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    Youth Gang Power Point Youth Gang Power Point Presentation Transcript

    • School Climate and Discipline Program
      • If you have any questions please contact me-
      • Information:
      • Robin F. Case, Education Associate
      • School Climate and Discipline Program Manager
      • Delaware Department of Education
      • 302-857-3320
      • Fax: 739-1780
      • John W. Collette Education Resource Center
      • 35 Commerce Way
      • Dover, DE 19904
    • Delaware Code Title 14 § 4123A School Bullying Prevention and Criminal Youth Gang Detection Training
      • WHY???
      • (a) Each school district and charter school shall ensure that its public school employees receive combined training each year totaling one (1) hour in the identification and reporting of criminal youth gang activity pursuant to § 617, Title 11 of the Delaware Code and bullying prevention pursuant to § 4112D, Title 14 of the Delaware Code. The training materials shall be prepared by the Department of Justice and the Department of Education in collaboration with law enforcement agencies, the Delaware State Education Association, the Delaware School Boards Association and the Delaware Association of School Administrators.
    • Delaware Code Title 11 § 617 Criminal Youth Gangs
      • (a) Definitions.
      • The following words, terms and phrases,
      • when used in this chapter, shall have their
      • meaning ascribed to them except where
      • the context clearly indicates a different
      • meaning.
    • Delaware Code Title 11 § 617 Criminal Youth Gangs
      • (a) Definitions.
      • (1) "Criminal youth gang" shall mean a group of 3 or more persons with a gang name or other identifier which either promotes, sponsors, assists in, participates in or requires as a condition of membership submission to group initiation that results in any felony or any class A misdemeanor set forth in this title or Title 16.
    • Delaware Code Title 11 § 617 Criminal Youth Gangs
      • (a) Definitions.
      • (2) "Identifier" shall mean common
      • identifying signs, symbols, tattoos,
      • markings, graffiti, or attire or other
      • distinguishing characteristics or indicia of
      • gang membership.
    • Delaware Code Title 11 § 617 Criminal Youth Gangs
      • (a) Definitions.
      • (3) "Student" shall mean any person enrolled in a school grades preschool through 12.
    • Delaware Code Title 11 § 617 Criminal Youth Gangs
      • (b) Recruitment or retention of juveniles or students for a criminal street gang or criminal youth gang; penalties. –
      • (1) Any person who solicits, invites, recruits, encourages or otherwise causes or attempts to cause a juvenile or student to participate in or be come a member of a criminal street gang as defined in § 616(a) of this title or criminal youth gang is guilty of a class G felony.
    • Delaware Code Title 11 § 617 Criminal Youth Gangs
      • (2) Any person who,
      • a. In order to encourage a juvenile or student to:
      • 1. Join a criminal youth gang or criminal street gang,
      • 2. Remain as a participant in or a member of a criminal youth gang or criminal street gang, or
      • 3. Submit to a demand by a criminal youth gang or criminal street gang to commit a crime; or
    • Delaware Code Title 11 § 617 Criminal Youth Gangs
      • b. In order to prevent a juvenile or student from withdrawing or attempting to withdraw from a criminal youth gang or criminal street gang threatens to commit any crime likely to result in death or in physical injury to the juvenile, the juvenile's property, a member of that juvenile's family or household, or their property; or commits a crime which results in physical injury or death to the juvenile, the juvenile's property, a member of that juvenile's family or household, or their property
    • Delaware Code Title 11 § 617 Criminal Youth Gangs
      • shall be guilty of a class F felony and shall
      • constitute a separate and distinct offense. If
      • the acts or activities violating this section
      • also violate another provision of law, a prosecution
      • under this section shall not prohibit or bar any
      • prosecution or proceeding under such other
      • provision or the imposition of any penalties
      • provided for thereby. (75 Del. Laws, c. 421, § 1; 70
      • Del. Laws, c. 186, § 1.)
      • Regional Organized Crime
      • Information Center
        • 545 Marriott Dr., Suite 850, Nashville, TN 37214
        • Special Research Report
        • By R O C I C Publications Specialist E lise Berry
        • ©2008 ROCIC
      • 1-800-238-7985 • www.rocic.com
    • Regional Organized Crime Information Center Special Research Report • School A dministrators’ G uide to G ang Prevention & I ntervention
      • Safety of students and faculty on school campuses is a problem that administrators and law enforcement need to work together to solve. Gangs and gang members on school grounds are a serious threat to that safety. Many schools are not even aware that they have a gang problem. This is an issue that needs to be addressed before it becomes an epidemic.
