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Chapter 2 outlineTheory – something about what makes homework meaningfulTheme 1 Why goodTheme 2 Why badTheme 3 Why mml multi media learning is goodConclusion my purpose21st Century skills.orgAACTE.orgTable 1Literature Review Table ExampleTheme/Domain Author Title and Key ideas Year Or notes or definitionsWhat makes hw meaningful Cooper?Theme 1: Differing Opinions NecessityMakes it bad OptionalTheme 2: Value of Homework StudentWhat makes it good understanding Benefits to classroom Efficacy Cultural contextTheme 3: Student Engagement and RegularStudent Perception 21st century learner Rich MayerTheoretical Rationale or
Seminal Author Kralovec BuellHow can I use this theory to connectto mml and homeworkSummaryLiterature TableChapter 7: Building Tables to Summarize Literature pg 63No lines in tableNote horizontal linesNote where it is italicized and not italicizedNote on page 64 where they used half or partial linesWhat makes hw meaningfulIn his exhaustive research it seemed that no matter what type of Cooper? 10.study was conducted the results indicated a positive relationshipbetween homework and achievementImproved students learning when meaningful homework Mendicino, Razzaq,assignments are completed and returned to students with and Heffernanconstructive comments.Students also benefit from completing work and learning to workindependently.Students in middle school are not provided with sufficient Quoted in 17 fromopportunities to develop and exercise their autonomy within the Feldlaufer, Midgleyclassroom and Eccles, 1988Middle school teachers expect greater student independence and
self sufficiency outside the classroom Zimmerman 2002How can middle school students be empowered to exert greatercontrol over their learning so they become more proactive, self-motivated learners.Adolescents are looking for teachers to hop on the digital 12.bandwagon. They condiser the Internet to be their most importantsourceTheme 1: Differing Opinions NecessityMakes it bad OptionalTeachers students to overvalue work and increases a sense of 15.competition. Takes time away from family and personal well-beingMost homework not designed well – should be designed toinvolve activities appropriate for the homeInappropriate homework may even decrease student achievementMiddle schoolers should have between 1 to 2 hours of homeworka night.Homework punishes students in poverty 6Students need to complete long-term independent projects as partof a rigorous academic program but do they need to do this athome? They need to learn skills through drill and practice. Placefor these things is in school.Theme 2: Value of Homework StudentWhat makes it good understandingSharing answers with peers before submitting an assignment to 12.the teacher can enlarge students’ perspectiveAllows students the opportunity to determine what material theyunderstand and identify areas where more study or explanation isneeded 8.Computer animations and multimedia presentations Benefits to classroom 8.All forms of computer based instruction were effective at the Efficacycollege level but somewhat less effective at precollege level 8.Students learned significantly more with web-based homeworkthan with paper and pencil homework 9.Large Cooper study somewhat inconclusive on certain points 10.Little impact on learning in geography. 11. Cultural context 13. and 16Students consider internet homework helpful because such 12.assignments increase their understanding of curriculum topics,
facilitate independent learning and allow practice with researchskillsTheme 3: Student Engagement and Student Perception RegularPerhaps teachers need to join the digital revolution just to keep 21st century learnerthemselves relevant in the eyes of their studentsWhile no differences in performance were detected between web 5 and jie-liang paperand paper assignments, students generally are preferring to dohomework on the web. Rich MayerTheoretical Rationale orSeminal Author Kralovec BuellHow can I use this theory to connect to mml and homeworkHow can I come up with appropriate HW that will provide somefeedback at little or no cost? Have access to textbook interactiveweb sites – so-so but may suffice and can use WISE programmingbut they are used to WISE and most wise programs offer noimmediate feedback.Should I be focusing on designing hw that incorporates labsimulations and more visual explanations of concepts? How can Iguarantee that students have access to a computer with thenecessary software – even things like quick time might not workon some computers or parents may be unwilling to downloadnecessary plug-ins.My dilemmas: 1. I think homework is of great value to keep school in the forefront of a studentsthinking. They go home to 4 to 6 hours of computer gaming and learn very little fromthese gaming sessions. 