02-History Of Educational Technology

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History Of Educational Technology

History Of Educational Technology

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  • 1. HISTORY OF EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY Where Are We Going & Where Have We Been Prepared & Modified by FOR-IAN V. SANDOVAL Lesson 1
  • 2. Educational Technology
    • Objectives:
    • To identify events and devices of the past that contributed to the technological revolution.
    • To examine the organizations and their viewpoints that have shaped technology use in the classroom today.
    • To prepare for the future in educational technology by analyzing current trends and advances.
  • 3. Educational Technology
    • “ Technology is commonly thought of in terms of gadgets, instruments, machines and devices … most (educators) will defer to technology as computers.”
    • (Muffoletto, 1994)
  • 4. Educational Technology
    • The history of “Educational technology … can be traced back to the time when tribal priests systemized bodies of knowledge, and early cultures invented pictographs or sign writing to record and transmit information.”
    • (Paul Saettler, 1990)
  • 5. Educational Technology In ancient Greece, the Elder Sophist used the term “techne” to refer the process of applying knowledge systematically to the practical art of instruction. They formulated cognitive rules, systematically analyzed subject matter designed instructional technologies and devised effective instructional materials.
  • 6. Educational Technology During the Middle Age Advent of Scholastic Philosophy, Pierre Abelard introduced a technology of instruction which was really a new method of structuring and presenting materials that helped set the style of scholastic education.
  • 7. Educational Technology Comenius, Pestalozzi, Froebel, Herbart and Montessori contributed their own concept on educational technology improving educative process . John Amos Comenius was recognized as the pioneer of modern instructional technology by reason of his book Orbis Pictus (The World in Picture) which was illustrated textbooks for children studying Latin & Sciences.
  • 8. Educational Technology Edward Thorndike and John Dewey formulated scientific theory of learning and the scientific method, respectively. Thorndike gave emphasis to the use of empirical investigation as a basis for an organized process of learning. On his part, Dewey introduced a method of instruction in terms scientific method in broad terms
  • 9. The 19 th century paved in the advent of effective technological development including the production of textbooks, use of blackboards and improvements in writing implements like pen and ink. Photography was invented, giving a way to a movement called “ Visual Instruction ”. Educational Technology
  • 10. By 1920, visual media became widely accepted. Then came the publication of audio-visual media texts. In 1926, educational films were used as instructional media. In 1927, Pressey wrote on programmed learning through a machine which tested and confirmed a learning task. Educational Technology
  • 11. In 1932, the first instructional television program was aired at the State University of Iowa. About the same time, the 16 mm sound motion picture was developed and this served as the educational workhorse during the audio-visual movement of the time. Educational Technology
  • 12. During World War II, the U.S. government encouraged the implementation of technology of instruction for military training programs. This gave impetus to a system approach to instruction to include: micro-teaching, individualized instruction, Language laboratories, behavioral laboratories, behavioral objectives, computer assisted instruction and among others Educational Technology
  • 13. History of “Computers”
    • Abacus---Approximately 3000 BC
    • Calculators---1600s
    • Punched Card Devices---1800s
    • First Electronic Computers---1940s
    • Mainframes---1950s
    • Minicomputers---1960s
    • Microcomputers---1970s
    • Microcomputer Systems---1980s
    • Internet---1990s
  • 14. Ancient Computing History The Abacus Mechanical aid used for counting and making quick calculations. Still in use around the world. Find out more about the Abacus in Resources.
  • 15. Early Computing History Invented the first mechanical calculator. The Pascaline used cogs and gears to solve math equations. Blaise Pascal
  • 16.
    • First “programmable” machine.
    • Used punched cards (binary instructions) to automate weaving loom.
    • Punched cards were a staple of early and modern computer programming.
    Mechanical Calculators Joseph Jacquard
  • 17. Electronic Computer Systems
    • Used vacuum tubes in electronic circuits.
    • Used punch cards to input and externally store data.
    • Up to 4K of memory.
    • Programming in machine language and assembly language.
    • Required a compiler.
    First Generation:1943-1956
  • 18. First Generation: 1943-1956 World’s first electronic digital computer. Used to produce WWII ballistic firing tables for the U.S. Defense Department. Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator (ENIAC) Check out the ENIAC exhibit .
  • 19.
    • Used transistors , developed by Bell Labs.
    • Up to 32K of memory.
    • Programming in computer languages, such as FORTRAN and COBOL.
    1956 IBM 350 RAMAC Second Generation: 1957-1964 Visit the Computing History Timeline in Resources .
  • 20.
    • Used integrated circuits.
    • Up to 3 million bytes of memory.
    • Lower cost, smaller size, and increasing processor speed.
    Third Generation: 1965-1971
  • 21.