    • Regional Organized Crime Information Center Special Research Report • School A dministrators’ G uide to G ang Prevention & I ntervention
      • For schools with known gang activity, more students report knowing a student who brought a gun or drugs onto campus. Other problems that accompany gangs on campus include high rates of truancies, suspensions, and expulsions, and also high costs of vandalism and graffiti.
    • Regional Organized Crime Information Center Special Research Report • School A dministrators’ G uide to G ang Prevention & I ntervention
      • Schools and communities have several options of how to deal with a neighborhood gang problem. The approach should be tailored to meet the specific needs and problems of the community. Gangs vary drastically from location to location, so a solution in L.A. might not be applicable in Knoxville.
    • Recognizing challenges to administration in schools
      • Schools face many problems when it comes to identifying and preventing gang involvement. These include lack of staff training, lack of resources, staff turnover, maximizing instructional time, parental involvement and consistency.
      • Certain circumstances in both the home and at school can also affect how a child behaves.
    • Characteristic parental behavior of an anti-social, at-risk youth:
              • low monitoring of behavior
      • rely on coercive behavior management procedures
              • inconsistent in rule setting
              • ineffective communication
      • poor problem-solving skills
      • reject and/or uninvolved with child
      • harsh, inconsistent punishment
      • personal problems that interfere with effective parenting
    • Factors within schools that can cause anti-social behavior:
              • overuse of punishment
              • punishing effect of difficult instructional material
              • poorly articulated rules
      • little/no acknowledgment of appropriate behavior
      • little individualization in teaching social behavior
      • misuse of behavior management procedures
    • Gang identifiers within schools
      • Gangs have evolved over the past several decades as technology and law enforcement tactics have become more advanced. They have begun to migrate to places that are not prepared for their type of violence and crime.
    • Gang identifiers within schools
      • Large towns have units specifically dedicated to stopping gang violence and knowing how they are organized. Smaller towns do not have this advantage and are not prepared to handle them when they invade. Often, small communities are not even aware that they have a gang problem.
    • Gang identifiers within schools
      • There are numerous ways to recognize when a gang has arrived into a community. Each gang has its own identifiers, which can be local, national, international, or a combination of several.
    • Gang identifiers within schools
      • Identifiers can include graffiti, focus on a certain color in clothing, hand signs, increase in drug and gun crimes. Warning signs of gang violence between competing gangs include verbal challenges, groups squaring off, flashing gang colors and hand signals, and show-bys (scaring rival gang members by driving around with guns visible). Multiple identifiers are needed to confirm gang activity.
    • Gang identifiers within schools
      • There are also several ways to identify a child who has recently been initiated into a gang. Initiations are commonly carried out at school in bathrooms, playgrounds, and other unsupervised areas. Look for unexplained injuries, bruises, or marks on their body. A student suddenly wearing only one color or expensive jewelry or clothing can also be an indicator.
    • Forming a team approach to prevention and intervention
      • About 50 percent of all behavior problems in schools are associated with three to five percent of students. Team-based approaches aim to target these students. There are two types of team-based approaches that are effective in dealing with at-risk and behavior problem children—the Behavior Support Team (BST) and the Student Intervention Team (SIT).
    • Forming a team approach to prevention and intervention
      • The BST designs a comprehensive approach whose focus is primarily on prevention. It should address school-wide discipline problems through conducting surveys and data analyses.
      • Behavior Support Team (BST)
    • Forming a team approach to prevention and intervention
      • The SIT designs an approach that targets youth at risk for severe behavior problems, focusing on those with academic and social problems.
      • Student Intervention Team (SIT)
    • Forming a team approach to prevention and intervention
      • Having a BST is a benefit because it is impossible for one staff member to develop, implement, and maintain a school-wide discipline program. Also, having several members produces varied perspectives on the problem and support of each other and the program.
      • Behavior Support Team (BST)
    • Forming a team approach to prevention and intervention
      • Potential members of a BST are parents, teachers, school resource officers and local law enforcement, school administrators who deal with punishment, and school counselors. The members of the team should be based on who will be served. Teams work best when there is open communication between members, goal setting, teaching within natural environments, use of family strengths, monitoring of progress, and family involvement beyond meetings.
    • Forming a team approach to prevention and intervention
      • Goal setting as a team should include a shared vision for the child and a belief that goals can and will be accomplished. Goals are written in such a way that skills can be taught within daily activities and routines in natural environments. This will not only allow for generalization of skills but also increased opportunities for teaching.