2. I am willing to admit that much homework may be construed as busywork 3. I feel that reading in the textbook is a good entry to expanding students readingof non-english class literature. Unfortunately, even though we have picked a textbookwith a lowwish reading level, it still may be too difficult for many of our students.However, is it only difficult because they don’t want to go to the effort of finding outwhat unknown words mean – or making their lists so we can clarify the next day? 4. I am not good at taking class time for textbooik reading – many teachers takewhole days to read passages and chapter and work on outlining for review and study.While I do a bit of that, once I have tutored them in how to do it at the beginning of theyear I generally don’t do it again. Would rather spend my time with interactivedemonstrations or labs or lecturing (even though I know I am not a good lecturer). 5. It is becoming more and more apparent that administrators and parents don’twant homework given – yet, what are students doing after school? They leave us at 2:30.While there are a few who have rich active sports or music, or babysitting activities and
chores, most of our students spend their out of school time on their cell phones orcomputers. 6. How do we make the homework the teacher feels is essential more relevant anddeemed important to those administrators and parents? Will creating lessons and hw onthe web and internet give validation to the assignment and encourage a higher completionrate? 7. Once we improve the completion rate for hw will that translate into higher testscores? Will these higher test scores become because we can devote more in class time toexperiments and work at a lab station? Even though other studies have shown that thesame learning can be effected with computer simulations I am seeking a way to getstudents more interested and involved in the classroom during the day. Lack of interest inall educational topics is dragging us down. A higher percentage of students attach littleimportance to what is happening in the classroom. Will providing more computer timeand/or more lab time rather than “seat” time make their science education more relevantto them?1. Roth, Ivanchenko, Record, ScienceDirect Computers and Education, 2008: Evaluatingstudents response to WeBWorK, a web-based homework delivery and grading system2. Pritchard, Morote, World Conference on E-learning in Corporate, Government,HealthCare, and Higher Education, E-Learn 2002: Reliable Assessment with Cybertutor,a Web-Based Homework Tutor3. Melis, Andrews, Budenbender, etc. 2001, ActiveMath: A Generic and Adaptive Web-Based Learning Environment4. Salend, Duhaney, Anderson, Gottschalk, Teaching Exceptional Children, 2004: Usingthe Internet to Improve Homework Communication and Completion5. Bonham, Beichner, Deardorff, The Physics Teacher 2001: Online Homework: Does itMake a Difference?6. Kralovec, Buell, 2001? Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development:End Homework Now7. Bonham, Deardorff, Beichner: North Carolina State University? 2002-3??: Acomparison of student performance using web and paper-based homework in college-level physics8. Cole, Todd, Journal of Chemical Educationa, November 2003: Effects of Web-BasedMultimedia Homework with Immediate Rich Feedback on Student Learning in GeneralChemistry9.Mendicino, Razzaq, Heffernan, Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 200941(3): A Comparison of Traditional Homework to Computer-Supported Homework
10. Cooper, Robinson, Patall, Review of Educational Research, 2006, Does HomeworkImprove Academic Achievemenet? A Synthesis of Research, 1987-200311. Schuster, University of Wisconsin-LaCrosse, 2009: The Impact of Homework andHomework Preferences in Ninth Grade Geography12. Strom, Strom, Wing, Beckert, National Assoc. Of sSecondary School Principals,NASSP Bulletijn, June 2009: Adolescent Learning nad the Internet13. Xu, The School Community Journal, 2009: School Location, Student Achievementand Homework Management Reported By Middle School Students14. Patvarczki, Politz, Heffernan, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, 2009?15. Marzano, Pickering, Educational Leadership, March 2007: The Case for and AgainstHomework16. Brock, Lapp, Flood, Fisher, Tao Han, Urban Education, 2007: Does HomeworkMatter? An Investigation of Teacher Perceptions about Homework Practices for ChildrenFrom non-dominant Backgrounds.17. Cleary, Zimmerman, Psychology in the Schools, 2004: Self-RegulationEmpowerment Program: A School Based Program to Enhance Self-Regulated and SelfMotivated Cycles of Student Learning.18. Mayer, Educational Psychologist, 1997: Multimedia Learning: Are we asking theright questions?19. Whipp, Journal of Teacher Education, 2003: Scaffolding Critical Reflection in OnlineDiscussions