belt  Safety  Campaign,  and  many  other  law  enforcement  agencies.  In  states  that  introduced  this  campaign,  the  seat  belt  usage  rates  went  up  by  as  much  as  19  percent.    Source:  NHTSA.    “Safety  Belts  and  Teens  2003  Report”    14  February  2010.                             <http://www.nhtsa.dot.gov/people/injury/airbags/buasbteens03/>    ARTICLE:  Fatality  and  Injury  Trends  Among  Child  Front-­‐Seat  Passenger  Vehicle  Occupants  12  and  Younger     10     “Buckle  Up  For  The  Future”  
  11. 11. NHTSA  Tween  Seat  Belt  Use  Research  Program    Primarily  starting  in  1995,  a  significant  percentage  of  child  automobile  safety  programs  have  focused  on  mandating  children  12  years  and  younger  be  seated  in  the  backseat  of  automobiles  to  reduce  injuries  resulting  post-­‐collision  from  seat  belt  and  air  bag  deployment.    NHTSA  has  compiled  data  and  analysis  on  government  policies  on  the  matter,  as  well  as  the  ratio  of  front-­‐seat  fatalities  and  injuries  for  children  under  the  age  of  12  years.    The  research  was  conducted  over  a  decade,  starting  in  1996  and  ending  in  2006  –  allowing  changes  in  legislation  and  child  vehicle  safety  programs  to  be  tracked  over  time.    Research  has  documented  an  increase  in  safety  campaigns,  including  governmental  legislation,  heightened  enforcement,  and  public  campaigns,  supporting  the  move  of  children  under  the  age  of  12  years  from  the  front  passenger  seat  to  the  back  seat  of  moving  automobiles.    Corresponding  with  this  increase  in  public  visibility  in  safety  campaigns,  research  showed  that  front-­‐seat  accident  related  fatalities  decreased  62%  over  the  period  of  the  study  (from  1996  to  2006).    It  was  documented  that  front-­‐seat  related  injuries  also  decreased  during  this  period.    Traffic  safety  data  concerning  child  front-­‐seat  passengers  under  the  age  of  twelve  is  analyzed  and  discussed  in  this  research  article.    Fatality  and  injury  numbers  for  this  age  bracket  display  a  declining  trend  from  1996  to  2006.    The  number  of  deaths  decreased  from  554  to  209  over  the  decade,  including  a  20%  drop  in  the  fatality  ratio.    “Over  the  11-­‐year  period,  the  number  of  front-­‐seat  fatalities  decreased  by  10  percent  every  year  on  average.”    These  statistics  illustrate  how  vehicle  safety  standards  have  reduced  the  overall  amount  of  deaths  for  Tweens  and  other  younger  passengers.  Regarding  injuries,  the  number  of  children  who  were  injured  decreased  by  56,000  during  the  11-­‐year  time  period.    Also,  the  injury  ratio  dropped  over  10%  during  the  given  timeframe.    “Both  the  number  and  ratio  of  children  injured  decreased  for  8  years  and  increased  for  3  years  between  1996  and  2006.  Overall,  the  trend  of  injury  number  and  injury  ratio  both  went  down  in  the  11-­‐year  period.”    Relating  to  the  fatalities  mentioned  earlier,  the  number  of  child  automobile  injuries  has  also  been  reduced  due  to  safety  advances  in  the  automotive  industry  as  well  as  consumer’s  focus  on  safe  driving.    Trend  data  indicates  the  child  safety  campaigns  have  been  successful  in  parents  ensuring  their  children  sit  in  the  backseat  of  the  car.    Concerning  Illinois  only,  statistics  show  that  the  rate  of  change  is  a  decrease  of  15%  in  both  injuries  and  fatalities  from  1996-­‐2006.    However,  one  major  disadvantage  of  this  research  article  is  that  any  backseat  related  deaths  or  injuries  were  not  considered,  which  is  where  Tweens  often  sit  when  traveling  in  an  automobile.    Data  regarding  backseat  child  safety  would  be  very  useful  to  compare  to  the  provided  statistics  regarding  front-­‐seat  passenger  for  this  age  group.      Source:  Fatality  and  Injury  Trends  Among  Child  Front-­‐Seat  Passenger  Vehicle  Occupants  12  and  Younger.   14  February  2010.    <http://www-­‐nrd.nhtsa.dot.gov/Pubs/811030.PDF>    ARTICLE:  INFLUENCING  8-­‐12  YEAR-­‐OLDS  TO  SIT  SAFELY  BUCKLED  IN  A  BACK  SEAT    In  recent  years,  advocates  of  child  safely  are  more  inclined  to  have  kids  between  8  and  12  years  old  wear  seat  belts  in  the  back  seat.    Every  year,  the  rate  of  Tween  deaths  involving  the  lack  of  seat  belt  usage  increases  and  many  experts  are  adamant  about  making  sure  everyone  is  following  the  law.    The  Automovitive  Coalition  for  Traffic  Safety  is  speculating  how  often  seat  belt  usage  is  being  practiced  by  Tweens,  considering  many  are  taking  the  required  law  lightly  when  sitting  in  the  back,  which  is  the  safest  place  for  children  under  13  to  be  sitting.    If  they  do  sit  in  the  passenger  seat,  they  are  40%  more  likely  to  be  injured  in  a  car  crash;  35%  of  Tweens  sit  in  the  front.     11     “Buckle  Up  For  The  Future”  