    • Forming a team approach to prevention and intervention
      • The SIT has several responsibilities that are different from a BST. The BST is focused on a specific child. The SIT is the team that identifies at risk-youth and implements programs, including a BST for them.
      • Student Intervention Team (SIT)
      • Behavior Support Team (BST)
    • Forming a team approach to prevention and intervention
      • Responsibilities of a SIT include designing and implementing intensive and early intervention programs, conducting proactive, regular student screening and identification in the early grades to help early detection of antisocial behavior.
    • Forming a team approach to prevention and intervention
      • They also build proactive support plans, collect and interpret behavioral data, and establish and implement crisis intervention strategies. A SIT should train and provide support for involved staff and parents, evaluate progress and success of programs, and ensure continued support from every team member.
      • Student Intervention Team (SIT)
    • Establishing rules for behavior and standards
      • Rules should be established at the beginning of the school year, reinforced consistently for both following and violating them, and reviewed and revised throughout the year. When students are involved in the development of the rules they are more likely to remember and follow them. The rules should be stated positively and clearly.
    • Example of Classroom Rules:
      • Keep your hands, feet, and objects to yourself.
      • Listen carefully to all instructions.
      • Use appropriate language and treat others with respect.
      • Raise your hand and wait to be called on before speaking.
      • Bring proper books, pencils, and other needed materials to class.
      • Food, drinks, gum, and hats are only allowed outside the classroom.
      • Be in your seat when the bell rings.
    • Teaching social skills
      • Research shows that pro-social skills strongly predict academic achievement. Some social skills that are needed for successful academic performance are paying attention, persistence on task, compliance with requests and directions, and setting goals. Social skills deficits are a main cause of both academic and behavioral problems and cause antisocial youths to join gangs.
    • Teaching social skills
      • When a student uses aggression to escape from teasing or disagreements with other students, teach them to leave the situation, negotiate with the peer, and to ask for help from a teacher or adult when appropriate.
    • Teaching social skills
      • When a student becomes aggressive to gain peer attention or recognition, teach more effective methods such as sharing, assisting others, inviting others to participate, taking turns, asking permission, complimenting others, negotiating, and self-control.
      • Social skills need to be consistently modeled, role-played and reinforced by every member of both BST and SIT teams.
    • Working with parents
      • For a child to be successful in school, their family needs to provide a sense of belonging, usefulness, security and protection, and competence.
    • Working with parents
      • Recent surveys show that around seven percent of teens say they belong to gangs, 20 percent of all teens know someone killed or injured by gang members, and as many as 70 percent of teens killed by guns are gang members.
    • Working with parents
      • Research indicates that parents play a crucial role in keeping kids out of gangs. Negative behavior within the family can increase the likely-hood that a child will join a gang.
    • Working with parents
      • Vehicles that can help parents understand the severity of the situation are school and community forums, newsletters, letters from the police chief or school resource officers, open houses at schools and community centers, and home visits.
    • Positive actions that parents can take:
      • monitoring activities
      • real conversations about tough subjects
      • know their friends
      • allow them to speak openly without fear of reprisal
      • teach and demonstrate model behavior
      • deal with misbehavior quickly and consistently
      • offer love and security
    • Positive actions that parents can take:
      • adjust responses depending on the situation
      • do not condemn their opinions
      • emphasize responsibility rather than obedience
      • listen carefully
      • have one-on-one time with them
      • explain consequences
      • set limits with expectations
      • get them involved with sports or organized activities
    • Behaviors associated with a child joining a gang:
      • withdrawing from family
      • declining school performance or behavior
      • staying out late without a reason
      • sudden negative opinions about law enforcement officers or adults in positions of authority
      • unusual interest in a color or certain clothes
    • Behaviors associated with a child joining a gang:
      • interest in gang-influenced music, videos, or movies
      • hand signals
      • drawings of symbols on school books or clothing
      • drastic changes in hair or dress
      • different friends or with-drawl from longtime friends
    • Behaviors associated with a child joining a gang:
      • suspected drug use
      • interest in guns
      • unexplained wounds or bruises
      • unexplained money or jewelry
    • Talking with Families about Problem Behavior
      • Do:
      • Begin the discussion by expressing
      • concern about the child.
      • Don’t:
      • Begin the discussion by indicating that the
      • child’s behavior is not tolerable.
    • Talking with Families about Problem Behavior
      • Do:
      • Let the parent know that your goal is to
      • help the child.