    • 1971, Intel develops 4004, the first microprocessor chip .
    • Altair sold in 1975, the first personal computer. It is a kit that must be assembled.
    • Apple Computer is formed in 1976 and sells 50 Apple I.
    • Advances increase memory size, storage space, and processing speeds.
    Fourth Generation: 1972-Now Microcomputer Revolution Begins.
  • 22.
    • Personal computers or PCs.
    • Usually cost about $2,000 or less.
    • Process over 1 billion operations per second.
    • “ Stand-alone” or connected to other computers as a network system .
    Fourth Generation: 1972-Now Microcomputers TEA
  • 23.
    • Tim Berners-Lee
    • Developed HTML and the World Wide Web (WWW) was born.
    1990’s Connecting the World
  • 24.
    • Marc Andreessen
    • An original developer of Mosaic , the first browser software able to read HTML.
    • Co-founder of Netscape Communications.
    1990’s Connecting the World
  • 25.
    • Technologies of the Future
    • Advanced robotics commonplace
    • Smart houses
    • Wearable computers
    • Holodeck virtual reality
    • Truly individualized education
    The 21st Century Check out Dave Moursund’s view of education in the year 2015, one of the Resources.
  • 26. The 21st Century
    • Only recently focused on computers.
    • Internet current primary trend.
      • Communication with colleagues.
      • Lesson plan preparation.
      • Student resources.
      • Access research and best practices for teaching.
    05:34.0 TEA
  • 27. Educational Technology Source information: NCES 2000 Summer Issue
  • 28. Educational Technology
    • Our Definition:
    • “ A combination of the processes and tools involved in addressing educational needs and problems, with an emphasis on applying the most current tools: computers and their related technologies.” (M. D. Roblyer, 2000)
  • 29. Educational Technology
    • Has technology changed how and what we teach?
  • 30. Educational Technology
    • Two trends of today’s society:
      • Explosive increase in number and type of technology resources available.
      • Dramatic decrease in total cost of ownership (TCO).
  • 31. Educational Technology
    • CPU: Intel 4.77 MHz 8088
    • Memory: 64K
    • Storage: Single-sided, 160K 5” floppy disk drive
    • Display: 12 inch monochrome
    • Price: $2880.00
    IBM unveils first PC in 1981. Read about IBM Through the Years in Resources.
  • 32. Educational Technology
      • Change in educational philosophy of what constitutes basic skills
        • No longer just three R’s
        • “ Learning to learn” skills essential
        • Lifelong learning
  • 33. Four Different Views
    • Association for Educational Communications & Technology (AECT)
    • International Society for Performance Improvement (ISPI)
    • International Technology Education Association (ITEA)
    • International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE)
  • 34. Four Different Views
    • Audiovisual Media Communications.
    • Begun in 1923.
    • Initially centered on radio.
    • Quickly extended focus to include instructional film strips and educational television.
    • Today, it includes global satellite broadcasting, two-way audio, and visual communications.
  • 35. Four Different Views
    • “ Branch of educational theory and practice concerned primarily with the design and use of messages which control the learning process.”
    • (Saettler, 1990, p. 9)
    • Publications:
      • TechTrends
      • Handbook of Research for Educational Communications and Technology
    Visit the AECT web site from Resources. AECT
  • 36. Four Different Views
    • ISPI
    • Instructional systems approach based on Behaviorist theories
    • “ Systematic approach to designing, developing, and delivering instruction matched to carefully identified needs.”
    • (Heinich, Molenda, Russell, & Smaldino, 1997)
  • 37. Four Different Views
    • Publications:
      • Performance Improvement Journal
      • Performance Improvement Quarterly
    Explore ISPI resources at the ISPI web site. ISPI
  • 38. Four Different Views
    • ITEA
    • Industry trainers and vocational teachers.
    • Schools should prepare students for work force Learning about technology as used in the “real world” is essential.
  • 39. Four Different Views
    • ITEA
    • Includes robotics, manufacturing systems, computer-assisted design (CAD).
    • Publications:
      • The Technology Teacher
      • Technology and Children
      • The Journal of Technology Education
    Find out more at the ITEA web site.
  • 40. Four Different Views
    • ISTE
    • Primary focus encompassed both instructional and support applications of computers.
    • Begun by trainers and educators who predicted that computers would revolutionize education.
    • Influenced by technical personnel, such as programmers and systems analysts .
  • 41. Four Different Views
    • ISTE
    • National Educational Technology Standards for Students and Teachers (NETS)
    • Publications:
      • Learning and Leading with Technology (formerly The Computing Teacher)
      • Journal of Research on Computing in Education
    ISTE’s website is one of the Resources.