  12. 12. NHTSA  Tween  Seat  Belt  Use  Research  Program    Generally,  Tweens  die  in  car  crashes  at  a  rate  of  more  than  one  per  day  and  1,267  were  injured  in  2004.  The  main  cause  of  death  for  Tweens  who  sat  up  front  is  due  to  the  fact  that  they  were  not  wearing  a  seat  belt.  Looking  at  studies  conducted  in  Dallas,  Texas  and  Joplin,  Missouri,  only  53%  of  children  in  Dallas  and  63%  in  Joplin  said  they  always  wore  seat  belts.    Experts  find  these  statistics  startling  given  that  the  national  rate  is  82%.    It  was  also  noticed  that  Tweens  are  riding  in  the  passenger  seat  too  soon  for  their  young  age  with  about  1/3  of  Tweens  in  Joplin  and  Dallas  sitting  in  the  front  seat.      One  of  the  underlying  influencers  of  Tween  failure  to  wear  seat  belts  is  that  the  parents  have  a  strong  impact  on  how  children  think.    Studies  found  that  90%  of  children  wear  seat  belts  because  their  parents  do.    Of  those  with  parents  who  do  not  wear  seat  belts,  only  60%  of  children  wear  their  seat  belts.    There  are  four  factors  that  influence  seat  belt  usage  for  Tweens:     Whether  or  not  the  driver  wears  a  seat  belt   o From  1991-­‐2001,  91%  of  children  age  8-­‐12  were  killed  in  crashes,  the  driver  did  not   wear  a  seat  belt   Age  of  Driver   Parent/Driver  Requirement   Peer  Pressure  There  are  eight  essential  insights  for  traffic  safety:   1. Tweens  Don’t  Always  Buckle  Up   a. Only  63%  of  Tweens  in  Joplin,  MO  in  the  pilot  survey  said  they  always  wear  a  seat  belt   b. Only  53%  of  Tweens  in  Dallas,  TX  in  the  pilot  survey  said  they  always  wear  a  seat  belt   2. Tweens  Are  Riding  Up  Front  Too  Soon   a. About  a  third  of  Tweens  in  the  pilot  survey  stated  they  sat  in  the  front   3. Safety  May  Not  Be  A  Concern  for  Tweens  Sitting  in  Front   a. Around  one  third  of  Tweens  in  the  pilot  survey  stated  that  sitting  in  the  back  is  safer   4. Tweens  Want  Comfort  and  Control   a. Those  that  sat  in  the  front  stated  that  the  control  of  the  radio  was  a  major  benefit   b. Buckling  up  is  uncomfortable   5. Peers  Are  Very  Influential   a. Tweens  who  wear  a  seat  belt  all  the  time  were  more  likely  to  report  that  others  did  the   same   6. Parents  Matter   7. Boys  and  Girls  Need  To  Be  Approached  Differently   a. 95%  of  girls  vs.  87%  of  boys  stated  that  they  buckled  up  most  of  the  time  or  all  the  time   (Joplin  pilot  survey)   b. 2/3  of  girls  vs.  1/2  of  boys  stated  that  they  liked  the  safety  component  of  the  back  seat   (Joplin  pilot  survey)   c. Boys  were  more  likely  to  seek  comfort,  game-­‐playing,  and  parental  approval  as  a  key   factor  for  deciding  where  to  sit  (Joplin  pilot  survey)   8. The  Law  Matters   a. Supports  positive  norms   b. Encourages  parents  to  tell  their  kids  to  buckle  up     12     “Buckle  Up  For  The  Future”  
  13. 13. NHTSA  Tween  Seat  Belt  Use  Research  Program      There  are  some  ideas  what  can  be  done  to  help  promote  good  safety  habits  for  Tweens:   Traffic  Safety  Advocates   o Promote  how  common  it  is  for  Tweens  to  ride  buckled  up  in  the  back  seat   o Implement  programs  that  reward  teens  for  staying  buckled  up  in  the  back   o Offer  parents  tips  on  how  to  encourage  Tweens  to  sit  in  a  back  seat  buckled  up   Schools  and  Other  Youth  Organizations   o Make  safety  a  priority   o Use  coaches,  teachers,  and  other  role  models  to  encourage  safe  driving  habits   o Encourage  anyone  who  interacts  with  drivers  to  promote  safety  habits  for  Tweens   o Offer  specific  tips   Parents   o Make  it  a  rule   o Buckle  up  themselves   o Share  safe  driving  philosophy  with  other  parents   o Listen  to  Tweens  wants  in  the  car  and  accommodate  them  in  a  safe  manner   Policymakers   o Pass  and  enforce  safety  laws   o Close  gaps  in  laws  that  allow  children  to  ride  unrestrained   o Promote   o Fund  and  support  traffic  safety  programs  Source:  Influencing  8-­‐12  Year-­‐Olds  to  Sit  Safely  Buckled  in  a  Back  Seat.    14  February  2010.   <http://www.Tweensafety.org/_docs/Tween%20Booklet.pdf>    ARTICLE:  Rural/Urban  Comparison    This  research  article  discusses  the  fatalities  in  both  rural  and  urban  settings  and  compares  the  data  in  an  attempt  to  draw  conclusions  about  motor  vehicle  crash  fatalities.    There  is  not  an  in-­‐depth  emphasis  on  Tweens,  but  rather  a  focus  on  location  and  time  of  accidents  for  all  vehicle  passengers.    “According  to  the  2007  Census,  23  percent  of  the  U.S.  population  lived  in  rural  areas,  however,  rural  fatalities  accounted  for  57  percent  of  all  traffic  fatalities  in  2007.”    This  statistic  shows  that  accidents  are  much  deadlier  in  rural  areas  than  in  urban  settings.    Another  piece  of  information  that  the  article  discusses  is  the  number  of  miles  traveled  per  accident  ratio.    Once  again,  the  numbers  in  rural  areas  were  significantly  higher;  over  two  times  greater  than  those  near  major  cities.    Accidents  during  the  night  or  on  the  weekend  are  also  significantly  higher  than  at  other  times,  leading  Tweens  and  their  parents  to  ensure  they  buckle  up  during  these  peak  times.    One  of  the  more  important  pieces  of  information  included  discusses  seat  belt  usage.    “The  2007  National  Occupant  Protection  Use  Survey  (NOPUS)  shows  that  the  seat  belt  use  rate  among  occupants  of  vehicles  in  urban  areas  was  84  percent  and  rural  occupants  were  observed  to  have  a  use  rate  of  78  percent.”    This  increase  of  seat  belt  usage  in  urban  areas  may  be  correlated  to  the  reduced  number  of  fatalities  in  comparison  to  rural  settings.    Regarding  Illinois,  the  state  was  ranked  9th  out  of  the  United  States  for  total  fatalities  in  2007,  which  is  a  number  that  should  be  greatly  reduced,  if  at  all  possible.    We  can  conclude  from  these  many  segments  of  data  that  the  rural  areas  are  prone  for  bigger  and  more  dangerous  accidents,  which  leads  us  to  emphasize  the  importance  of  seat  belt  safety  and  usage  among  Tweens  and  all  other  automobile  passengers.    Source:Rural/Urban  Comparison.    14  February  2010.    <http://www-­‐ nrd.nhtsa.dot.gov/Pubs/809524.PDF>   13     “Buckle  Up  For  The  Future”  
