Balance Vida- Trabajo

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Aproximaciones sobre el balance entre vida y trabajo

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Balance Vida- Trabajo

  1. 1. BALANCE ENTRE VIDA Y TRABAJO PROF. Dr. LUIS SIME POMA Lima, 2009 http://blog.pucp.edu.pe/luissime
  2. 2. Tomado de: http://www.worklifebalance.ie/index.asp?locID=87&docID=-1
  3. 3. INTRODUCCION <ul><li>Creciente interés por el tema trabajo-vida: por indicadores de salud y costos laborales que está llevando a varios países a construir normatividades (Australia-Inglaterra-Canadá, etc.) y promover medidas de prevención personal e institucionales. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>El proceso histórico de la modernidad: nuevas condiciones sociales y culturales para la relación entre T-F. </li></ul><ul><li>Crisis de la matriz unificadora de las sociedades premodernas: religión e identidad comunitaria fuerte. </li></ul>VISION HISTORICA DEL LA RELACION TRABAJO-VIDA
  5. 5. <ul><li>La modernidad extrae del contexto y tradición familiar y comunitario, el trabajo, genera mecanismos y filtros para la separación. </li></ul><ul><li>El paradigma de desarrollo reduccionista-economicista agudiza la tensión entre trabajo-vida generando un alto costo. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Acercamientos multidisciplinarios <ul><ul><li>Gestión organizacional (Climas laborales/ ISO) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sociología del trabajo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Psicología familiar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trabajo Social </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. TEORÍAS DEL WORK-LIFE BALANCE <ul><li>Spillover theory : emotions&behaviours in one sphere would carry over to the other (employees having a bad day at work are more likely to be in bad mood when they return home) </li></ul><ul><li>ways in which paid work can positively or negatively spill over into family life and the ways in which family life can positively or negatively spillover into paid work life. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Figure 1: Underlying framework for Work, Family and Parenting study Brunton, 2006
  9. 9. Figure 31: Positive spillover – home to work Brunton, 2006
  10. 11. <ul><li>Compensation theory : an inverse relationship exists between work&family such that people make differing investments in each in an attempt to make up for what one is missing in the other : </li></ul><ul><li>individuals with unsatisfying family lives, will try to pursue work activities that bring satisfaction, and the reverse. </li></ul>
  11. 12. <ul><li>Hakim (2002) proposes that ‘ preference theory’ can explain and predict women’s choices between paid work and family work five historical changes which have been collectively important in creating a new scenario in which women in rich modern societies have genuine choices. </li></ul><ul><li>These historical changes are as follows: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the contraceptive revolution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the equal opportunities revolution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the expansion of white-collar occupations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the creation of jobs for secondary earners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the increasing importance of attitudes, values and personal preferences in the lifestyle choices of prosperous, liberal modern societies. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 13. <ul><li>“ women choose three different lifestyles: home-centred, </li></ul><ul><li>work-centred or </li></ul><ul><li>adaptive. </li></ul><ul><li>These divergent lifestyle preferences are found at all levels of education, and in all social classes” (Hakim 2003). </li></ul>
  13. 14. <ul><li>Asked to indicate a preference for the one they would ideally choose for themselves: </li></ul><ul><li>Both partners have jobs. Jobs are equally demanding. Housework and childcare responsibilities are shared equally. </li></ul><ul><li>Both partners have jobs. One partner has a more demanding job and the other partner does a larger share of the housework/ childcare responsibilities. </li></ul><ul><li>One partner has a job and the other partner mainly does the housework/ childcare responsibilities. </li></ul>
  14. 15. <ul><li>BORDER THEORY: people are </li></ul><ul><li>proactive and not reactive, they </li></ul><ul><li>moved back and forth between </li></ul><ul><li>their work and family lives, </li></ul><ul><li>shaping each, negotiating and </li></ul><ul><li>comunicating. </li></ul><ul><li>Questions: </li></ul><ul><li>How do individuals segment or </li></ul><ul><li>integrate work and home? </li></ul><ul><li>What determines whether a </li></ul><ul><li>person’s degree of separation or </li></ul><ul><li>integration leads to balance? </li></ul><ul><li>(Campbell 2000) </li></ul>Differences Work&family: times and spaces,and ends: Work Family Provides income and gives a sense of accomplishment Create a supportive culture of certain behaviours and ways of thinking (control emotions) Responsible/capable Close relationships & personal hapiness Proper to express emotions Loving, giving
  15. 16. <ul><li>“… the primary connection between work and family </li></ul><ul><li>systems is not emotional, but human. People are border- </li></ul><ul><li>crossers who make daily transitions between two worlds </li></ul><ul><li>– the world of work and the world of family. People </li></ul><ul><li>shape these worlds, mold the borders between them, </li></ul><ul><li>and determine the border-crosser’s relationship to that </li></ul><ul><li>world and its members. Though people shape their </li></ul><ul><li>environments, they are, in turn, shaped by them. It is </li></ul><ul><li>this very contradiction of determining and being </li></ul><ul><li>determined by our work and home environments that </li></ul><ul><li>makes work/family balance one of the most challenging </li></ul><ul><li>concepts in the study of work and the study of families” </li></ul><ul><li>(p.748) </li></ul>
  16. 18. Situational-simultaneous APPROACH (Sime) <ul><li>Balance: what kinds of situations does the person </li></ul><ul><li>lives simulatenously between the work and family that </li></ul><ul><li>can affect in his balance? </li></ul><ul><li>The people live different types of critical situations </li></ul><ul><li>simulatenosly and should respond to them. </li></ul><ul><li>The critical situations can be stable or transitionals. </li></ul><ul><li>The critical situations involve emotions, thinking, </li></ul><ul><li>actions… </li></ul>
  17. 19. <ul><li>The people respond critical situations in their work and family depending on the degree of demanding . When in both domains the degree is in the top increase the conflict. </li></ul><ul><li>The people respond critical situations in their work and family depending on the level of proximity with the people envolve in the critical situation. </li></ul><ul><li>When in both domains the people involve is close and the degree of demanding is high increase the conflict </li></ul>
  18. 20. familia núcleo extendida -enfermedad+ 1 2 3 4 -comunicación+ 1 2 3 4 trabajo núcleo extendida -enfermedad+ 1 2 3 4 -comunicación+ 1 2 3 4 CONDICIONES DE TENSIÓN SITUACIONAL SIMULTANEA FAMILIA-TRABAJO -eficacia+ 1 2 3 4 -ético+ 1 2 3 4 -ético+ 1 2 3 4 Otros incidentes críticos Nacimiento/fallecimiento Matrimonio-convivencia/ separación-divorcio Independencia/viaje hijos -eficacia+ 1 2 3 4
  19. 21. Otras limitaciones de las teorías del work&life balance <ul><li>Construidas sobre la base del trabajo pagado/ del empleo fijo-formal </li></ul><ul><li>Construidas desde la base de una familia-tipo urbano </li></ul><ul><li>Construidas desde la noción que el trabajo está allá afuera de la casa (hay familias-empresa que trabajan dentro) </li></ul><ul><li>Desde el punto de vista escolar el alumno que no trabaja también construye una relación entre escuela-familia; y el que trabaja entre escuela-trabajo-familia </li></ul>

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