  • 42. Modern Educational Technology History
    • First instructional use of computers was as a flight simulator used to train pilots at MIT in 1950.
    Mainframe Computer Systems
  • 43. Modern Educational Technology History
    • First use in public schools taught New York elementary students binary arithmetic in 1959.
    Mainframe Computer Systems
  • 44. Modern Educational Technology History
    • Federal funds supported many large-scale projects in mainframe computer-assisted instruction (CAI) in schools, colleges, and universities through the middle of 1970’s.
    Mainframe Computer Systems
  • 45.
    • Stanford University – first multimedia learning station, Course writer
    • Programmed Logic for Automatic Teaching Operations (PLATO)
    • BYU – Time-shared Interactive Computer-Controlled Information Television (TICCIT)
    Mainframe Computer Systems Modern Educational Technology History
  • 46.
    • Designed to support personalized mastery learning
      • Individually Prescribed Instruction (IPI) - University of Pittsburgh
      • Program for Learning in Accordance with Needs (PLAN) - American Institutes of Research
    Mainframe Computer Systems Modern Educational Technology History
  • 47.
    • National Education Computing Conference (NECC)
    • Created by mainframe programming enthusiasts from universities nationwide.
    • First conference held in1979.
    • Today is the largest educational technology conference in U.S. with attendance of 10,000+ people.
    Modern Educational Technology History
  • 48.
    • Introduced in late 1970’s.
    • Adopted by public school systems during 1980’s.
      • Apple II
      • Commodore PET
      • Radio Shack TRS - 80
    Microcomputers in Education Modern Educational Technology History
  • 49.
    • Early courseware developed for mainframes were provided by:
      • Large hardware manufacturers
      • Software systems companies
      • University development projects
    • New microcomputer software market driven primarily by educators.
    Software Modern Educational Technology History
  • 50.
    • Minnesota Educational Computing Consortium (MECC)
      • Initially largest provider of educational software.
      • Funded by National Science Foundation.
    • MicroSift, EPIE
      • Provided courseware evaluations.
    Software Modern Educational Technology History
  • 51. 15:05.0
    • Authoring systems
      • Response to educators quest for input into design of educational software.
      • Allowed educators to develop their own courseware.
    Software TEA Modern Educational Technology History
  • 52.
    • Authoring systems
      • Required extensive expertise.
      • Extended time commitment.
      • Expanded work investment.
    Software Modern Educational Technology History TEA
  • 53.
    • Computer Literacy
    • Originally defined as programming skills and tools such as word processing.
    • Today’s world can only agree that the term refers to skills that are constantly changing.
    15:45.0 Modern Educational Technology History
  • 54.
    • Seymour Papert
    • Educational theorist mentored by Jean Piaget.
    • Developed programming language for young children based on constructivist theory of education.
    • Raised national consciousness about potential of technology to change the educational system.
    16:25.0 Modern Educational Technology History
  • 55.
    • The Internet and the WWW
    • Biggest challenge for the public educational system has been how to prepare schools physically and train teachers effectively for its use in the classroom.
    16:50.0 TEA Modern Educational Technology History
  • 56. What We’ve Learned
    • Computer literacy or knowledge of computer applications is a moving target.
    • Teaching students technical skills for today is valuable.
    • More important are “learning to learn” tools for tomorrow and years to come.
  • 57. What We’ve Learned
    • Computer-based materials are just one component of resources available to educational system.
    • Integration of technology as a tool to advance learning in the content areas adds to the effectiveness of other resources and teacher created activities.
  • 58. What We’ve Learned
    • Development of technology materials and integration strategies is time intensive and should not be a classroom teacher’s primary responsibility – You’ve got enough to do!
    18:20.0 TEA
  • 59. What We’ve Learned
    • Educators must keep pace with technological advances.
    • But often times technology changes faster than the educational environment.
    • Business and Industry must do it’s part in providing economical technology solutions.
  • 60. What We’ve Learned
    • Teachers will always be necessary!
    • Definition of learning environments are changing.
    • Identity of classrooms must change.
    19:03.0 TEA
  • 61.
    • Our models of effective instruction must change too!
    • Educators must be more than:
      • Sage on the Stage
      • Guide on the Side
    What We’ve Learned 19:40.0
  • 62. What We’ve Learned
    • Vet in the Net
    • Today’s teacher must be willing to be:
      • A participating learner in the classroom.
      • One who will take the same risks and not always have the right answer.
      • A veteran learner in a network of learners called the classroom.
  • 63. Reference
    • by Dr. Paz I. Lucido & Dr.
    • Milagros L. Borabo
    20:10.0 Web Link http://www.tcet.unt.edu/weblibrary2/overview/?id=33&PHPSESSID=1f41402407f2621f9827509fa7a8d6e8