  14. 14. NHTSA  Tween  Seat  Belt  Use  Research  Program    ARTICLE:  Safety  belt  use  laws  This  article  cites  that  of  the  50  states,  49  have  state  seat  belt  laws  (the  one  that  does  not  is  New  Hampshire).  In  these  49  states  with  seat  belt  safety  laws,  only  30  view  the  lack  of  seat  belt  usage  as  a  primary  offense  (meaning  in  these  30  states,  an  individual  can  be  pulled  over  for  not  wearing  a  seat  belt).  19  states  view  it  as  a  secondary  offense  (an  individual  cannot  be  pulled  over  for  not  wearing  a  seat  belt,  but  a  ticket  can  be  written  if  pulled  over  for  another  offense).  There  is  a  safety  belt  defense  law  that  states  an  individual’s  claim  in  an  accident  can  be  lessened  if  that  individual  wasn’t  wearing  a  seat  belt  at  the  time  of  the  accident,  but  that  is  only  valid  in  16  states.  There  are  child  restraint  laws  set  out  for  all  50  states,  but  there  is  no  clear  definition  throughout  all  50  states,  as  each  state  differs  with  its  laws.    Source:  Safety  belt  use  laws.  Insurance  Institute  For  Highway  Safety,  Feb.  2010.  Web.  15  Feb.  2010.   <http://www.iihs.org/laws/SafetyBeltUse.aspx>  ARTICLE:  Seat  Belt  Use  in  2008—Use  Rates  in  the  States  and  Territories  This  article  shows  the  usage  of  seat  belts  in  all  US  states  and  territories  from  2001  to  2008.  The  use  of  this  article,  with  the  use  of  the  previous  one  (which  shows  when  failure  to  wear  a  seat  belt  as  a  primary  offense),  will  show  the  jump  of  people  in  the  given  states  who  wore  seat  belts  after  it  became  a  primary  offense.  This  also  shows  the  change  from  2007  to  2008  for  all  states  and  territories  (note:  18  states  actually  declined  seat  belt  usage,  including  a  7.1%  decline  in  Rhode  Island).    Source:  Seat  Belt  Use  in  2008—Use  Rates  in  the  States  and  Territories.  Traffic  Safety  Facts.  National   Highway  Traffic  Safety  Administration.  Web.  15  Feb.  2010.    Methodology  for  Qualitative:  Observational  Study  Research  Design  In  order  to  assist  the  team  in  looking  at  the  relationships  in  various  attitudes  with  actual  seat  belt  use,  we  have  chosen  to  conduct  seat  belt  observational  studies.    Five  team  members  conducted  observational  research  in  the  suburbs  of  Chicago,  while  three  different  team  members  conducted  research  in  Chicago,  Illinois.  The  locations  of  suburban  observations  were  near  schools  and  shopping  malls.    City  observations  took  place  near  churches  and  local  sporting  events.  A  spreadsheet  has  been  created  in  order  to  document  the  observed  data  in  which  data  was  evaluated  through  SPSS.  The  information  collected  included  driver’s  general  age,  gender,  and  race.  Team  members  also  inquired  on  vehicle  type,  passenger  age,  and  whether  or  not  vehicle  occupants  were  belted.  Date  and  location  were  noted.  Population  Sampling  units  reflected  the  projected  target  market,  i.e.  Tweens  ages  8-­‐12,  parents/caregivers  of  Tweens  and  other  influencers  (of  all  ages).  Demographic  analysis  was  conducted  in  post-­‐active  research.  Due  to  the  extensive  demographic  information  that  was  obtained,  analysis  was  conducted  through  SPSS.  Selection  process  was  chosen  according  to  secondary  target  segments.  Hispanics  were  primarily  observed  in  the  urban  areas  of  Chicago.  Rural  observations  were  conducted  based  on  high  traffic  areas  for  the  primary  target  segment.   14     “Buckle  Up  For  The  Future”  
  15. 15. NHTSA  Tween  Seat  Belt  Use  Research  Program    Collection  Process  Data  was  collected  through  a  data  collection  spreadsheet.  Segments  of  the  document  included  information  pertaining  to  the  driver,  passenger,  and  additional  comments  (i.e.  direct  or  indirect  observation  and/or  where  the  passenger  was  sitting  i.e.  front  or  back).  Method  of  Analysis  Data  analysis  was  conducted  through  SPSS  for  the  quantifiable  results.  Other  observed  comments  and  conclusions  were  documented  accordingly.    Results  Descriptive  Analysis  Based  off  of  the  280  observations  that  were  made,  we  conducted  statistical  analysis  to  determine  any  specific  correlation  between  seat  belt  use  and  other  factors.  From  the  statistics,  we  observed  that  the  Tweens  predominately  sat  in  the  back  seat  without  a  booster  seat,  and  the  remaining  sat  in  the  back  seat  with  a  booster  seat  or  in  the  front  seat.  (These  results  do  not  take  into  account  all  the  280  observations,  only  82,  because  not  all  NHTSA  representatives  specified  the  position  of  the  passenger  in  the  vehicle).  We  observed  Tweens  between  ages  8  and  12  and  the  graph  below  shows  the  distribution  of  the  data.     Age  Distribution  of  Tweens 21% 28% 8 9 9% 10 17% 11 26% 12Before  doing  the  observations,  we  believed  the  vehicle  type  would  influence  the  Tweens’  seat  belt  usage.  If  the  size  of  the  car  was  to  be  perceived  as  bigger,  it  would  mean  it  was  safer.    As  a  result,  there  is  no  correlation  between  the  type  of  vehicle  and  whether  or  not  the  Tween  buckled  up.       15     “Buckle  Up  For  The  Future”  
  16. 16. NHTSA  Tween  Seat  Belt  Use  Research  Program     Vehicle  Type 12% car 31% 53% pick-­‐up  truck suv 4% mini  vanWe  also  assumed  the  location  of  the  Tween  in  the  vehicle  would  greatly  influence  the  Tweens’  seat  belt  usage.  The  analysis  determines  that  there  is  no  strong  evidence  supporting  a  correlation  between  the  location  of  the  Tween  in  the  vehicle  and  whether  or  not  the  Tween  buckled  up.     Location  in  the  Vehicle 14.6% 30.5% Front  Seat Back  Seat  (no  Booster  Seat) 54.9% Back  Seat  (Booster  Seat)We  conducted  a  correlation  analysis  between  the  driver’s  sex  and  race  vs.  Tween  seat  belt  use  and  driver’s  sex  vs.  driver’s  seat  belt  use.  The  races  that  were  predominately  observed  were  African-­‐American,  Caucasians,  and  Hispanics.  The  only  correlation  that  was  noticed  was  when  the  driver  buckled  up,  the  passenger  chose  also  to  buckle  up.     16     “Buckle  Up  For  The  Future”  
