Sloan 2009 Instructional Strategies for Blended Learning

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  • Names: Blended learning, hybrid learningDefinition is emerging from research literature and supported Sloan Consortium on blended learningCourse level – two bodies of literature emphasizing blending at (1) institutional or program levels and (2) course level. Contention is transformation in teaching and learning occurs with blending at the course levelNumerous definitions use different instructional modes and methods. However, Charles Graham and his colleagues at Brigham Young University confine the definition to the convergence of two learning learning environments: face-to-face and online. Emphasis is on the environments that are being blended rather than “learning”.Third element is the amount of time spent in the classroom. There is a significant reduction in the amount of time spent in the classroom.
  • Benefits or value added components of blended learning:More effective pedagogy -opportunity to improve teaching and learning strategies combines the effectiveness and socialization opportunities of the classroom with the technologically enhanced active learning possibilities of the online environment Best strategies drawn from each environmentlargest set of instructional methods and learning situations maximize the advantages of each environment Pedagogical benefits most frequently cited increasing interaction between student-student, student-faculty, and student-content accomplishing learning objectives more successfully transforming from teacher-centered to learner-centered focus in which students become active learners encouraging real world activities and authentic assessment integrating formative and summative assessment mechanisms for students and instructors balancing independent learning with human interaction motivating students to discipline themselves in an online environment builds the social interactions online environment provides a forum for extended communication Studies show more student/student and faculty/student interactionFlexible use of instructional time to achieve goals and objectivesImproved OutcomesEnhanced student learning – studies reportBetter prepared for classMore effective and longer papersHigher quality projectsDemonstrate better understanding and deeper exploration of conceptsImproved or equivalent success rates reportedCould led to establishing collaborative learning communities beyond duration of courseConvenience, flexibility, and increased access (reduced opportunity cost)Students report the convenience of time flexibility as the most popular feature of blended courses and facultyTrends in enrollment show more students are part-time, over 25, women – non-traditional studentsBalancing school with work and family obligationsFlexibility and convenience outweigh technology problemsEconomic term – reduced opportunity costs that help students achieve educational goalsLearners benefit from social interaction of f2f and value being with other adultsF2f builds social interaction and sense of communityAdd personal agency or learner control – gives students more choices about how and where they learnCost effectivenessInstitutional perspectivePEW grant - Cost savings involve changes in personnel time and student/instructor ratiosTechnology used to reduce cost such as virtual lab to reduce cost of personnel and materials4 ways technology might improve learning and reduce costsCMS – reduce or eliminate nonacademic tasks (grades), photocopying, changes to content, making announcementsAutomated assessmentOnline tutorialsShared resourcesNeed for less infrastructure – increase number of students without expanding facilitiesFaculty do NOT always reduce seat time in patterns conducive to sharing classroom space
  • Finding the right blendFinding the right mix – leverage the advantages while maintaining qualityObjective – utilize the strengths of each environment to enhance learningNeed to redesign course to find right mixOnline must dove-tail with f2f componentsIntegration problemsSimilar activities in f2f and onlineAdding online elements without reducing f2f – too much workStudents must see relevance of activities and rationaleFaculty development program to help faculty work through the redesign process and learn new skills for the online environment is highly recommendedIncreased time demandsFaculty report an increase in time required to deliver a blended courseAttributed to the need to interact not only in the f2f setting but also online; students are more engagedOther faculty report a large time commitment for the redesign but delivery time essentially sameTechnical difficultiesStudents and faculty need to feel comfortable with technologyNeed technical support at the beginning of courseStudentsOrientation session was suggested at the beginning of a courseTeach technology skills in context of a taskDigital divideFaculty- faculty development to help them learn technologyInfrastructure and world events can impact technology – natural disasters, computer viruses, power outagesInstitutional barriersNeed leadership and support from institutionUniform definition of blended learning from institutionHow blended learning fits with institutional goalsLegal issues such as copyright, intellectual propertyEvaluation of programsMust make financial commitment to provide infrastructure and technical supportAddress changing role for facultyCompensationTenure issuesPromotion policies
