Effective online teaching and student engagement


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Effective online teaching and student engagement

  1. 1. Lim Li SiongManager, Centre for Teaching Excellence Singapore Management University
  2. 2. Outline1. Design an online course – ADDIE model2. Understand your learners3. Design and align • Learning Objectives • Assessment • Instructional Strategies4. Improve motivation, engagement and retention5. Manage online discussion forums & synchronous online delivery6. Flipped Classroom and Peer Instruction7. Deal with copyright issues cc licensed image from http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3401/3185876967_361107714a.jpg
  3. 3. A Model to Facilitate the Instructional Design Process : ADDIEthe process ofdefining thelearners and whatis to be learnedthe process ofspecifying how itis to be learnedthe process ofauthoring andproducing thematerialsthe process oftesting/conductingthe course in an the process ofactual setting determining the impact of instruction
  4. 4. ADDIE modelStage ActivitiesAnalysis 1. Perform front-end analysis • Identify learners’ profile, learning contexts and needs • Identify problem and set goals of the instructional intervention • Identify constraints • Identify topics to cover (Task analysis)Design 2. Plan specific learning objectives and the sequence to meet these objectives 3. Plan assessment guidelines for each objective 4. Plan instructional strategies / activities for each objective 5. Determine tools needed/ delivery methodsDevelop 6. Build content, instructional strategies, assessments, navigations, interactions and engagementsImplement 7. Deliver courseware/ Field testing /Moderate learning activities 8. Conduct training on usage (Students and teachers)Evaluate 9. Evaluate whether goals were met / learning was achieved (Formative and summative)
  5. 5. Analysis - Perform front-end analysis 1. Personal characteristics 2. Social characteristics 3. Cultural background and beliefs 4. Disabilities 5. Time zones 6. Learning/Cognitive styles 7. Technical skill level 8. Knowledge level • The more you can describe, the more likely to developcc licensed http://pixabay.com/en/bored-female-girl-people-school-16811/ relevant online courses • E.g. of questionnaire Analysis Design Develop Implement Evaluate
  6. 6. Perform front-end analysis Identify general topics Understand Learners’ to cover to achieve the characteristics learning goal (i.e. do a task analysis)Understand Context - Define Learning goal orIdentify constraints Performance problem• E.g. different time zones, • What do they need to know language barriers, diversity or do (but do not know / cannot do)? Analysis Design Develop Implement Evaluate
  7. 7. Design Design and align the following: What the students Learning 1 will be able to do at objectives the end (Cognitive, Affective, Psychomotor) Alignment 2 2Methods to Measure whether Instructionalbring students Assessment the students hasto learn [1] Strategies met [1] (Formative,(Direct, Indirect, Experimental, Interactive, Independent) Summative) Analysis Design Develop Implement Evaluate
  8. 8. Design Chunking and Sequencing Module Marketing (Learning Goal)1 Unit / Week Product Price(with Learning Objectives) Topic Product Pricing Product cycle(with Learning Objectives) development Strategy2 Learning Activities Learn Guide/ Feedback Assess (Instructional Method; Practice Assessment Method) Analysis Design Develop Implement Evaluate
  9. 9. Determine Learning Objectives Behaviour i.e. what A is supposed Audience i.e. your learners to do (use Bloom’s taxonomy);• By the end of the lesson, participants will be able to identify the 5 phases of the ADDIE model with 100% accuracy (in an individual closed-book fill-in-the-blank test). Conditions the minimum Criteria the students must under which B is meet in order for B to be acceptable to occur Analysis Design Develop Implement Evaluate
  10. 10. Determine Assessment Guidelines  Assessment instruments: Essays, Projects, Forums…  Alignment to Learning Objectives  Rating or marking system: Rubrics?  Auto or manual marking?  Cheating / Plagiarism: Verify identity of the students  Track student’s learning? If so, which aspects? Analysis Design Develop Implement Evaluate
  11. 11. Determine Instructional StrategiesFurther Chunking and Sequencing of content• E.g. Simple to Complex, General to specific, Linear or Non-linear/Branched?Content Type• Fact, Concept, Process, Procedure or PrincipleLearning activities and methods• Direct, indirect, experiential, interactive/collaborative, self-directed• E.g. Lecture and practice, Guided exploration, Games, Discussions, Interactive Demo• Asynchronous or Synchronous (Real-time)• Consider constraints e.g. group size and learning environment, preferencesAlignment with learning objectives• Low level recall (e.g. lectures), application or synthesis level? Analysis Design Develop Implement Evaluate
