Knowledge Management


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  • Knowledge Engineering: The engineering discipline that involves integrating knowledge into computer systems in order to solve complex problems normally requiring a high level of human expertise. For example: mathematical logic, and artificial intelligence Agreed that IT is the biggest enabler of KM if used correctly; but Drucker warns that focusing on the “I” nit the “T” will deliver little. Intranets can be used as the front end for KM. Intranet is a part of equation that provides a stable messaging and collaborative platform Knowledge in its entirety can not be captured. An inevitable loss of context happens when documents are just codified for being used across organizations. Documentum example?????
  • Examples: Xerox PARC created a lot of knowledge bur Microsoft and Apple applied knowledge to make a difference. Create new markets, and generate economic value &0% of Ford’s cost are driven by it’s decisions made in the conceptual design stage, even though this stage accounts for 5% of the actual cost of a typical car. Most conceptual design and decision making are done by low technology media. By perfecting the design process Ford can ensure that the price tags on the cars remain competitive Page 84
  • Knowledge Centric awareness, distribution, application, creation, validation The failure of the companies knowing what they know The need to improve work processes thru improved distribution of knowledge The need for overcoming barriers to flow and retention of knowledge To unlearn what is no longer valid The culture of knowledge hoarding Technology Knowing how a type writer works does not turn someone into a writer. The companies that thrive are those that can use their IT assets to leverage their people’s knowledge in ways that are immediately applicable. the need for a perfect link between knowledge, biz strategy, and IT Organizational Structure functional convergence: assets, trust, ownership retaining project knowledge in a way to be reapplied Personnel need for improved knowledge transfer, sharing, and creation in cross-functional teams; reduce loss of organizational knowledge Process create process competence: avoid repeated mistake and unnecessary reinvention Economics knowing more about the same thing accelerate creation and application of knowledge Org the need to capture the decision-making process of your expert employees create a catalog of "explainable" decisions accumulate an auditable knowledge-base
  • Politically charged environment is ill suited for knowledge exchange and development
  • Knowledge creation process can be thought of those activities that surround the conversion of subjective tacit knowledge to objective explicit knowledge also called externalization. The key to knowledge creation lies in mobilization and conversion of the tacit knowledge –within and outside of the organization – to explicit knowledge Migratory knowledge is independent of its creator and owner. Movement of knowledge is the ability of transferring knowledge from one person or organization to another without losing it’s context and meaning
  • Know what to care why Knowledge involved in deliberation and alternate decisions that could have been made is generally lost in the process
  • Lack of support by the knowledge management system does not mean that a KM strategy con not support those levels. Know why is cause and effect; critical thinking, decision making
  • The colored boxes indicate the relative focus of the effort in each phase. In fact, every segment will receive some attention in every phase. There are three broad approaches to knowledge management. One is to create a system where all information goes to everybody, which is hugely inefficient; the second tells people what others think they need to know, which may not match their real needs; and the third enables them to find for themselves whatever they want to know. Companies like to say that they aim for the third approach, but they do not always find it easy.
  • Page 296
  • A standardized architecture will allow better inter-operability among online educational resources, cheaper and faster development of the resources, more robust indexing and searching, and the flexibility to share assets within and among .
  • Page 396 provide management flexibility to develop positions and employees and assign work through the development of broader, functionally-based classifications and broader, open salary ranges; create a pay-for-performance structure that allows managers to recognize and reward performance, development, and contribution; enhance employee opportunities for skill development, cross training, and promotion; and maintain a competitive job and salary structure to recruit and retain a highly qualified and productive work force.
  • The colored boxes indicate the relative focus of the effort in each phase. In fact, every segment will receive some attention in every phase.
