The history of “Educational technology … can be traced back to the time when tribal priests systemized bodies of knowledge, and early cultures invented pictographs or sign writing to record and transmit information.”
(Paul Saettler, 1990)
Educational Technology In ancient Greece, the Elder Sophist used the term “techne” to refer the process of applying knowledge systematically to the practical art of instruction. They formulated cognitive rules, systematically analyzed subject matter designed instructional technologies and devised effective instructional materials.
Educational Technology During the Middle Age Advent of Scholastic Philosophy, Pierre Abelard introduced a technology of instruction which was really a new method of structuring and presenting materials that helped set the style of scholastic education.
Educational Technology Comenius, Pestalozzi, Froebel, Herbart and Montessori contributed their own concept on educational technology improving educative process . John Amos Comenius was recognized as the pioneer of modern instructional technology by reason of his book Orbis Pictus (The World in Picture) which was illustrated textbooks for children studying Latin & Sciences.
Educational Technology Edward Thorndike and John Dewey formulated scientific theory of learning and the scientific method, respectively. Thorndike gave emphasis to the use of empirical investigation as a basis for an organized process of learning. On his part, Dewey introduced a method of instruction in terms scientific method in broad terms
The 19 th century paved in the advent of effective technological development including the production of textbooks, use of blackboards and improvements in writing implements like pen and ink. Photography was invented, giving a way to a movement called “ Visual Instruction ”. Educational Technology
By 1920, visual media became widely accepted. Then came the publication of audio-visual media texts. In 1926, educational films were used as instructional media. In 1927, Pressey wrote on programmed learning through a machine which tested and confirmed a learning task. Educational Technology
In 1932, the first instructional television program was aired at the State University of Iowa. About the same time, the 16 mm sound motion picture was developed and this served as the educational workhorse during the audio-visual movement of the time. Educational Technology
During World War II, the U.S. government encouraged the implementation of technology of instruction for military training programs. This gave impetus to a system approach to instruction to include: micro-teaching, individualized instruction, Language laboratories, behavioral laboratories, behavioral objectives, computer assisted instruction and among others Educational Technology
Used punch cards to input and externally store data.
Up to 4K of memory.
Programming in machine language and assembly language.
Required a compiler.
First Generation: 1943-1956 World’s first electronic digital computer. Used to produce WWII ballistic firing tables for the U.S. Defense Department. Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator (ENIAC) Check out the ENIAC exhibit .
“ A combination of the processes and tools involved in addressing educational needs and problems, with an emphasis on applying the most current tools: computers and their related technologies.” (M. D. Roblyer, 2000)