  12. 12. Determine Instructional Strategies – ICARE (Hoffman & Ritchie, 1998)• Introduction: Put the module in context, e.g. learning outcomes• Connect: Introduce content or activities/scaffolding for students to discover themselves. – Provide concise and clearly organised online materials • “Chunk” multi-page documents into sections of no more than two pages long. Video or audio segments should be 20 minutes or less. • Introduce resources slowly and over time – Provide opportunities to construct own knowledge e.g. projects (problem solving opportunities) because we learn in different ways. Analysis Design Develop Implement Evaluate
  13. 13. Determine Instructional Strategies – ICARE• Apply: Provides challenges and activities that allow students to apply the knowledge gained to real-world tasks & give timely feedback – It’s not just about the content as students can find content on their own.• Provide opportunities for Reflection• Extend: Give students opportunities to rework and improve on their ideas or prototypes. That’s when real value begins. Analysis Design Develop Implement Evaluate
  14. 14. Designing and Managing Online Discussion Forums 1. Provide clear 2. Establish specific 3. Elicit individual AND guidelines discussion threads group postings 5. Use a combination of4. Encourage peer-to- 6. Encourage student asynchronous andpeer communication analysis of discussions synchronous 7. Provide early and 9. Plan for regular, extensive inputs to 8. Include examples of reasonable and model effective good posts from past predictable proper discussion, analysis, classes communicationcommunication skills Analysis Design Develop Implement Evaluate
  15. 15. Determine Instructional Strategies – “Newer” methods Analysis Design Develop Implement Evaluate
  16. 16. Instructional Strategies – Flipped classroomAnalysis Design Develop Implement Evaluate
  17. 17. Design - Determine Instructional Strategies
  18. 18. Instructional Strategies – Peer Instruction Brief presentation of conceptAnalysis Design Develop Implement Evaluate
  19. 19. Select and Develop Learning ResourcesDetermine what COPYRIGHTS are attached to the resources• General rule of thumb: “If by making a copy and showing such a copy, we are likely to deprive the owner of some form of revenue, it would generally could become an issue.”• Copying the entire news article – Use of whole articles need to be paid for (OCCM manages this). – Use of extract of article (which would come under “fair use”). – Can refer students to the actual online article with a link (if available)• Advertisements – Generally, advertisements are meant to be distributed, so a photograph to illustrate a point should be fine. Analysis Design Develop Implement Evaluate
  20. 20. Select and Develop Learning Resources• Arrange for copyright clearance (Library) or adhere to Fair Use guidelines, if you plan to post materials that are not your own• Use Open Educational Resources (OER) and media (such as images, videos, audio etc) under a Creative Commons license Analysis Design Develop Implement Evaluate
  21. 21. Implementation – “Field testing”• Moderate learning activities – Make sure workload is reasonable for both yourself and the students• Train students and other faculty on usage – Know what current help available (e.g. IITS with eLearn) – Conduct an orientation to your course and the online tools employed – A FAQ page can save you from answering the same question numerous times Analysis Design Develop Implement Evaluate
  22. 22. EvaluationGet feedback on:1. Reactions: How students felt2. Learning: Goals were met; learning was achieved3. ROI: Is it worth it? Analysis Design Develop Implement Evaluate
  23. 23. Summary Planning for online course development begins with key considerations regarding:1. Analyse: – Interactions, feedback and– Characteristics of the learners, communications (Student, learning environment and Peer, Instructor) learning context – Content delivery systems and tools2. Design: – Technology and other– Goals and objectives that need constraints to be taught – Course management and– Online Assessments strategies student support to determine if they mastered the objectives 3. Develop: Appropriate– Learning Activities and learning resources strategies most effective for the – Copyrights learners to master the 4. Implementation strategies objectives– Chunking and Sequencing 5. Evaluation strategies
  24. 24. cc licensed image from http://www.flickr.com/photos/83633410@N07/7658219802/