  • SatisfactionLike blended environmentLearn as well or betterNo easier than traditional coursesOnline resources helped learning/better understand conceptsLiked authentic nature of assignmentsNegativeWorkload, technology problems, lack of ‘interpersonal’ interactionConvenience and flexibilityAbility to choose the best time and environment to learn, work around professional and personal commitmentsInteractionStudent engagement and interaction increasedTime management and psychological maturitySkills needed to succeed – self-motivation, organization, and time managementDidn’t always understand reduced seat-time means more work away from classroomTechnologyStudents feel computer skills learned transfer to workplaceFelt pressured if they felt they had weak skills
  • Logistics of IDL6543
  • Outcome of idl6543
  • ADDIE is a lengthy Instructional Design Model.Rapid development model: You are going to be getting it delivered to you @ lightening speed today. Please take the resources with you and apply them back at your university.We will have time for some small group activities… but a lot of this will need to go back with you and have some more thought applied to it.Following these five (5) basic steps will help you identify the most appropriate and effective learner-centered instructional strategies for any course setting.All phases return to evaluation (Arrows move constantly)
  • The Instructional Designers main goal during analysis is to obtain logistical information about the instructor, students, and course. However, if your college is “starting up” the delivery of blended learning courses, then you also need to look at the role of administration.College/Department Chairs/Deans/AdministrationInstructor: Teaching style, Technology skill level, how or what did they do in the face-2-face course, assignments, assessment, multimedia usedStudent: class size, age, demographics (F/T or P/T students) student interactionCourse: Title, Objectives, Delivery Date, Delivery Mode, Textbook, Instructor content (ppts, notes), syllabus, grading, course protocols (attendance, make up work)
  • The Instructional Designer’s main goal during design is to allow the faculty to see the BIG picture of their course. Decisions such as layout, color, and design. Once this is complete the discussion is narrowed to specific course objectives. Discussion such as what faculty did face-2-face to deliver course objectives and what have the thought about when transitioning these activities online.
  • Faculty and IDs use the objectives to decide on activities and course assessment.Activities and Interaction go hand in hand. Faculty should be blending with purpose. Community of Inquire (CoI) framework can also be used during this stage.
  • Faculty and IDs use the objectives to decide on activities and course assessment.Activities and Interaction go hand in hand. Faculty should be blending with purpose. Community of Inquire (CoI) framework can also be used during this stage.
  • Blending with PurposeObjectives - Bloom’s TaxonomyCommunity of Inquiry modelIntegrating Online and Face-2-face instructionActivity/InteractionStudent - to - InstructorStudent - to - StudentsStudent - to - Content
  • Tie assessment back to objectives. Not to the activities/interaction .
  • Measurable objectives,
  • Media is your last selection. Don’t forget feedback.
  • When online an instructor needs to be more concrete with assessment. Move from internal to external. Can be Simple to Complex.
  • Directions:Discuss:Administrative Concerns:Faculty ready to teach onlineTeaching styleTechnology skillsSupport – both student and facultyAnalysisReview Systematic Design of InstructionDesignWrite 1 to 3 course objectivesIdentify interactive activity to achieve objectivesHow will you evaluate activity/objectives?Look at list of tools available (LMS/CMS)
  • This is where we all want to start! Get our hands and feet dirty.BUT its not a smart starting point. Too many revisions, not enough thought… plan, plan plan!!Are you a lone ranger developing the course?Does the college offer any support? To facultyTo students
  • Discuss Module “0”
  • Directions: Discuss :additional Web 2.0 Tools3rd Party Application ConcernsStudent/Faculty Support PlanCampus: FERPA, Copyright, PoliciesWhich tools will you use for your activity and assessment?Would you create/use a Module “0?”(If time) Create Student Feedback Form
  • Sloan 2009 Instructional Strategies for Blended Learning

    1. 1. Getting Started<br />Please create a table tent…<br /><ul><li>On the front
    2. 2. Name, College, & Role
    3. 3. On the back
    4. 4. Two desired session outcomes</li></ul>Thank you!<br />
    5. 5. Room Dynamics<br /><ul><li>Please, at each table, create a mix of:
    6. 6. Administrators
    7. 7. Faculty
    8. 8. Instructional designers</li></ul>This will assist with our small groups activities this afternoon.<br />Thank you!<br />
    9. 9. Instructional Strategies for Blended Learning<br />Linda Futch & Sue Bauer<br />The 15th Sloan-C International Conference on Online Learning<br />
    10. 10. blended learning –<br />the integration of face-to-face and online instruction in a planned and pedagogically sound manner <br />Sloan Consortium, 2005<br />
