Historical settlement of north america

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Historical settlement of north america

  1. 1. Historical Settlement of North America
  2. 2. Early Perceptions <ul><li>A wild and forbidding place </li></ul><ul><li>Dense forests and wilderness landscapes </li></ul><ul><li>A paradise overflowing with wealth and promise </li></ul><ul><li>An “empty” wilderness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Had been populated for at least 25,000 years, maybe more. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contrary images helped create myths </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some still persist today </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. First Effective Settlement <ul><li>General rule conceptualized by geographer Wilbur Zelinsky that the first group of people who settle in an uninhabited area have more important impact than those that follow. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>English and French Culture dominate because they were the first settlers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spanish too… </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Evolution of New Cultures <ul><li>Selection and Maintenance of certain cultural traits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Newcomers are in a new environment-different plants, animals, foods, people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mixing of groups that were separated in Europe, Africa, and elsewhere. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leads to cultural interchange and forging of unique national and local identities. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Select and maintain traits from different cultures. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Exploration, Discovery, Settlement, Exploitation <ul><li>Native American settlement patterns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Came from Asia, Europe, and other places </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Traveled across ice/land bridges, came in boats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Came in through the Pacific AND the Atlantic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evidence of human habitation from 25,000 years ago, some sites even older. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 7. Exploration, Discovery, Settlement, Exploitation <ul><li>Many texts treat Native Americans as one culture. </li></ul><ul><li>In fact they were much more diverse than the newcomers from Europe. </li></ul><ul><li>Belief is that they came following game, changed the landscape with fire and hunted large mammals into extinction. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mastodon, dire wolves, saber tooth cats, armored rhino </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Comet/Meteor hits Canadian Ice sheet 13,000 years ago, evidence of impact ALL over North American continent, even here as far away as California. </li></ul>
  7. 8. Exploration, Discovery, Settlement, Exploitation <ul><li>Europeans arrive 15th century (1400’s) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Report back to Europe that indigenous people are all over. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Living in small groups and even in cities as large as several thousand. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Living all over the continent in all of the different environments and actively trading with each other. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 9. Exploration, Discovery, Settlement, Exploitation <ul><li>The native people did not believe in private property like the Europeans. </li></ul><ul><li>Did not own or sell land. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Big problems over this issue to come… </li></ul></ul>
  9. 10. Exploration, Discovery, Settlement, Exploitation <ul><li>Europeans bring diseases that the natives have no resistance to. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spanish and French make contact with Native Peoples end of the 1400’s. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Both go far into the interior, bringing their diseases. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Native people are actively trading and communicating with each other, spread new diseases amongst each other. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 11. Exploration, Discovery, Settlement, Exploitation <ul><li>English are late on the scene, settlements in 1607 and 1621. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One hundred plus years after Spanish and French. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most of the Native population is gone by the time the English come. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plymouth colony is started in an abandoned village, all the residents had died earlier from European diseases. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 12. Exploration, Discovery, Settlement, Exploitation <ul><li>Native American Economic Systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hunting, gathering, fishing, farming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>From nearly stone-age hunting/gathering to highly developed irrigation systems of the Hohokam in Arizona </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Champlain describes rich fields of corn and other products of abundance in what is today Eastern Canada. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Large variety </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 14. Exploration, Discovery, Settlement, Exploitation <ul><li>Imperialism in North America </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A geopolitical relationship: the aggressive encroachment of one people upon the territory of another, resulting in the subjugation of the latter people to alien rules. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Native Americans victims of mass destruction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Massive decline in numbers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Extinction of many cultures </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Damage caused by progress of imperialism. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 15. New European Things <ul><li>Small pox, bubonic plague, typhus, influenza, malaria, yellow fever, measles… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pigs brought by Hernan DeSoto may have helped aid in the spread. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also brought weeds, other destructive animal species, alcohol, new technologies, and new weapons </li></ul></ul>