  17. 17. NHTSA  Tween  Seat  Belt  Use  Research  Program       Driver  and  Seat  Belt   Passenger  and  Seat   Usage Belt  Usage 18% 33% yes yes 82% 67% no no                            Otherwise,  the  correlation  coefficient  has  no  statistical  significance  and  we  can  therefore  conclude  that  there  is  no  significant  correlation  between  any  of  the  determinants  tested.    Limitations  and  Caveats  Potential  Errors  After  finishing  the  observational  analysis,  we  found  that  there  was  potential  for  error  that  deviated  our  overall  results.  While  observing  if  Tweens  are  wearing  seat  belts  while  riding  in  cars,  the  hardest  part  was  determining  the  child’s  ages.  Knowing  that  our  target  has  to  be  between  the  ages  of  8  and  12  years  old,  we  had  to  make  assumptions  when  recording  the  data.    The  observations  were  done  during  the  winter  time,  making  it  difficult  to  verify  if  the  child  was  even  wearing  a  seat  belt  because  of  the  outerwear  that  they  had  on.  Other  potential  inaccuracies  that  impacted  our  results  were  the  difficulty  of  establishing  the  Tween’s  gender  and  race.  Most  of  the  data  did  not  record  the  type  of  vehicles  that  were  observed.    Possible  Improvements  After  doing  indirect  observations,  we  realized  that  we  should  have  done  some  direct  observations  to  ensure  the  exact  demographic  of  our  target  group.  We  would  not  have  to  estimate  any  data  that  we  were  unsure  of  so  our  results  would  be  more  accurate.    Methodology  for  Qualitative:  Focus  Group  Research  Design  In  order  to  explore  detailed  habits  and  opinions  of  our  primary  target  markets  the  team  conducted  a  total  of  seven  focus  groups.  The  focus  groups  took  place  at  the  UIC  Innovation  Center  and  University  Hall,  both  located  on  Harrison  Street.  Another  focus  group  was  done  in  Lemont,  IL  at  the  MB  Financial  Bank.  The  days  chosen  were  Saturday,  March  13th  from  10:00  AM  –  2:00  PM  for  the  Innovation  Center   17     “Buckle  Up  For  The  Future”  
  18. 18. NHTSA  Tween  Seat  Belt  Use  Research  Program    and  Sunday,  March  14th  from  12:00  PM  -­‐  2  PM  for  University  Hall;  the  last  focus  group  took  place  on  Sunday,  March  21st  from  10:30  AM  –  12:30  PM  in  Lemont,  IL.    Participants  included  the  primary  target  segments.  The  differing  segments  were  each  separated  into  their  focus  groups  i.e.  parent  focus  group  and  Tween  focus  group.  Bagels  and  coffee  were  provided  for  the  Innovation  Center  and  UH  focus  groups  and  Doughnuts  and  coffee  were  provided  for  the  Lemont  focus  group.  Pizza  and  pop  were  provided  at  every  focus  group.  The  Tween  focus  groups  were  concentrated  on  situations  in  which  Tweens  do  not  wear  seat  belts.  The  moderator  inquired  on  modes  of  transportation  and  Tween-­‐parent  seat  belt  awareness  and  education.  Questions  pertained  to  Tweens  who  do  not  buckle  up  and  what  would  get  them  to  wear  their  seat  belts.  Other  questions  related  to  Tweens  riding  in  the  car  with  friends.    The  parent  or  influencer  focus  groups  concentrated  on  struggles  and  decisions  for  buckling  up  their  Tweens.  The  moderator  inquired  on  parental  importance  of  buckling  up  and  strategies  they  have  used  to  overcome  Tween  resistance.  Population  Sampling  units  reflected  the  projected  target  market,  i.e.  Tweens  ages  8-­‐12,  parents  and  or  caregivers  of  Tweens,  and  other  influencers  of  all  ages  (18  and  over).  Demographic  analysis  was  conducted  post-­‐active  research.  The  selection  process  consisted  mainly  of  our  friends  and  family,  informing  them  of  our  needs,  and  asking  for  participation.  We  also  passed  out  fliers  to  try  to  get  other  participants  not  known  to  us  to  partake  in  the  study.  Incentives  were  offered  as  mentioned  above.  Tweens  were  asked  to  participate  alongside  a  parent  or  influencer.  Limitations  of  the  selection  process  included  locations  and  transportation  liability,  in  addition  to  participant  agreeableness.  Collection  Process  Data  was  collected  through  facilitator  notes  and  focus  group  videos.  In  the  Innovation  Center,  team  members  watched  and  took  notes  opposite  a  single  sided  mirror.  At  the  UH  and  Lemont  focus  groups,  team  members  took  notes  during  the  session  while  sitting  in  the  same  room.  Method  of  Analysis  Data  analysis  included  revision  of  focus  group  videos  and  notes.  Specific  quotes  from  participants  in  addition  to  precisely  answered  questions  were  summarized  and  noted.  The  data  provided  assisted  in  improving  the  familiarity  of  the  target  segments.    Results  Descriptive  Analysis  Reasons  for  wearing  seat  belt  Participants  told  us  they  always  wear  their  seat  belt  because  it  became  a  habit  to  do  so.        The  motivation  behind  wearing  a  seat  belt  is  in  precaution  to  an  accident  that  may  occur.      According  to  one  participant,  she  would  “wear  [her]  seat  belt  all  the  time  if  I  got  paid.”  Other  reasons  include  annoyance  from  the  alarm  that  goes  off  in  the  vehicle  if  the  seat  belt  is  not  in  use,  or  the  seat  belt  is  automatic  when  closing  the  door.      From  all  these  responses,  we  concluded  that  parents  or  guardians  should  have  more  involvement  in  educating  their  Tweens  to  wear  their  seat  belt  since  these  Tweens  look  up  to  their  parents.  It  is  startling  to  learn  an  accident  is  the  motivation  for  some  kids  to  use  seat  belts  every  time.  It  is  reported  that   18     “Buckle  Up  For  The  Future”  