    11. 11. Content <br />(LMS, Media, MUVE)<br />Reflection<br /> (Blog, Journal, Discussion Board)<br />Social/Emotional<br />(F2F, Discussion Board, Video)<br />BLENDING<br />with<br />PURPOSE<br />Dialectic/Questioning<br />(Discussion Board)<br />Collaboration/Student Generated Content<br />(Wiki, Web 2.0 Tools)<br />Synthesis/ Evaluation<br />(Papers, Tests, Presentations, <br />E- Portfolios)<br />Picciano, 2008<br />
    12. 12. Community of Inquiry Framework<br />Design & Organization --planfor social and cognitive presence<br />SP Principle: Plan to establish a climate that will encourage open communication and trust<br />CP Principle: Plan for critical reflection, discourse and tasks that will support systematic inquiry. <br />Facilitation --establish social and cognitive presence<br />SP Principle: Establish community by shifting to purposeful, collaborative communication. <br />CP Principle: Encourage and support the progression of inquiry through to resolution.<br />Direct Instruction --sustainprogressive development of social and cognitive presence<br />SP Principle: Manage collaborative relationships to support students in assuming increasing responsibility for their learning.<br />CP Principle: Ensure that inquiry moves to resolution and that metacognitive awareness develops.<br />Garrison & Vaughan, 2008<br />
    13. 13. Who are your presenters?<br />Dr. Linda S. Futch<br /><ul><li>Doctorate from UCF
    14. 14. Dissertation: “A Study of Blended Learning at a Metropolitan Research University”
    15. 15. Assistant Director of Instructional Design
    16. 16. Instructional Designer at UCF for 10+ year</li></ul>Sue A. Bauer<br /><ul><li>Masters: Instructional Design – Instructional Systems
    17. 17. Co-Team Lead of the UCF Instructional Design Team
    18. 18. Instructional Designer at UCF for 9+ years</li></li></ul><li>Today’s Agenda<br /><ul><li>Overview of UCF’s Professional Development Course: IDL6543
    19. 19. Introduction to ADDIE Model
    20. 20. Delivery of ADDIE Part I
    21. 21. Small group activities
    22. 22. Delivery of ADDIE Part II
    23. 23. Small group activities
    24. 24. Wrap-up/Q&R</li></li></ul><li>Blended Learning Elements<br />Three elements:<br />Course level<br />Convergence of two archetypal learning environments: face-to-face and online<br />Reduced seat time<br />References: Dzuiban, Hartman, Moskal, Sorg, & Truman, 2004; Dzuiban, Hartman, & Moskal, 2004; Garnham & Kaleta, 2002; Graham, 2005; Graham & Allen, in press; Graham, Allen, & Ure, 2003; Graham, Allen & Ure, in press; King, 2002; Leh, 2002; University of Wisconsin, 2005, Voos, 2003<br />
    25. 25. Benefits<br />More Effective Pedagogy - Richness<br />Social Interaction<br />Improved Outcome <br />Convenience, Flexibility, and Increased Access (Reduced Opportunity Cost)<br />Cost Effectiveness<br />
    26. 26. Challenges<br />Finding the right blend <br />Increased time demands <br />Technical difficulties <br />Institutional barriers<br />
    27. 27. Student Attitudes<br />Satisfaction<br />Convenience and flexibility<br />Social Interaction<br />Time management and psychological maturity<br />Technology<br />
    28. 28. IDL6543<br />Interactive Distributed Learning for Technology Mediated Course Delivery<br /><ul><li>Award-winning, non-credit course for faculty
    29. 29. Models how to teach online using a combination of seminars, labs, consultations, and Web-based instruction
    30. 30. Blended Learning Delivery Mode
    31. 31. 800+ faculty graduates
    32. 32. 35 Deliveries
    33. 33. 2500+ courses</li></li></ul><li>UCF’s Center for Distributed learning Stats<br /><ul><li>URL: http://online.ucf.edu/statistics.php
    34. 34. Summer 2009
    35. 35. 632 courses
    36. 36. 23,585 registered students
    37. 37. Spring 2009
    38. 38. 1,081 courses
    39. 39. 33,153 registered students</li></li></ul><li>A.D.D.I.E - SYStematic Model<br />ADDIE is an acronym: <br /><ul><li>Analysis
    40. 40. Design
    41. 41. Development
    42. 42. Implementation
    43. 43. Evaluation</li></li></ul><li>AnalyZE<br />During analysis, the instructor begins to identify his/her teaching style, the course goals and objectives, the students’ needs, existing knowledge, and any other relevant characteristics.  Analysis also considers the learning environment, any constraints, the delivery options, and the timeline for the course.<br />Analysis Resources:<br /><ul><li>Teaching Style Surveys (Variety of self assessments available online)
    44. 44. Faculty Self Assessment for Teaching Online (PSU)
    45. 45. Course Assessment Form
    46. 46. Systematic Design of Instruction</li></li></ul><li>Design<br />Design can be described as a systematic process of specifying learning objectives.  Detailed storyboards and prototypes are often made, and the look and feel, graphic design, user-interface and content is determined here.<br />Design Activities:<br /><ul><li>Course Map
    47. 47. Bloom’s Taxonomy
    48. 48. Objective Driven Activities Worksheet</li></li></ul><li>Design<br />“…an orderly, logical method of identifying, developing, and evaluating a set of strategies aimed at attaining a particular goal” <br /><ul><li>Kemp, Morrison, and Ross
    49. 49. Objectives drive course development. Tools do not.