      • Don’t:
      • Indicate that the child must be punished or
      • “dealt with” by the parent.
    • Talking with Families about Problem Behavior
      • Do:
      • Ask the parent if he or she has
      • experienced similar situations and are
      • concerned.
      • Don’t:
      • Ask the parent if something has happened
      • at home to cause the behavior.
    • Talking with Families about Problem Behavior
      • Do:
      • Tell the parent that you want to work with
      • the family to help the child develop
      • appropriate behavior and social skills.
      • Don’t:
      • Indicate that the parent should take action
      • to resolve the problem at home.
    • Talking with Families about Problem Behavior
      • Do:
      • Tell the parent about what is happening in
      • the classroom, but only after the parent
      • understands you are concerned about the
      • child, not blaming the family.
      • Don’t:
      • Initiate the conversation by listing the child’s
      • problem behavior. Discussions about problem behavior
      • should be framed as “the child is having a difficult time,”
      • rather than losing control.
    • Talking with Families about Problem Behavior
      • Do:
      • Emphasize that your focus will be to help
      • the child develop the skills needed to be
      • successful in the classroom.
      • Don’t:
      • Leave it up to the parent to manage
      • problems at home; Develop a plan without inviting
      • family participation.
    • Talking with Families about Problem Behavior
      • Do:
      • Stress that if you can work together, you
      • are more likely to be successful in helping
      • the child learn new skills.
      • Don’t:
      • Let the parent believe that the child needs
      • more discipline. (The child needs instruction and
      • support.)
    • Talking with Families about Problem Behavior
      • Don’t:
      • Minimize the importance of helping the
      • family understand and implement positive
      • behavior support.
    • Youth gang prevention and intervention programs
      • These are programs that have been successfully implemented throughout the country.
      • Contact information and more resources for these and other programs can be found at the following websites:
      • www.iir.com/nygc/tool - Under Planning & Implementation
      • http://helpingamericasyouth.gov - Under Community Guide
    • Gang Resistance Education and Training (G.R.E.A.T.)
      • This program is a school-based gang prevention curriculum for girls and boys that is taught in entire classrooms of mainly middle school students by law enforcement officers in a 13-week course. In addition to educating students about the dangers of gang involvement, the lesson content places considerable emphasis on cognitive-behavioral training, social skills development, refusal skills training, and conflict resolution. The curriculum aims to reduce risk factors and increase protective factors.
    • Boys & Girls Clubs’ Gang Prevention Through Targeted Outreach
      • The overall philosophy of the program is to give at-risk youths, ages 6 to 18, what they seek through gang membership (supportive adults, challenging activities, and a place to belong) in an alternative, socially positive format.
    • Gang Resistance is Paramount
      • This program’s objectives are to educate students about the dangers of gangs, discourage the city’s youth from joining gangs, educate the students’ parents about the signs of gang involvement, and provide parents with the resources that will help them eliminate gang activities in their homes and neighborhoods.
    • Movimiento Ascendencia (Upward Movement)
      • This program was established to provide girls with positive alternatives to substance use and gang involvement. Outreach workers recruited females ages 8 to 19 to the program. The program, which serves both at-risk and gang-involved youth, has workers who are trained in conflict mediation and resolution skills, signs and symptoms of drug and alcohol abuse, and providing information on sexuality, pregnancy, and sexually transmitted diseases. Activities are designed around three main components: cultural awareness, mediation or conflict resolution, and self-esteem or social support.
    • Multidisciplinary Team Home Run Program
      • A wraparound or case management program that is designed to holistically diagnose a juvenile’s problems and then provide intensive treatment for the juvenile and his or her family. The philosophical underpinning of the program is that information sharing and joint service planning among a coordinated team of professionals from social services, mental health, public health, probation, and the community would serve youths better than any of these agencies individually. The treatment planning process incorporates not only the specific client needs but also family, school, and other relevant aspects of the youth’s life.
    • Broader Urban Involvement and Leadership Development Detention Program (BUILD)
      • This program combines several popular gang prevention strategies in an attempt to curb gang violence in some of the city’s most depressed and crime-ridden neighborhoods. Founded on the principle that youths join gangs because they lack other, more constructive opportunities and outlets, BUILD tries to “reach out to young people and provide alternatives to increasing violence.”
    • DARE To Be You
      • D ecision-making, reasoning skills, and problem-solving
      • A ssertive communication and social skills
      • R esponsibility (internal locus of control/attributions) and role models
      • E steem, efficacy, and empathy
      • This program combines three supporting aspects—educational activities for children, strategies for the parents or teachers, and environmental structures—to enable program participants to learn and practice the desired skills.