  14. 16. Implications <ul><li>By 1900, estimates are that only 10% of the original Native Peoples were left. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Today try to hold on to native culture and survive economically. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impact on today’s culture seen in place names (Cucamonga), food, clothing, environmental attitudes, and religious beliefs in New Age spiritual seekers. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 17. European Explorers <ul><li>1000 years ago, Norse </li></ul><ul><li>Sagas hint at religious and political discontent… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Newfoundland </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Was thought to be a myth, part of a saga, old colonies were largely forgotten </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vinland proposed to be real in 1837 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>L’Anse Aux Meadows </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Possibly also further down the Atlantic Coast, inland into present day Minnesota. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 18. Commercial Exploitation <ul><li>Late 1400’s… </li></ul><ul><li>Portuguese, French, Spanish, English, Russian, and Dutch all start coming to North America. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A direct result of leaders needing money and more territory. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Part of a changing world economic system. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 19. Commercial Exploitation <ul><li>Slavery, Feudalism, Mercantilism, Capitalism </li></ul><ul><li>Post 1300 Europe transitioning from feudalism to mercantilism to capitalism. </li></ul><ul><li>North American exploitation driven by whims of leaders and new inventions like the compass and the astrolabe. </li></ul><ul><li>New geographical knowledge too </li></ul>
  18. 20. Process of Discovery and Exploration <ul><li>Difference between discovery and exploration: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discovery is finding something or somewhere “new” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exploration follows up discoveries with assessment of potential for development and settlement. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A complex process that started what we call the Columbian Exchange </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 21. Columbian Exchange <ul><li>Transfer of culture, economy, politics, and organisms from Europe to the Americas after 1492. </li></ul>
  20. 22. Portuguese <ul><li>It all begins with Portugal… </li></ul><ul><li>Exploring and colonizing Madeiras, Azores, Cape Verde Islands then down the west coast of Africa. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trading with Asia by sailing around Africa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Europe was cut off from Asia by Muslims. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used islands to grow sugar, using slaves for labor. </li></ul></ul>
  21. 23. Portuguese <ul><li>The Portuguese use slaves from West Africa to grow sugar on their islands, then carry the idea to South America. </li></ul><ul><li>Others copied it, becomes a trade pattern: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From Europe to West Africa carrying money and weapons, traded for slaves who are taken across the Atlantic and sold, boats then filled with sugar which is taken back to Europe. </li></ul></ul>
  22. 24. Portuguese <ul><li>The Portuguese were also the first to arrive in the Northern part of North America, the first to reach Newfoundland. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They had contact with Icelanders who still told sagas of lands to the west. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>They established a migratory fishing trade there. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sailors would come fish for the summer then go back to Europe. </li></ul></ul>
  23. 25. Who were the Spainards? <ul><li>The Moors had been in Spain since 711. </li></ul><ul><li>The were asked to come and help repel the Visigoths (Germans) who also spent time in Spain. </li></ul><ul><li>The Celts (Irish) has also been in Spain. </li></ul><ul><li>The Jews had been in Spain. </li></ul><ul><li>The Romans had also been in Spain. </li></ul><ul><li>The Greeks had also been in Spain. </li></ul><ul><li>The Phoenicians had also been in Spain. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1492, Spain was already a very mixed population with people descended from all of the groups listed above. </li></ul><ul><li>Spain had been a multicultural area for more than 2,000 years. </li></ul>
  24. 26. Spain and 1492 <ul><li>October 12, 1492 Columbus discovers America </li></ul><ul><li>July 1492 Spain Expels its Jews </li></ul><ul><li>January 1492 Spain defeats the Moors at Granada </li></ul>
  25. 27. Christopher Columbus <ul><li>He has symbolized many things over the years: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1792: Independence from England </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1892: American Progress and Potential </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1992: By Native Americans as despoiling their cultures, decimating their numbers; by Africans Americans forced migration and slavery </li></ul></ul>