    50. 50. Design Includes:
    51. 51. Purpose
    52. 52. Navigation
    53. 53. Direction
    54. 54. Advanced organizer</li></li></ul><li>DESIGN: OBJECTIVES<br />
    55. 55. Design: Activities<br />Activities/Interaction:<br /><ul><li>Three types of interaction (original model):
    56. 56. learner-content
    57. 57. learner-instructor
    58. 58. learner-learner</li></ul>Moore, Michael G. and Greg Kearsley (1996) Distance Education: A Systems View. Wadsworth Publishing Company, Belmont, CA.<br />
    59. 59. Design<br />Modified Activities/Interaction<br />
    60. 60. DESIGN: Assessment Step 1<br />Objective  Assessment<br />Student, “How do I know I have achieved the objectives?”<br />Strategy for assessment<br />How do you assess? <br />Checklist<br />Quiz<br />Rubric<br />Grading form<br />
    61. 61. Instructional strategies<br />How do you engage students?<br />Ex: papers, projects, group projects, etc<br />DESIGN: Assessment Step 2<br />
    62. 62. Selection choices<br />Tools, media and feedback<br />What tools are available to environment?<br />What media might be used to exemplify, motivate, inspire?<br />What feedback strategy – how and how often? Multiple forms?<br />DESIGN: Assessment Step 3<br />
    63. 63. DESIGN: ASSESSMENT<br />
    64. 64. DESIGN<br />Web 2.0 (3rd Party Application Concerns)<br />Student/Faculty Support Plan<br />Campus: FERPA, Copyright, Policies<br />
    65. 65. Small Group Activity<br />Discuss Administrative Concerns:<br />Faculty ready to teach online<br />Teaching style<br />Technology skills<br />Support – both student and faculty<br />Review Systematic Design of Instruction<br />Write 1 to 3 course objectives<br />Identify interactive activity to achieve objectives<br />How will you evaluate activity/objectives?<br />Look at list of tools available (LMS/CMS)<br />
    66. 66. Develop<br />It’s where we all want to start!<br />The actual creation (production) of the content and learning materials based on the Design phase.<br />Development Activities:<br /><ul><li>Campus support
    67. 67. Technology/Tool support
    68. 68. Course Completion Plan
    69. 69. Submission Guidelines</li></li></ul><li>Implement<br />Action! The course goes live with students. <br />Your course delivery plan is put into action and a procedure for training the learner and teacher is developed.  Materials are delivered or distributed to the students. <br />Implementation Activities:<br /><ul><li>Instructor Blog/Reflective Journal
    70. 70. Module “0”
    71. 71. NSSE</li></li></ul><li>Evaluate<br />After delivery, the effectiveness of the training materials is evaluated.<br />Formative and summative evaluations can be delivered. Formative evaluations can be completed during each stage of the ADDIE model. Summative evaluations usually consists of assessments that provide opportunities for feedback from the students.<br />Evaluation Activities:<br /><ul><li>Create a student feedback form </li></li></ul><li>Repeat<br /><ul><li>The unspoken but mandatory step of A.D.D.I.E
    72. 72. “Wet Clay”
    73. 73. Reasons needed:
    74. 74. Student Feedback
    75. 75. Failures/Successes
    76. 76. New textbook
    77. 77. Newly assigned course objectives (accreditation)
    78. 78. Technology</li></li></ul><li>Small Group Activity<br />Discuss additional Web 2.0 Tools<br />3rd Party Application Concerns<br />Student/Faculty Support Plan<br />Campus: FERPA, Copyright, Policies<br />Which tools will you use for your activity and assessment?<br />Would you create/use a Module “0?”<br />(If time) Create Student Feedback Form<br />
    79. 79. Questions & Reflections<br /><ul><li>Questions
    80. 80. Reflections</li></li></ul><li>Contact information<br />Dr. Linda S. Futch<br />lsfutch@mail.ucf.edu<br />Sue Bauer<br />sbauer@mail.ucf.edu<br />

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