  19. 19. NHTSA  Tween  Seat  Belt  Use  Research  Program    parents  do  not  tell  their  Tweens  to  wear  their  seat  belts  as  much  compared  to  when  they  were  younger  and  parents  do  not  watch  them  if  they  have  their  seat  belts  on.  Parents  trust  them  to  put  it  on  their  own  since  they  are  old  enough.  When  asked  what  they  would  do  when  a  friend  is  not  wearing  their  seat  belt,  only  a  few  Tweens  would  advise  their  friend  to  do  so.  Most  Tweens  answered  they  would  not  do  anything  because  they  do  not  pay  attention.  All  Tweens  assume  that  there  is  no  improper  way  to  wearing  a  seat  belt;  they  think  it  is  okay  as  long  as  they  click  it  on  even  if  it  is  under  their  arms  or  behind  their  backs.  When  asked  if  he  knows  the  proper  way  of  wearing  seat  belts,  one  individual  questioned,  “is  there  an  improper  way  of  wearing  a  seat  belt?”  The  Tweens  have  been  taught  by  police,  parents,  and  grandparents  to  wear  seat  belts  to  prevent  injuries  in  the  case  an  accident  occurs.  They  have  been  told  “if  you  don’t  wear  your  seat  belt,  you  will  end  up  in  the  hospital”  or  they  can  get  injured  or  even  die.  The  Tweens  know  that  seat  belts  keep  an  individual  in  place  when  the  car  stops  immediately.  It  was  good  to  know  that  Tweens  were  aware  of  various  seat  belt  laws  and  campaigns,  particularly  the  Click  It  Or  Ticket  It  campaign.  Participants  also  knew  about  other  laws  regarding  seat  belt  laws  and  the  rules  and  regulations  concerning  where  to  sit  in  the  car  depending  on  the  height  of  the  person.  Finally,  when  asked  whose  opinion  Tweens  value  the  most,  as  predicted,  most  answered  either  their  mom  or  dad  or  any  close  relatives.  This  shows  that  family  play  a  big  factor  in  how  Tweens  interact  in  their  everyday  lives.  Parents  For  the  parents’  focus  group,  we  wanted  to  determine  their  roles  in  whether  or  not  their  children  wear  their  seat  belts,  and  to  find  out  more  information  about  whom  and  what  influences  this  age  group  to  wear  or  not  wear  seat  belts.      According  to  the  group  of  parents,  a  small  population  said  they  never  wear  their  seat  belts  in  cars;  unexpectedly,  one  of  them  is  a  male  police  officer.  It  was  intriguing  to  find  that  they  would  only  wear  their  seat  belts  in  bad  weather  conditions,  such  as  rain  or  snow,  but  not  wear  it  if  it  is  good  weather.  Seat  belts  being  “uncomfortable  and  too  restricted”  also  prompted  them  to  not  consider  putting  it  on.  One  individual  said  that  a  past  vehicle  that  he  owned  did  not  have  a  seat  belt,  he  just  got  used  to  not  wearing  seat  belts  when  riding  in  a  vehicle.  Similar  to  the  Tweens’  answers,  about  half  of  the  parents  sometimes  wear  their  seat  belt  and  the  other  half  said  they  would  always  wear  seat  belts.  For  those  who  sometimes  wear  their  seat  belt,  it  is  due  to  absent-­‐mindedness  and  not  anything  intentional.  What  influences  adults  to  wear  seat  belts  All  of  the  adults  said  safety  is  the  primary  reason  why  they  wear  their  seat  belts,  with  one  parent  saying  “I  don’t  want  to  leave  my  son  without  a  mother.”  Other  answers  included  the  beeping  noise  the  car  makes  if  the  seat  belt  is  not  on  or  not  wanting  a  ticket.  Also,  wearing  a  seat  belt  is  just  another  force  of  habit  for  most  adults  to  avoid  injury  or  death  in  case  of  an  accident.    In  certain  situation,  most  adults  feel  as  if  wearing  a  seat  belt  is  not  the  utmost  important  thing  because  sometimes  seat  belts  “restrict  you  more  than  it  saves  you.”      The  law  of  wearing  seat  belts  The  majority  of  parents  are  very  aware  of  the  seat  belt  law,  especially  the  “Click-­‐It-­‐Or-­‐Ticket”  law  that  is  made  apparent  through  advertising.  Some  are  unclear  about  what  exactly  is  the  seat  belt  law  and  end  up  going  with  their  own  beliefs  and  that  is  what  they  teach  their  children.       19     “Buckle  Up  For  The  Future”  
  20. 20. NHTSA  Tween  Seat  Belt  Use  Research  Program    Sitting  in  the  car  Most  parents  think  the  safest  seat  in  the  car  for  passengers  is  the  seat  right  behind  the  driver  “so  you  can  see  them  through  the  rearview  mirror.”  Most  parents  let  their  kids  choose  wherever  they  want  to  sit  in  the  car  because  they  do  not  think  seating  matters.  Some  parents  are  very  specific  about  where  their  children  sit  in  the  car,  depending  on  the  height  and  weight  of  the  child.  Other  parents  say  that  the  child  can  sit  in  the  front  seat  “when  the  seat  belt  fits  properly.”    One  parent  said  that  she  listens  to  whatever  their  pediatrician  says  about  where  their  child  should  sit  in  the  car.  Since  parents  have  higher  authority,  all  of  their  kids  listen  to  them  when  asked  to  wear  seat  belts.  There  seem  to  be  no  problems  wearing  seat  belts,  but  if  problems  were  to  occur,  they  would  check  to  see  if  their  children  are  wearing  seat  belts,  and  remind  them  to  if  they  are  not.  