    • Aggression Replacement Training (ART)
      • ART is a multimodal psycho-educational intervention designed to alter the behavior of chronically aggressive adolescents and young children. The goal of ART is to improve social skill competence, anger control, and moral reasoning. The program incorporates three specific interventions: skill-streaming, anger-control training, and training in moral reasoning.
    • Training programs- Project Safe Neighborhoods A merica’s N etwork A gainst G un Violence
          • Project Safe Neighborhoods is a nationwide commitment to reduce gun crime in America by networking existing local programs that target gun crime and providing these programs with additional tools necessary to be successful. The Bush Administration committed over $1.5 billion to this effort since PSN’s inception in 2001.
    • Project Safe Neighborhoods A merica’s N etwork A gainst G un Violence
          • This funding is being used to hire new federal and state prosecutors, support investigators, provide training, distribute gun lock safety kits, deter juvenile gun crime, and develop and promote community outreach efforts as well as to support other gun violence reduction strategies.
          • More information on PSN can be found at:
      • www.psn.gov
    • Student Intervention Team (SIT) Planning Form
      • Student Intervention Team (SIT) Planning Form
      • Child: __________________________
      • Date:___________________
      • Team Members:______________________________________________
      Completion Date Responsible Team Member Action to be taken Problem
    • Contextual Factors Worksheet
      • Correcting contextual factors that lead to
      • antisocial behavior and gang membership
      • in youths
    • Contextual Factors Worksheet
      • Any of the items in the 11 areas that occur
      • should be addressed by both the Behavior
      • Support Team (BST) and Student
      • Intervention Team (SIT). If a number of
      • areas are identified that need to be
      • addressed, prioritize them and begin
      • working on the most important ones,
      • gradually adding the rest.
    • Contextual Factors Worksheet e. There is reliance on prevention and positive interventions rather than on security arrangements (guards, metal detectors, locked doors, etc.). d. School personnel spend more time on implementing reinforcing and preventive measures than on punitive measures. c. Penalties are appropriate to the offense (not humiliating or disproportionate to the offense). b. Teacher approval statements out-number disapproval statements made to students, including at-risk students. a. The emphasis by teachers and administrators is on teaching students how to behave rather than on punishment for misbehavior. Always Most Always Sometimes Rarely Never 1. Overuse of Punishment
    • Contextual Factors Worksheet c. Solutions to the problem are actively sought for students, rather than being criticized by staff members in the faculty lounge, lunch area or faculty meetings. b. Problem students are valued (and not given up on) by the majority of their teachers. a. The school has a low rate of suspensions and/or expulsions. Always Most Always Sometimes Rarely Never 2. Giving Up on Students
    • Contextual Factors Worksheet d. Ethnic/racial and sexual preference slurs are avoided by students. c. “Different” students are included rather than being isolated or bullied by peers. b. Individual behavior interventions are based on the behavior’s purpose or function rather than being reactive. a. All students are disciplined and reinforced consistently regardless of gender, race, ethnicity, or sexual orientation. Always Most Always Sometimes Rarely Never 3. Not Valuing Individual Differences
    • Contextual Factors Worksheet d. Positive behavior management programs are in place for the school grounds, lavatories, lunch area, halls, and bus. c. Our school is organized to constructively address behavior problems. b. Needed materials are easily accessible for class activities. a. Teachers are well organized so that there is no “down time” for students. Always Most Always Sometimes Rarely Never 4. Poor Organization Classroom/School
    • Contextual Factors Worksheet e. Students are taught (not just informed of) the rules. d. Conflicts between school policies and classroom rules are avoided. c. Rules are stated positively to help teach students how to behave. b. Rules are simple and short. a. Students are involved in the development of the rules. Always Most Always Sometimes Rarely Never 5. Unclear Rules for Student Deportment
    • Contextual Factors Worksheet i. There are clear expectations between administrators and teachers. (Each know which behaviors are to be handled by teachers and which infractions should be sent to the office.) h. The rules are periodically reviewed and revised as necessary. g. Parents are informed of the rules and their help and support are solicited. f. Students are reinforced for following the rules. Always Most Always Sometimes Rarely Never 5. Unclear Rules for Student Deportment
    • Contextual Factors Worksheet d. Teachers confer with and assist one another regarding disciplinary issues. c. Good teaching is recognized and appreciated by the administration. b. Action is taken promptly by school authorities, or members of the SIT or BST, when a teacher makes a discipline referral. a. Instructional materials to meet individual student differences are provided when a teacher requests them. Always Most Always Sometimes Rarely Never 6. Lack of Staff and Parent Support
