These were created by a national food safety educational campaign by a group called Fight BAC!
Microbes such as bacteria and viruses can spread throughout the kitchen and get onto hands, cutting boards, utensils, countertops, reusable grocery bags, and foods. Does anyone know what the term for this is? The transfer of bacteria from one area to another? Cross-contamination.Hands should be washed before and after preparing foods, especially after handling raw seafood, meat, poultry, or eggs, and before eating.
Important to wash in-between fingers, thumbs (most-missed place for washing), wrists, whatever gets dirty
Do any of you work at foodservice areas?
Wet produce can allow remaining microbes to multiply faster
Why would you store raw meat below ready-to-eat foods?
Just because a food looks done doesn’t mean it’s fully cooked
Cytoplasm: gel-like substance residing within the cell membrane holding all the cell's internal sub-structures (called organelles), outside the nucleus
Unlike bacteria, most viruses DO cause disease
Bacterial and viral infections can be spread in many different ways.
Can be fatal, pregnant women can pass infection to unborn childPasteurized: process of heating a food, which is usually a liquid, to a specific temperature for a predefined length of time and then immediately cooling it after it is removed from the heat. This process slows spoilage caused by microbial growth in the food.Unlike sterilization, pasteurization is not intended to kill all micro-organisms in the food. Instead, it aims to reduce the number of viable pathogens so they are unlikely to cause disease
What do you think raw milk is?
Often occurs in young children
L A U R A S I M O N I T C HB . S . U N I V E R S I T Y O F N E B R A S K A - L I N C O L ND I E T E T I C I N T E R N , M S S T U D E N TU N I V E R S I T Y O F K A N S A S M E D I C A L C E N T E RHand Hygiene and FoodSafety Review
Introduction According to the US Centers for Disease Control,"Hand-washing is the single most important meansof preventing the spread of infection." Up to 40% of all foodborne illness outbreaks arebecause of poor hand washing and cross-contamination.
Introduction Over 76 million estimated cases of food poisoningoccur in the United States alone every year 325,000 hospitalizations 5,000 deaths $7.6 billion: amount that the US spends each year onhealth care and lost productivity because offoodborne illness
Four food safety principlesCleanSeparateCookChill
Clean Cutting boards Utensils Countertops Reusable grocery bags Foods Preparing raw animal products or raw produce
Hand-washing Wet hands with clean, warm running water andapply soap. Rub hands together to make a lather and scrub allparts of the hands for 20 seconds. Rinse hands well under running water. Dry hands using a clean paper towel. If possible, usea paper towel to turn off the faucet.
Surfaces Washed with hot, soapy water Inside of microwave Inside of refrigerator Throw away leftovers after 4 days Raw and ground meats after 1-2 days
Foods Rinse Vegetables and Fruits Exception: prepackaged lettuce or baby carrots Do NOT use soap or detergent Important to rinse because of microbes that cantravel from outside of produce to inside Firm produce can be scrubbed with a produce brush Dry produce with a clean cloth/paper towel tofurther reduce bacteria No need to rinse raw seafood, meat, and poultry
Separate Ready-to-eat from raw Should occur at every step of food handling Purchase preparation serving Store raw seafood, meat, and poultry below ready-to-eat foods Clean reusable grocery bags (soapy water for plasticbags or washing machine for canvas/cloth bags) Clean cutting boards
Cook and Chill Cook to safe temperatures that destroy harmfulmicrobes Food thermometer: place in thickest part of food Hold cold foods at 40◦F or below Keep hot foods at 140◦F or above Food temperature danger zone: 40-140◦F Thawing methods: refrigerator, cold water,microwave Never on the counter
Bacteria Single-celled Rigid wall and a thin, rubbery membranesurrounding the fluid or cytoplasm inside the cell Shaped like balls, rods, or spirals Contain all of the genetic information needed tomake copies of themselves Can survive in a variety of environments, includingextreme heat and cold, radioactive waste, and thehuman body.
Bacteria Most bacteria are harmless Lactobacilli acidophilus bacteria that can live in the humanintestine -- actually help digest food, destroy disease-causingmicrobes, fight cancer cells, and provide essential nutrients. Fewer than 1% of bacteria cause disease in people.
Virus The largest of them are smaller than the smallest bacteria Varied shapes Have a protein coat and a core of genetic material: either RNAor DNA Unlike bacteria, viruses cant survive without a host They can only reproduce by attaching themselves to cells and hijackingthe cells cellular machinery Usually reprogram the cells to make new viruses until the cells burst anddie. In other cases, they turn normal cells into malignant or cancerouscells. Most viruses do cause disease, and are specific about the cellsthey attack Certain viruses are programmed to attacks cells in the liver, respiratorysystem, or blood
Spreading of Infection Coughing and sneezing Contact with contaminated people, like throughkissing Contact with contaminated surfaces, food, and water Contact with contaminated household pets,livestock, and insects such as fleas and ticks
Listeria monocytogenes Processed, ready-to-eat products (undercooked hotdogs, deli/lunchmeats, unpasteurized dairyproducts) Cross-contamination between food surfaces Hand-washing important! Mild fever, headache, vomiting Can begin 2-30 days after exposure and durationvaries
Campylobacter jejuni Top source of foodborne illness Caused by eating raw milk and raw/undercookedmeat, shellfish, or poultry Hand-washing is important for prevention 2-5 days after exposure (lasts 2-10 days) Diarrhea, fever, abdominal cramping
Cryptosporidium parvum Caused by contaminated food from poor handhygiene Lasts 2-10 days after infected Watery stools, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, slightfever, stomach cramps
Norovirus Foods contaminated by either direct contact withcontaminated hands or work surfaces contaminated withstool or vomit or by tiny droplets form nearby vomit thatcan travel through air to land on food Common on cruise ships Raw, undercooked meat, poultry, fish, eggs,unpasteurized dairy, unwashed fruits/vegetables Prevent by thorough cooking, proper sanitation, andhygiene Occurs 12-48 hours after ingestion of virus Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea (sometimes violent),headache, fever/chills, muscle aches
Staphylococcus aureus Cooking does not destroy toxins in meat, pork, eggs,poultry, tuna salad, prepared salads, gravy… Hand-washing very important for prevention!! Nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramping Begins within 1-6 hours after exposure and lasts 1-2days
Yersinia enterocolitica Caused by raw/undercooked pork products, tofu,pasteurized milk Cold storage does NOT kill the bacteria Hand-washing important! Fever, abdominal pain, bloody diarrhea 1-2 days after exposure, lasts 1-3 weeks or longer
Most common surface areas for pathogens Picnic tables Playgrounds Airport bathrooms Hotel rooms (TV remote) Airline bathrooms (tiny sink)
References http://www.medicinenet.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=50297 http://www.anapsid.org/handwash1.html http://www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/bacterial-and-viral-infections Krause’s Food and the Nutrition Care Processtextbook, 13th ed. Appendix 3: Food safety principles and guidance forconsumers. Centers for Disease Control andPrevention. Food Safety Web site. 2010.