It  is  assumed  that  children  are  very  obedient;  however,  when  the  Tweens  were  asked  about  problems  wearing  seat  belts,  they  made  it  clear  that  wearing  seat  belts  is  their  choice  and  sometimes  they  do  not  wear  seat  belts.  The  kids  stated  that  parents  do  not  watch  them  to  see  if  they  are  wearing  seat  belt.      If  parents  see  that  their  Tweens  are  not  wearing  seat  belts,  they  would  not  start  the  car  unless  they  put  it  on.  They  also  make  the  Tweens  aware  that  they  will  get  a  ticket  if  no  seat  belts  are  worn.  Parents  teach  their  kids  about  seat  belt  usage  at  a  young  age  to  tell  them  that  it  is  required  to  put  it  on;  however,  some  parents  are  okay  with  their  children  not  wearing  seat  belts  when  sitting  in  the  back  seat.  Parents  assume  that  their  child  know  how  to  put  on  the  seat  belt  correctly  because  they  are  not  aware  that  there  is  an  incorrect  way  to  wear  it.  Information  about  seat  belt    Parents  obtain  their  information  about  seat  belt  usage  from  school,  magazine,  or  the  Internet.  While  explaining  the  dangers  of  not  wearing  seat  belt,  one  parent  said  that  “Princess  Diana  died  because  she  was  not  wearing  seat  belt.”  In  addition,  they  also  use  their  past  experiences  to  emphasize  the  important  of  seat  belt  usage;  however,  parents  let  their  children  decide  weather  or  not  to  wear  seat  belts  when  they  get  older  because  it  will  be  their  choice.      When  asked  why  some  parents  think  other  parents  let  their  Tweens  get  away  with  not  wearing  seat  belts,  most  answered  that  there  is  a  lack  of  concern  and  total  negligence.    Limitations  and  Caveats  Potential  Errors  As  for  conducting  the  focus  groups,  it  was  difficult  finding  both  Tweens  and  parents  of  Tweens,  given  that  our  target  market  is  between  8  and  12  years  old.  We  found  it  difficult  to  establish  a  time  that  is  contingent  with  everyone’s  schedule  including  NHTSA  group  members  and  participants.  Many  participants  that  were  willing  to  participate  had  other  obligations  that  conflicted  with  the  timing.  Also,  the  focus  groups  had  to  be  conducted  on  campus;  consequently  many  people  had  a  hard  time  getting  to  our  location.  Other  big  issues  included  finding  parking  for  participants,  finding  a  place  to  conduct  the  focus  groups,  and  finding  cameras  to  record  the  sessions.  In  order  to  get  participants  to  come  to  the  focus  groups,  we  had  to  lure  them  in  with  incentives  such  as  pizza,  pop,  doughnuts,  coffee,  and  bagels  which  were  difficult  to  obtain  while  staying  within  our  budget.      In  our  analysis,  many  of  the  questions  were  very  subjective;  therefore  we  cannot  assume  that  all  questions  were  answered  from  an  honest  perspective.  Many  answers  were  very  contradicting  and  we  assume  that  the  participants,  especially  the  parents,  altered  their  answers  in  their  favor.   20     “Buckle  Up  For  The  Future”  
  21. 21. NHTSA  Tween  Seat  Belt  Use  Research  Program    Possible  Improvements  With  18  members  setting  up  the  focus  group  process,  we  had  a  lack  of  communication  between  members  in  some  instances  and  the  process  could  have  been  faster  had  we  communicated  more  efficiently  with  each  other.  After  each  focus  group  session,  we  were  not  as  prepared  to  raffle  off  our  prizes  because  we  did  not  give  enough  time  to  put  everyone’s  name  in  the  drawing.  Other  preparations  that  needed  improvements  were  getting  the  food  for  the  focus  group  because  we  had  to  take  into  account  of  how  many  people  were  going  to  show  up  without  going  over  our  budget,  and  there  were  a  few  miscommunications  regarding  where  the  focus  groups  were  going  to  take  place.    Methodology  for  Qualitative:  In-­‐Depth  Interview  Research  Design  In  addition  to  focus  groups,  we  also  set  up  in-­‐depth  interviews  in  order  to  have  more  specific  results  for  our  research.  We  conducted  two  in-­‐depth  interviews  overall,  with  one  interview  consisting  of  two  girls  face-­‐to-­‐face  and  the  second  one  with  three  girls  via  Skype.    During  the  interview,  one  team  member  asked  questions  and  one  recorded  the  interview  with  a  video  recorder.  The  same  question  sets  that  were  used  for  the  focus  groups  were  used  for  these  interviews.  Results  Descriptive  Analysis  The  results  of  the  in-­‐depth  interviews  are  very  similar  to  those  of  the  focus  groups.  When  asked  how  often  they  wear  seat  belts  while  sitting  in  the  car,  they  said  they  would  always  wear  it  if  they  sat  in  the  front  and  they  would  sometimes  wear  it  if  they  sat  in  the  back.  One  interesting  finding  was  that  one  of  the  girls  said  she  avoids  wearing  seat  belts  sometimes  because  she  wanted  “to  look  cool”  like  her  friends.  This  shows  that  the  reason  some  kids  avoid  wearing  seat  belts  could  possibly  be  because  they  want  to  fit  in  along  with  their  peers,  which  makes  sense  considering  Tweens  are  among  the  primary  group  that  are  the  most  peer  pressured.      Reasons  for  wearing  seat  belts  The  main  reason  why  these  girls  wear  their  seat  belt  is  for  safety,  and  it  is  apparent  that  they  wear  seat  belts  when  sitting  in  the  front  seat  because  they  think  it  is  easier  to  get  hurt  in  the  front  seat.  An  interesting  remark  was  when  a  Tween  mentioned  she  does  not  wear  her  seat  belt  when  riding  in  a  car  for  a  short  period  of  time  because  “five  minutes  is  not  long  enough  for  an  accident”  to  occur.  That  is  the  general  reason  for  Tweens  who  do  not  wear  their  seat  belts  when  riding  in  a  car  for  a  short  period  of  time.  Another  reason  is  when  parents  or  guardians  tell  them  to  wear  seat  belt,  they  would  do  it  without  arguing.  One  girl  even  pointed  out  that  her  parents  remind  her  constantly  to  wear  seat  belt.  Influencers  Comparable  to  our  focus  group  results,  every  Tween  in  the  in-­‐depth  interview  said  that  their  parents  influence  them  the  most  concerning  seat  belt  usage.  One  Tween  said  that  between  her  mother  and  father,  she  values  her  father’s  opinion  more  because  they  are  much  closer  and  she  spends  more  time  with  him.   21     “Buckle  Up  For  The  Future”  
