Definition Propaganda techniques are the methods used to spread ideas that further a cause (political, commercial, religious, or civil cause) Appeals to emotion, not intellect.
Why Used? To manipulate viewers' reason and emotions To persuade you to believe in something or someone Buy an item Vote a certain way. Twist or distort the truth
Types of Propaganda Name Calling General Terms Transfer Fine Print Testimonial Plain Folks Card Stacking Bandwagon Either/or fallacy Appeal to emotion Ad nauseum
Ad Hominem (Name Calling) Attacking the person not the idea To avoid supporting their own opinion, people will try and tear somebody down as a means of propaganda.
Glittering Generalities Words that have an unclear meaning – they sound great but nobody is sure of what they mean Good Honest Fair Best Napoleon says “adjustment” instead of the term “reduction” to the animals’ food supplies
Transfer A talented person endorses product as related to talent. An American Flag used as a back drop for political event makes it seem patriotic to support it.
Testimonial A famous person says that he or she likes or uses it. Ask yourself: How much so they really know about it? What do they gain from promoting it?
Plain Folks Ordinary people say they like it or support it. Technique uses a folksy approach to convince people to support it.
Card Stacking (Omission) ½ truth – key words may be omitted to slant the message. Unfavorable stats may not be communicated A company doesn’t need to tell the whole truth
Bandwagon Because everyone else is doing it, you should too or you’ll be left out! All the cool kids are doing it.
Either/or Fallacy Black-and-white thinking; only two choice presented. You’re either for it or against it! No shades of gray presented
Fine Print Positive information in bold print; negative information in small print. Spalloneicillan 9 out of ten doctors recommend it! may cause temporary loss of hearing and eyesight.
Appeal to Emotion Stirs up strong feelings (positive or negative) rather than giving logical reasoning. Fear Guilt Hate Independence
Ad Nauseum Repetition of a slogan I’m lovin’ it.
Propaganda in Animal Farm Old Major’s Speech (pg. 27-34) Mystery of the Milk Apples for the pigs Military decorations Debate over the windmill Squealer - justifying Napoleon's takeover of the farm. Squealer - The windmill was Napoleon's idea all along. Four legs good, two legs bad. Animal Farm trading with humans Pigs moving into farmhouse. Making Snowball the scapegoat No more “Beasts of England” Napoleon giving himself a medal Boxer being taken by the knacker