  26. 28. Christopher Columbus <ul><li>He was never in the Spanish Borderlands </li></ul><ul><li>He landed in the Bahamas </li></ul><ul><li>He explored the coast of Cuba </li></ul><ul><li>Established a headquarters on Hispaniola </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Came back three times in twelve years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He established the Columbian Exchange </li></ul></ul>
  27. 29. The Columbian Exchange Came from Europe 1. Bananas 2. Sugar 3. Coffee 4. Cotton 5.Citrus fruits 6. Rice 7. Sheep 8. Dogs 9. Rats 10. Horses 11. Goats 12. Many diseases, including the flu and smallpox Came from America 1. Guinea pigs 2. Llamas 3. Turkeys 4. Alpacas (like a camel) 5. Cocoa/chocolate 6. Corn 7. Peanuts 8. Tobacco 9. Potato 10. Sunflowers 11. Chili pepper 12. Beans
  28. 30. Requirimiento <ul><li>The order to acknowledge the Church as the ruler and superior of the whole world, the Pope as high priest, and the King and Queen of Spain. </li></ul><ul><li>If the people failed to obey &quot;with the help of God we shall forcefully... make war against you... take you and your wives and children and shall make slaves of them.&quot; </li></ul>
  29. 31. Hernan Cortez <ul><li>Landed near Vera Cruz, Mexico is 1519 </li></ul><ul><li>Defeated the Aztecs in 1521 </li></ul><ul><li>Destroyed Tenochtitlan, founded Mexico City on top of Tenochtitlan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Would not have been possible with out guns, horses, and La Malinche/Dona Marina </li></ul></ul>
  30. 32. La Malinche (Dona Marina) <ul><li>She was a slave, she was given to Cortez’ party along with 20 other women </li></ul><ul><li>She was tall, pretty, and smart </li></ul><ul><li>It is rumored that she was of noble birth, but ended up a slave </li></ul><ul><li>She spoke at least three languages before she learned Spanish </li></ul><ul><ul><li>She was given to another Spaniard, but he was sent back to Spain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After that she was given to Cortez </li></ul></ul>
  31. 33. La Malinche (Dona Marina) <ul><li>She bore Cortez a son </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For this she is seen as the mother of the Mexican people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The birth of La Raza (the race) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>She translated for Cortez as he conquered the Aztecs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For this she is seen as a traitor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Malinchismoism-being a traitor </li></ul></ul>
  32. 34. La Malinche (Dona Marina) <ul><li>Some say that it would have been much worse for the Aztecs if she was not there to translate and tell them what Cortez wanted. </li></ul>
  33. 35. Alvar Nunez Cabeza De Vaca <ul><li>Part of the Panfilo de Navarez Expedition 1528 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shipwrecked on the Gulf Coast of Texas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enslaved by Native Americans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Walked back to Mexico City, six years after shipwreck </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reported untold riches to the north </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expeditions sent north after his reports </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Esteban his African slave with him the whole time. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  34. 36. Francisco Coronado <ul><li>Took 300 Spanish soldiers, 1,000 Tlaxcalan Indians and four Franciscan Monks looking for riches </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Didn’t find any </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Was eventually tried for ‘atrocities against Indians’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Opened the way for settlement </li></ul></ul></ul>
  35. 37. Zuni Pueblo
  36. 38. Laws of the Indies <ul><li>Guidelines for creating and expanding Spanish towns in the Americas </li></ul><ul><li>History: comes from the Laws of Burgos 1512 which were to regulate relations with the Spaniards and the Indians to ensure spiritual and material welfare for the Indians who were severely treated. </li></ul><ul><li>1542 New Law of the Indies written and met with armed resistance, was supposed to correct inadequacies in the first version. </li></ul>
  37. 39. Laws of the Indies 1573 <ul><li>Did more than just deal with Native-Spaniard relations… </li></ul><ul><li>Had requirements for town site selections, building requirements, layout of towns. </li></ul>CHOLULA Date of map: 1581
  38. 40. Spain and Florida <ul><li>Established a colony in Florida for two reasons: </li></ul><ul><li>Needed a port for ships coming out of South America, Central America, and Mexico </li></ul><ul><li>The French were in the area </li></ul>
  39. 41. Spain and Florida <ul><li>St. Augustine founded 1565, source for expansion and dissemination of crops. </li></ul><ul><li>Most Spanish crops would not grow, except citrus and peaches. </li></ul><ul><li>Had to adapt to native diet of corn, beans, and squash. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not a profitable settlement, sold to the English, then back to Spain, then to the US. </li></ul></ul>
  40. 42. New Mexico <ul><li>Juan Onate was the first to take settlers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Traveled up the Rio Grande River </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most of the settlers were from Spain (Castile and Andalusia) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Onate went on to explore in Kansas and California, was </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eventually recalled to Mexico and tried for cruel treatment of the Natives. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pueblo people were harshly treated and revolted in 1680. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New Mexico had to be reconquered and reoccupied by force. </li></ul></ul>Don Juan de Oñate Salazar