  22. 22. NHTSA  Tween  Seat  Belt  Use  Research  Program    Limitations  and  Caveats  Potential  Errors    The  biggest  problem  with  one  of  the  in-­‐depth  interview  was  that  the  parent  was  present  during  her  kids’  interview  and  she  would  sometimes  answer  for  them.  This  might  have  negatively  impacted  the  results  because  the  answers  were  not  directly  from  the  kids’  standpoint.  Another  big  problem  was  the  technical  difficulties  of  conducting  the  interview  through  Skype,  such  as  the  internet  freezing  a  few  times,  and  it  was  difficult  to  hear  one  another.  Finding  a  convenient  time  to  set  up  the  interview  was  also  a  problem  because  of  everyone’s  busy  schedule.  Possible  Improvements  If  we  could  have  done  the  interview  in  person,  we  would  have  separated  the  parents  from  the  kids  so  they  are  free  to  answer  the  questions  and  avoid  any  technical  issues.  We  found  that  many  answers  were  repetitive  with  what  the  Tweens  said  during  the  focus  groups  so  if  we  would  have  asked  different  questions,  it  would  not  have  been  so  redundant.  Conclusions  Observational  Study  From  the  results  we  obtained,  most  of  the  Tweens  who  sat  in  the  back  seat  without  seat  belts  and  those  who  sit  in  the  front  seat,  most  of  them  do  wear  seat  belts.  It  could  be  that  they  believe  sitting  in  the  front  seat  put  them  more  at  risk  in  case  of  an  accident.  Unfortunately,  not  all  of  the  data  collected  specified  where  the  Tweens  sat  so  it  was  difficult  to  determine  if  Tweens  do  wear  seat  belts  depending  where  they  sit.  There  were  no  correlations  between  the  type  of  vehicle  and  if  Tweens  wear  seat  belts.  The  only  one  noticed  was  that  if  the  drivers  were  wearing  their  seat  belts,  the  Tweens  were  also  wearing  their  seat  belts.  Focus  Groups  and  In-­‐Depth  Interviews  After  analyzing  our  researched  data,  we  noticed  the  results  from  both  the  focus  groups  and  in-­‐depth  interviews  were  very  similar  as  mentioned  before.  Tweens’  biggest  influence  factor  would  be  experiences.  For  example,  we  asked  Tweens  what  would  be  a  prime  factor  for  them  to  wear  seat  belts  and  the  majority  of  them  answered  that  if  they  were  ever  to  be  in  a  car  accident,  they  would  be  more  inclined  to  wear  seat  belts  every  time.  The  main  difference  was  that  the  Tweens’  answers  were  more  direct  and  descriptive  because  it  was  more  one-­‐on-­‐one  and  they  are  able  to  be  more  expressive.  Compare  to  the  focus  group  findings,  the  in-­‐depth  interview  participants  stated  that  they  are  more  likely  to  not  wear  seat  belts  during  very  short  trips  or  very  longs  trips.  Aside  from  parents  influencing  them  to  wear  seat  belts,  these  Tweens  also  take  into  account  their  peers’  opinion  on  seat  belt  usage.  We  found  that  Tweens  do  understand  the  importance  of  seat  belt  usage  because  all  of  the  Tweens  either  wear  their  seat  belts  all  of  the  time  or  at  least  some  of  the  times.  It  seems  that  in  the  event  that  there  happen  to  be  a  short  trip  or  a  very  long  trip,  the  Tweens  are  less  apt  to  wearing  their  seat  belts.  For  the  short  trips,  it  is  a  belief  that  nothing  is  going  to  happen  when  sitting  in  the  car  for  five  minutes.  For  the  long  trips,  Tweens  prefer  to  be  more  comfortable  rather  than  being  strapped  in  the  seat  belts.       22     “Buckle  Up  For  The  Future”  
  23. 23. NHTSA  Tween  Seat  Belt  Use  Research  Program    Recommendations  Some  recommendations  that  would  promote  seat  belt  usage  would  be  using  people  that  Tweens  idolize  such  as  parents  or  celebrities.  If  parents  talk  to  their  kids  more  about  wearing  seat  belts,  they  would  be  exposed  to  the  message  at  an  early  age  and  more  likely  to  remember  it  as  they  grow  older.  Also,  using  celebrities  to  send  out  messages  about  wearing  seat  belts  would  influence  Tweens  greatly.  When  interviewing  the  parents,  most  of  them  were  unaware  of  seat  belt  laws  such  as  the  requirements  for  kids  to  sit  in  the  front  seat,  when  to  take  the  booster  seat  out,  or  what  the  consequences  are  if  someone  is  caught  not  wearing  seat  belts.  Many  parents  just  use  what  they  know  to  teach  their  kids  without  doing  any  research.  If  NHTSA  can  spread  awareness  about  seat  belt  laws  more  so  parents  are  able  to  understand  clearly  what  the  laws  are,  more  people  would  wear  their  seat  belts.  Methodology  for  Quantitative  Research  Design  We  began  our  research  problem  by  closely  examining  the  resources  that  NHTSA  has  provided  for  us  to  determine  the  precise  objectives  that  would  define  our  survey  development.    The  main  objectives  we  ascertained  for  our  research  was  first,  to  provide  insight  on  Tween  perceptions  and  beliefs  on  seat  belts  and  seat  belt  usage,  and  second,  to  determine  who  and  what  the  primary  influencers  were  for  Tweens  in  regards  to  seat  belt  usage.    