    • Contextual Factors Worksheet e. Accommodations are made for students who get no assistance at home with their homework. d. Teachers assume the responsibility for teaching without relying on out-of-school resources, such as outside tutoring/homework assistance. c. Instruction is designed to produce frequent success for each student. b. Instructional and curriculum materials are appropriate for each student’s functional level. a. Accommodations are made for learners’ diverse characteristics. Always Most Always Sometimes Rarely Never 7. Academic Failure
    • Contextual Factors Worksheet b. There are trained staff members who provide social skills training. a. There is a system that identifies youngsters who need social skills training. Always Most Always Sometimes Rarely Never 8. Lack of Social Skills Training
    • Contextual Factors Worksheet c. Students are positively recognized for improved behavior or accomplishments in classrooms and school wide. b. Students receive positive recognition for appropriate/expected behavior in the classroom and school wide (e.g., attending to work, following rules, keeping campus clean). a. Students are positively recognized for exceptional behavior or accomplishments in classrooms and school wide. Always Most Always Sometimes Rarely Never 9. Lack of Positive Consequences for Students
    • Contextual Factors Worksheet c. Parenting workshops are offered that teach effective behavior management strategies. b. The administration and BST/SIT provide recognition for implementing the intervention strategies. (Training must be followed up with on-the-job support and feedback.) a. In-services are provided to staff, including new teachers and substitutes, on effective use of behavior management strategies. Always Most Always Sometimes Rarely Never 10. L ack of Parent and Staff T raining in Intervention Strategies
    • Contextual Factors Worksheet c. Action is being taken to promote more after-school programs and involvement. b. Sufficient number of students involved in after-school programs. a. After-school programs are provided. Always Most Always Sometimes Rarely Never 11. L ack of Student I nvolvement
    • Sources of Information
      • Center for Evidence-Based Practice: Young Children with Challenging Behavior (CEBP). Collaborative Action Planning Form.
      • Center for Evidence-Based Practice: Young Children with Challenging Behavior (CEBP). Talking with Families about Problem Behavior: Do’s and Don’ts.
    • Sources of Information
      • Howell, James. (2008, February 5). Why Youth Join Gangs. Presentation at Project Safe Neighborhoods Anti-Gang Training in Nashville, TN.
      • Howell, James. (2008, February 6). Gang Prevention and Intervention Strategies. Presentation at Project Safe Neighborhoods Anti-Gang Training in Nashville, TN.
    • Sources of Information
      • Jones, Darryl and Sczuroski, Charles. (2008, February 6). Working with Parents. Presentation at Project Safe Neighborhoods Anti-Gang Training in Nashville, TN.
      • Ybarra, Bill. (2008, February 7). Gangs in Schools. Presentation at Project Safe Neighborhoods Anti-Gang Training in Nashville, TN.
    • Regional Organized Crime Information Center
        • ROCIC has been serving its criminal justice members since 1973, and served as the prototype for the modern RISS (Regional Information Sharing Systems) Centers.
        • ROCIC serves more than 180,000 sworn personnel in over 1,800 criminal justice agencies located in 14 southeastern and southwestern states, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands.
        • ROCIC provides a variety of services, free of charge, to its criminal justice member agencies:
          • • Centralized law enforcement databases with connectivity among law enforcement agencies and the RISS Centers using the RISS Nationwide Intelligence Network.
          • • Analytical processing of criminal intelligence, including phone tolls and document sorts
          • • Loaning of specialized, high‑tech surveillance equipment and vehicles
          • • Publications, including criminal intelligence bulletin
          • • Specialized training and membership & information exchange
          • • Use of investigative funds
      • • On‑site personal assistance by law enforcement coordinators
      • © 2008 ROCIC • This publication was supported by Grant No. 2005-RS-CX-0002, awarded by the Bureau of Justice Assistance, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice. The Office of Justice Programs also coordinates the activities of the Bureau of Justice Statistics, the National Institute of Justice, the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency, and the Office for Victims of Crime. This document was prepared under the leadership, guidance and funding of the Bureau of Justice Assistance (BJA), Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice in collaboration with the Regional Organized Crime Information Center (ROCIC). The opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this document are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position or policies of the U.S. Department of Justice. Regional Organized Crime Information Center and ROCIC are protected by copyright laws.