Knowledge Engineering: The engineering discipline that involves integrating knowledge into computer systems in order to solve complex problems normally requiring a high level of human expertise. For example: mathematical logic, and artificial intelligence Agreed that IT is the biggest enabler of KM if used correctly; but Drucker warns that focusing on the “I” nit the “T” will deliver little. Intranets can be used as the front end for KM. Intranet is a part of equation that provides a stable messaging and collaborative platform Knowledge in its entirety can not be captured. An inevitable loss of context happens when documents are just codified for being used across organizations. Documentum example?????
Examples: Xerox PARC created a lot of knowledge bur Microsoft and Apple applied knowledge to make a difference. Create new markets, and generate economic value &0% of Ford’s cost are driven by it’s decisions made in the conceptual design stage, even though this stage accounts for 5% of the actual cost of a typical car. Most conceptual design and decision making are done by low technology media. By perfecting the design process Ford can ensure that the price tags on the cars remain competitive Page 84
Knowledge Centric awareness, distribution, application, creation, validation The failure of the companies knowing what they know The need to improve work processes thru improved distribution of knowledge The need for overcoming barriers to flow and retention of knowledge To unlearn what is no longer valid The culture of knowledge hoarding Technology Knowing how a type writer works does not turn someone into a writer. The companies that thrive are those that can use their IT assets to leverage their people’s knowledge in ways that are immediately applicable. the need for a perfect link between knowledge, biz strategy, and IT Organizational Structure functional convergence: assets, trust, ownership retaining project knowledge in a way to be reapplied Personnel need for improved knowledge transfer, sharing, and creation in cross-functional teams; reduce loss of organizational knowledge Process create process competence: avoid repeated mistake and unnecessary reinvention Economics knowing more about the same thing accelerate creation and application of knowledge Org the need to capture the decision-making process of your expert employees create a catalog of &quot;explainable&quot; decisions accumulate an auditable knowledge-base
Politically charged environment is ill suited for knowledge exchange and development
Knowledge creation process can be thought of those activities that surround the conversion of subjective tacit knowledge to objective explicit knowledge also called externalization. The key to knowledge creation lies in mobilization and conversion of the tacit knowledge –within and outside of the organization – to explicit knowledge Migratory knowledge is independent of its creator and owner. Movement of knowledge is the ability of transferring knowledge from one person or organization to another without losing it’s context and meaning
Know what to care why Knowledge involved in deliberation and alternate decisions that could have been made is generally lost in the process
Lack of support by the knowledge management system does not mean that a KM strategy con not support those levels. Know why is cause and effect; critical thinking, decision making
The colored boxes indicate the relative focus of the effort in each phase. In fact, every segment will receive some attention in every phase. There are three broad approaches to knowledge management. One is to create a system where all information goes to everybody, which is hugely inefficient; the second tells people what others think they need to know, which may not match their real needs; and the third enables them to find for themselves whatever they want to know. Companies like to say that they aim for the third approach, but they do not always find it easy.
A standardized architecture will allow better inter-operability among online educational resources, cheaper and faster development of the resources, more robust indexing and searching, and the flexibility to share assets within and among .
Page 396 provide management flexibility to develop positions and employees and assign work through the development of broader, functionally-based classifications and broader, open salary ranges; create a pay-for-performance structure that allows managers to recognize and reward performance, development, and contribution; enhance employee opportunities for skill development, cross training, and promotion; and maintain a competitive job and salary structure to recruit and retain a highly qualified and productive work force.
The colored boxes indicate the relative focus of the effort in each phase. In fact, every segment will receive some attention in every phase.
Page 389 Rapid prototyping (results driven incremental methodology -- RDI) Series of non overlapping increments Steps in RDI Methodology Business Release (incremental segments of implementation) --Traps in release sequence --Process divisibility and RDI release RDI's Roles in Tool and Task Reinvention --Cross-functional synergy (synergy between knowledge workers at different departments) --Complexities (cultural & technical) --Avoiding over-engineering ( functions & features that will never be used) --Developing of clear communication process (maps) --Human barriers in technology design --An infinite loop
When the success factors are studied focus falls on the human aspects. A strong academic majority raises a big concern around this area. All agree that the intellectual assets of the employees are the foremost c r i t i c a l success factor. “Usually people begin a KM project by focusing on the technology needs. But the key is people and process.” (Shir Nir, 2002). The key to successful knowledge management (KM) projects is focusing on people first, not cutting-edge technology. The biggest misconception that IT leaders make is that knowledge management is about technology,&quot; says Shir Nir, There is no &quot;cookiecutter approach&quot; to adopting knowledge management . http://hosteddocs.ittoolbox.com/KM21105.pdf Key Success Factors For Knowledge Management SUPERVISOR: PROF. DR. CHRISTOPH DESJARDINS INTERNATIONALES HOCHSCHULINSTITUT LINDAU, UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SCIENCES/ FH KEMPTEN, GERMANY; DECEMBER 2004 SUPERVISOR: MR. STEFAN THEELEN, CIO METZELER GmbH, LINDAU, GERMANY; DECEMBER 2004
A knowledge map is a graphic representation of the scope and structure of knowledge
Why Knowledge Mapping?
shared perception of gaps in critical knowledge
focus on the important knowledge
manage important information
understand the cause and effect relationships behind behavior
identify critical actions to take
defining critical thinking and decisions for getting the job done
needed information for making the decisions
keeps all the players on the same page
makes discussions more effective
Our KM Approach Identify Map Capture Store Share Apply Create Prototyping Pilot Implementation Examples, experiments, case studies Full range of identified knowledge Live on HSA servers The relative emphasis shifts; all segments are relevant in all the phases, but the focus is stronger on some segments during each phase. Knowledge Process
People,Process,Technology Leveraged Investment Phase 1 Prototype Phase 2 Pilot Phase 3 Implementation People Developing KM strategy. approach HSA Team SMC-HSA Personnel Process Assessing Planning Design Test Full-scale Production Technology Enabling Tools Test Environment Integrated Platform with HSA IT System
Rich collaborative environment for knowledge sharing and transfer
Time to engage in knowledge sharing
Systems are in place for capture through reuse of information
Supportive reward system
Organizational life-long learning
Deployment Identify Map Capture Store Share Apply Create Prototyping Pilot Implementation Examples, experiments, case studies Full range of identified knowledge Live on HSA servers The relative emphasis shifts; all segments are relevant in all the phases, but the focus is stronger on some segments during each phase.