A  series  of  questions  were  provided  by  NHTSA  for  us,  to  use  verbatim,  in  two  surveys,  one  for  the  Tweens  and  one  for  their  parents.    We  developed  the  additional  questions  around  our  two  primary  objectives,  using  GoogleDocs  as  a  medium  to  better  communicate  within  the  group  while  developing  the  questions.    Once  the  surveys  were  finalized,  we  uploaded  them  onto  Qualtrics.    Due  to  legality  issues  (as  our  target  group  included  minors),  our  group  had  decided  to  send  out  copies  of  the  consent  letters  with  the  parent  surveys  first,  having  teachers  hand  them  out  to  their  students  to  bring  home  and  return  to  school  after  a  few  days.  Group  members  also  sent  out  the  link  to  the  Qualtrics  survey  via  email  and  social  networking,  targeting  parents  with  children  in  the  age  range  of  8  and  12  years  old.      The  purpose  of  our  research  was  developed  to  answer  two  primary  objectives:  first  to  determine  the  opinions  of  the  Tween  population  about  seat  belts,  and  seat  belt  safety  and  usage.    The  second  objective,  which  our  research  hoped  to  gain  insight  on,  was  exactly  who  and  what  were  the  influencers  on  Tweens  on  the  subject  of  seat  belts  and  seat  belt  usage.    More  specifically,  we  wanted  to  see  what  actions  by  parents  have  the  most  influence  on  Tweens  to  get  them  to  buckle  up.    We  also  were  asking  a  series  of  questions  attempting  to  identify  who  the  key  influencers  are  for  Tweens  and  their  use  of  seat  belts  when  in  the  car.  Population  For  our  research,  our  primary  population  being  studied  is  the  NHTSA-­‐labeled  ‘Tween  population’  –  children  within  the  age  range  of  8  and  12  years  old.    The  secondary  population  our  research  focused  on  is  the  parents  of  our  ‘Tween  population’.    Our  sampling  objective  was  to  survey  a  minimum  of  200  parents  and  50  Tweens  (as  directed  by  the  NHTSA  board).    We  began  our  sampling  process  by  compiling  a  list  of  schools  and  school  administrators  which  group  members  had  access  to,  and  creating  a  list  of  contact  information  for  these  elementary  and  middle   23     “Buckle  Up  For  The  Future”  
  24. 24. NHTSA  Tween  Seat  Belt  Use  Research  Program    schools.    Because  the  majority  of  our  contact  schools  are  located  in  the  suburbs  of  Chicago,  we  also  are  researching  several  schools  located  within  the  Chicago  city  limits  to  contact  as  well.    We  wanted  to  represent  Tweens  both  in  the  urban  and  suburban  areas,  as  there  are  decidedly  different  transportation  patterns  for  each  group.        Due  to  legal  requirements,  we  were  unable  to  distribute  surveys  to  any  school,  public  or  private.    However,  each  group  member  was  able  to  obtain  between  five  and  ten  parent  surveys  and  five  Tween  surveys;  each  survey  was  distributed  to  and  filled  out  by  parents,  guardians,  or  influencers  of  Tweens.    The  distribution  channel  was  either  Qualtrics  or  physical  paper  forms.    In  addition,  one  member  contacted  the  Galileo  Scholastic  Academy  of  Math  and  Science,  which  is  a  middle  school  just  west  of  the  Chicago  Loop.    Our  member  was  able  to  distribute  about  20  Tween  surveys  at  this  school.  Collection  Process  Survey  distribution  was  handled  through  two  channels  –  the  main  dispersal  of  the  survey  was  done  through  18  team  members.  Each  member  gathered  at  least  ten  parent  surveys  and  approximately  five  and  ten  Tween  surveys.  Physical  copies  of  the  parent  surveys,  along  with  the  consent  forms,  were  distributed  at  the  beginning  of  the  spring  recess,  and  both  English  and  Spanish  forms  were  provided  when  necessary.  One  week  later,  after  the  surveys  were  completely  filled  out  by  participating  subjects,  both  the  Tween  and  parent  surveys  were  collected  along  with  the  consent  forms.    The  second  channel  of  distribution  for  our  surveys  dealt  primarily  with  our  parent  surveys  –  the  parent  form  was  uploaded  onto  Qualtrics,  and  distributed  via  email  and  social  networking  groups  by  team  members.  This  second  wave  of  distribution  was  directed  at  individual  parents  and  parent  groups  whom  our  NHTSA  group  members  have  previous  contact  with.  This  wave  was  seen  as  a  supplement  aimed  at  boosting  our  collection  of  parent  surveys.  Method  of  Analysis  The  results  from  the  paper  copies  of  both  the  Tween  and  parent  surveys  were  entered  by  group  members  into  the  Qualtrics  system  (to  keep  an  electronic  record).    Once  all  surveys  were  entered,  we  used  the  Qualtrics  software  to  create  an  SPSS  file  for  statistical  analysis.  The  main  SPSS  tools  we  used  are  the  frequency  and  distribution  analysis,  correlation  analysis,  and  regression  analysis  to  determine  applicability  of  the  sample  and  relationships  between  the  survey  variables.  We  used  the  correlation  analysis  and  regression  modeling  to  determine  the  significance  and  causality  relationships  between  survey  variables.    Results  Demographic  Data  Tween  Demographic  Data  A  slightly  larger  percentage  (53.1%  versus  46.9%)  of  survey  respondents  identified  themselves  as  ‘boys’  (instead  of  identifying  as  ‘girls’).    The  range  of  school  grades  was  relatively  uniformly  distributed  across  the  sample,  however  there  were  two  larger  groups  of  respondents  centered  around  3rd  and  6th  grade  survey  takers.       24     “Buckle  Up  For  The  Future”  

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