  • Page 389 Rapid prototyping (results driven incremental methodology -- RDI) Series of non overlapping increments   Steps in RDI Methodology Business Release  (incremental segments of implementation) --Traps in release sequence --Process divisibility and RDI release RDI's Roles in Tool and Task Reinvention --Cross-functional synergy  (synergy between knowledge workers at different departments) --Complexities (cultural & technical) --Avoiding over-engineering ( functions & features that will never be used) --Developing of clear communication process  (maps) --Human barriers in technology design --An infinite loop
  • When the success factors are studied focus falls on the human aspects. A strong academic majority raises a big concern around this area. All agree that the intellectual assets of the employees are the foremost c r i t i c a l success factor. “Usually people begin a KM project by focusing on the technology needs. But the key is people and process.” (Shir Nir, 2002). The key to successful knowledge management (KM)‏ projects is focusing on people first, not cutting-edge technology. The biggest misconception that IT leaders make is that knowledge management is about technology," says Shir Nir, There is no "cookiecutter approach" to adopting knowledge management . Key Success Factors For Knowledge Management SUPERVISOR: PROF. DR. CHRISTOPH DESJARDINS INTERNATIONALES HOCHSCHULINSTITUT LINDAU, UNIVERSITY OF APPLIED SCIENCES/ FH KEMPTEN, GERMANY; DECEMBER 2004 SUPERVISOR: MR. STEFAN THEELEN, CIO METZELER GmbH, LINDAU, GERMANY; DECEMBER 2004
  • Knowledge Management

    1. 1. Workshop Knowledge Management
    2. 2. Knowledge Management <ul><li>Knowledge: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>framed experience, values, contextual information, expert insight, grounded intuition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>embedded in documents, repositories, routines, processes, practices, and norms </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Knowledge Management: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>systematic processes by which knowledge needed for an organization to succeed is created, captured, shared, and leveraged </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Focus of KM <ul><li>Knowledge management is NOT about </li></ul><ul><ul><li>knowledge engineering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>digital networks; it’s about process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>building a smarter intranet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>knowledge capture </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The primary focus of knowledge Management is on </li></ul><ul><ul><li>creating, getting, importing, delivering, and most importantly helping the right people apply the righ t knowledge at the right time </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Value Proposition <ul><li>W ithout effective mechanisms in place to capture and utilize knowledge of experienced employees, organizations make costly mistakes or have to pay again for knowledge they once had on tap </li></ul><ul><li>Organizations have saved significant resources a year by taking the knowledge from their best performers and applying it in similar situations elsewhere </li></ul><ul><ul><li>KM can make a difference when it enables the application of knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Organizations applying knowledge management methods have found that through knowledge networking they can create new products and services faster and better </li></ul><ul><ul><li>integrated cross functional approach </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Knowledge Management Drivers <ul><li>The failure of organizations to know what they already know </li></ul><ul><li>The need for smart knowledge distribution </li></ul><ul><li>High dependence on the know-how of walkouts </li></ul><ul><li>The need to support cross functional collaboration </li></ul><ul><li>The need to deal with complex expectations </li></ul><ul><li>The need to avoid repeated mistakes </li></ul><ul><li>The need to avoid reinvention </li></ul><ul><li>T he need to capture the decision-making process of your expert employees </li></ul><ul><li>Create a catalog of decision processes </li></ul><ul><li>Accumulate an auditable knowledge-base of decision-making and best practices </li></ul>
    6. 6. Difficulties with KM <ul><li>Lack of tangible outcome -- selling the idea to senior management </li></ul><ul><li>Building people to work around technology mentality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>knowledge management is not a technology problem; it’s a process problem </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lack of incentives for knowledge contribution </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge access is only the beginning of knowledge management </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge management is an infinite loop that never ends </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational policies come into play when knowledge exists, is used, and is exchanged </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ownership, changing user need, biz climate, </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Key Concepts <ul><li>Categories of Knowledge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>tacit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>explicit </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Components of Knowledge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>emphasis on conversation and discussion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>judgment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>experiential knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>values, assumptions, and beliefs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>intelligence </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. The Three Fundamental Steps <ul><li>Knowledge acquisition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>process of development and creation of insights, skills, and relationships </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Knowledge sharing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>disseminating and making available what is already known </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>collaborative problem solving, conversations, teamwork generates knowledge assets </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Knowledge utilization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>available knowledge can be generalized and applied </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Knowledge Strategy <ul><li>Knowledge drives strategy and strategy drives knowledge management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>plan of action </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>one size does not fit all </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>don’t lock yourself in </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Knowledge management strategy supports four levels of knowledge: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>know-what </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>know-how </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>know-why </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>care-why </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Knowledge Map <ul><li>A knowledge map is a graphic representation of the scope and structure of knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Why Knowledge Mapping? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>shared perception of gaps in critical knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>focus on the important knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>manage important information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>understand the cause and effect relationships behind behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>identify critical actions to take </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>defining critical thinking and decisions for getting the job done </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>needed information for making the decisions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>keeps all the players on the same page </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>makes discussions more effective </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Our KM Approach Identify Map Capture Store Share Apply Create Prototyping Pilot Implementation Examples, experiments, case studies Full range of identified knowledge Live on HSA servers The relative emphasis shifts; all segments are relevant in all the phases, but the focus is stronger on some segments during each phase. Knowledge Process
    12. 12. People,Process,Technology Leveraged Investment   Phase 1 Prototype Phase 2 Pilot Phase 3 Implementation   People   Developing KM strategy. approach HSA Team SMC-HSA Personnel   Process   Assessing Planning Design Test Full-scale Production   Technology   Enabling Tools Test Environment Integrated Platform with HSA IT System
    13. 13. Maximizing the Use of Technology <ul><li>Content Strategy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>metadata </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>tagging knowledge elements with attributes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>System Components </li></ul><ul><ul><li>repositories (knowledge servers)‏ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>collaborative platforms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>networks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Adhering to Standards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>fit into overall information technology architecture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>interoperability </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Access, Share, Apply Users need a quick, easy and secure way to document, organize, classify, categorize, share, and track information <ul><li>Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Collaboration </li></ul><ul><li>Teamwork </li></ul>Writing Proposals How to Use Mock Claim Researching Funds Know What Know How Know Why
    15. 15. Knowledge Sharing Portal
    16. 16. Assembling The Correct Tools <ul><li>Knowledge mapping and related tools </li></ul><ul><li>Content management tools </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborative technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Process modeler tools </li></ul><ul><li>Content creation tools </li></ul>
    17. 17. Knowledge Culture <ul><li>Integrate knowledge sharing into daily work </li></ul><ul><li>Consistent and continual leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Visibility to top management </li></ul><ul><li>Rich collaborative environment for knowledge sharing and transfer </li></ul><ul><li>Time to engage in knowledge sharing </li></ul><ul><li>Systems are in place for capture through reuse of information </li></ul><ul><li>Supportive reward system </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational life-long learning </li></ul>
    18. 18. Deployment Identify Map Capture Store Share Apply Create Prototyping Pilot Implementation Examples, experiments, case studies Full range of identified knowledge Live on HSA servers The relative emphasis shifts; all segments are relevant in all the phases, but the focus is stronger on some segments during each phase.
    19. 19. Deployment Plan <ul><li>Rapid prototyping   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Iterative process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>instant feedback and modification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>low risk </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pilot Deployment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>small-scale implementation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>culture (rubber meets the road)‏ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>identifying requirements for fitting into the existing information technology architecture </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Implementation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>live on HSA IT infrastructure </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Case Study <ul><li>Case Study at Cisco </li></ul><ul><ul><li>estimating time frame for implementing KM projects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>approach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>lessons learned - common mistakes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>compensation systems that don’t support knowledge sharing and teamwork </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>building a “Grand Database in the Sky” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>allowing technology to dictate development </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>failure to coordinate and involve top management and the users </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>success factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>focus on people and process </li></ul></ul></ul>