  41. 43. New Mexico <ul><li>Two Regions: </li></ul><ul><li>Rio Arriba-up river, higher elevation, wetter climate, wooded </li></ul><ul><li>Rio Abajo-lower river, dry, longer growing seasons </li></ul><ul><li>Genizaros were captured Native American Children who were hispanicized. </li></ul><ul><li>Some were allowed to colonize their own frontiers, notably Ojo, Tome, Abiquiu, and San Miguel </li></ul><ul><li>Mestizaje-the mixing of Spanish and Native America (mestizo) </li></ul>1680
  42. 44. Primeria Alta <ul><li>Present day Southern Arizona </li></ul><ul><li>Father Kino built missions in the area and was a cartographer </li></ul><ul><li>He had a way with the Native people and they liked him, but after his death in 1711, they revolted. </li></ul><ul><li>There was not much expansion in this area because the Apache would not be ‘civilized’ and they constantly raided the Spanish. </li></ul><ul><li>There are many ruins in the area today of failed Spanish settlements that died out because of the raids. </li></ul><ul><li>The areas that thrived were mostly Spanish land grants for cattle. </li></ul>Eusebio Kino (Father Kino)
  43. 45. Texas <ul><li>Mission and Presidios built in East Texas </li></ul><ul><li>Another response to French settlement </li></ul>
  44. 46. Alta California <ul><li>A response to Russian settlement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Built a chain of missions and presidios </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1769 San Diego, first one </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1770 Monterey-made the capital </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1776-San Francisco </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Eventually 20 missions </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>San Jose and Los Angeles: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Founded as civil communities to supply food to soldiers </li></ul></ul>
  45. 47. Outpost Clusters <ul><li>Survived because they were similar to Spain or Mexico in some way </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptations were made in all </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adobe instead of timber </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Changes in crops and in animals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Each were connected to Mexico City, but not to each other (until New Mexico and San Francisco) </li></ul>
  46. 48. French Settlement Map of New France, by Samuel de Champlain (1567?-1635): 1612
  47. 49. Migrant Fishing <ul><li>Begins in the early 1500’s around Newfoundland </li></ul><ul><li>English, French, Basque, Spanish, and Portuguese are all fishing there </li></ul><ul><ul><li>World’s greatest shallow water fishing ground </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Southern Labrador to Northern New England </li></ul></ul></ul>
  48. 50. Migrant Fishing <ul><li>These fisherman came, fished, and went home. </li></ul><ul><li>If they got out of their boats, they stayed close to shore. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many never left their boats. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They were not trying to start colonies at this point, just fishing. </li></ul></ul>
  49. 51. Jaques Cartier <ul><li>1534: King Francis I sends Cartier to explore between Labrador and Newfoundland. </li></ul><ul><li>Wanted him to discover “certain islands,” gold and other precious things. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hoping for another Aztec or Inca Empire </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sailed almost to present day Quebec on the St. Lawrence River </li></ul><ul><ul><li>His voyages were considered a failure. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He didn’t find riches, plantation crops wouldn’t grow, and he didn’t find a route to Asia. </li></ul></ul>
  50. 52. 16 th Century <ul><li>Settlements along the northeast coast were seasonal migratory work camps. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fishing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Furs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>There was contact between the French and the Native people. </li></ul><ul><li>Even though there was not a successful attempt at colonization until 1604, European diseases were spreading through Native populations and they were dying in great numbers because of them. </li></ul>
  51. 53. 17 th Century <ul><li>First successful settlement founded on the St. Croix River at the Bay of Fundy in 1604. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It was moved across the bay and by 1607 it was known as Port Royal. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This showed the French that settlement was feasible. </li></ul></ul>
  52. 54. Samuel de Champlain: The Father of New France <ul><li>1608: Went down the St. Lawrence River and founded Quebec. </li></ul><ul><li>The valley that was chosen for Quebec was depopulated. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Native people that had been there had died. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>These were the same people that Cartier had encountered. </li></ul>
  53. 55. Samuel de Champlain: The Father of New France <ul><li>A talented map maker and explorer </li></ul><ul><li>Opened North America to trade with France </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He was on the St. Lawrence in 1603 and made a map </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He was at the Port Royal settlement until 1607 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1605 and 1606 he was exploring the New England coast </li></ul></ul>Map of New France, by Samuel de Champlain (1567?-1635): 1612
