John C Smith Master Black BeltUsing charts and information from minitab.com
Understand, Apply, and Interpret results from MiniTab’s Test for Equal Variances
Confidence Intervals ◦ The range of values that is likely to contain the population parameter within some percent Confidence Intervals for Standard Deviations ◦ The range of values that is likely to contain the standard deviation within some percent
Bonferroni Confidence Intervals for Standard Deviations ◦ The upper boundary for a factor level is equal to (((n-1) * var) / U)**0.5 ◦ where: ◦ n = the sample size of the factor level ◦ var = variance of the factor level ◦ U = the inverse cumulative chi-square distribution function for K with n - 1 degrees of freedom ◦ K = (desired family error rate) / (2 * number of levels) ◦ The lower boundary is calculated the same way, using L instead of U, where L = inverse cumulative chi-square distribution function for 1 - K with n - 1 degrees of freedom. ◦ Calculate “by hand” – NERD ALERT!!
F-Test ◦ Fisher’s Test ◦ Basic assumption is that data is normal. ◦ Any statistical test in which the test statistic has an F-distribution under the null hypothesis. Levene’s Test ◦ An inferential statistic used to assess the equality of variances in different samples. ◦ Test is robust to non-normal data. ◦ Some common statistical procedures assume that variances of the populations from which different samples are drawn are equal.
According to Design and Analysis of Experiments, 6th edition, by Douglas C. Montgomery: "The modified Levenes test uses the absolute deviation of the observations in each treatment from the treatment median. It then evaluates whether or not the mean of these deviations are equal for all treatments. It turns out that if the mean deviations are equal, the variances of the observations in all treatments will be the same. The test statistic for Levenes test is simply the usual ANOVA F statistic for testing equality of means applied to the absolute deviations." You can do this in Minitab by making a new column where each value is the absolute value of the response minus the median of that treatment. Then run One-Way ANOVA using the new column as the Response. The F statistic and p-value will be the test statistic and p-value for Levenes test. For an example, see the link, Calculating Levenes Test Using Oneway ANOVA, below.
Place response (data) in one column Place factor (descriptor) in another column ◦ Before or After ◦ Treatment 1 or Treatment 2 ◦ Etc or etc Select STAT > ANOVA > Test for Equal Variances
If the p is Low, Not lower than .05,the Null must GO! fail to reject the Null
Boxplot of data from Treatments 1 and 2. Follow standard boxplot graphic rules.
This test compares the standard deviations, or spreads, of two or more sets of data. Produces results for normal and non-normal data. Produces graphical and analytical data for comparison. ◦ Graphical: Bonferroni’s CI for StDev’s chart and Boxplot of data ◦ Analytical: p-value results