  54. 56. Samuel de Champlain: The Father of New France <ul><li>To make alliances with the local natives, (Huron, Algonquin, Montagnais, and Etchemin), Champlain had to promise to make war with the Iroquois who lived to the south. </li></ul><ul><li>This set the tone for French Iroquois relations for the next 100 years. </li></ul>
  55. 57. Etienne Brule <ul><li>Was sent to live with the Huron by Champlain. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Champlain also spent time with the Huron in the winter of 1615-16 when he was injured attacking a village south of Lake Ontario. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The French were acquiring geographical information from the natives as well as learning their ways, especially the birch bark canoe. </li></ul>Étienne Brûlé at the mouth of the Humber
  56. 58. Settlement <ul><li>France had to order companies to bring settlers </li></ul><ul><li>1627 the Company of New France was created </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It was supposed to bring 4,000 settlers to New France in 15 years </li></ul></ul><ul><li>By 1654 only about 30 families lived in and around Port Royal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This was the base for Acadian growth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Almost no women came from France </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Native-French intermarriage </li></ul></ul></ul>
  57. 59. Settlement <ul><li>There was not much interest in settlement. </li></ul><ul><li>Hardly any women came and the French had to resort to sending prisoners to bring people in. </li></ul><ul><li>Often who came were Protestants because of religious wars at home, which created a disconnect. </li></ul><ul><li>This does NOT mean that the population of New France did not grow. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Population growth was higher than in France. </li></ul></ul>
  58. 60. 18 th Century <ul><li>By 1700, less than 20,000 French people were in North America from Newfoundland to the Mississippi </li></ul><ul><li>Settlement patterns were influenced by the fur trade and cod fishing </li></ul><ul><li>For the fishery, most ships, crews, and profits returned to France </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This did not require large settlements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The French areas associated with the fishery remained small </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The fur trade was different because it had to go farther and farther inland </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Towns were required to supply the fur trade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Montreal and Quebec were connected to the fur trade and were larger than the fishing villages. </li></ul></ul>
  59. 61. <ul><li>By 1700, the French were also having trouble with the English who had set up trading posts west of the French in the Hudson Bay area. </li></ul><ul><li>There were many battles between the English (who were allied with the Iroquois) and the French. </li></ul><ul><li>The French were also establishing forts in the South at Biloxi, Mobile, and on the Mississippi at this time. </li></ul>
  60. 62. The Treaty of Utrecht 1713 <ul><li>Ended a long war between the French and English but there were still conflicts between them </li></ul><ul><li>The French had to give up Acadia in 1755 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Acadians had to leave </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some were taken back to England or France </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many ended up in New Orleans and the areas around it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This is where ‘Cajun’ comes from </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Acadians who went to New Orleans had been in North America for several generations already and were a mixture of French and Native American </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>English had to agree to allow the French to continue fishing in the area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep their French language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep their Catholic religion </li></ul></ul>
  61. 63. After the Treaty of Utrecht <ul><li>France tried to strengthen its hold on the lower Mississippi </li></ul><ul><li>1710 New Orleans founded </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tried to establish an export staple </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sugar didn’t work </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Grains didn’t grow well in the hot, humid climate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Citrus, figs, and pineapples had no market </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cotton was not being ginned yet, so was not feasible </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rice, Indigo, and Tobacco became the principal plantation products </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plantation is the key word </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plantation system had to be established because of the labor intensiveness of growing those crops, which meant slavery </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>There were conflicts with the local natives too, who were often taken to the islands and put into slavery on the sugar plantations </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  62. 64. Legacy French language spread in the United States. Counties marked in yellow are those where 6-12% of the population speak French at home; brown, 12-18%; red, over 18%. St. Martin Parish, Louisiana (pop. 48,583) - 27.44% French-speaking Evangeline Parish, Louisiana (pop. 35,434) - 25.71% French-speaking Vermilion Parish, Louisiana (pop. 53,807) - 24.89% French-speaking Aroostook County, Maine (pop. 73,938) - 22.37% French-speaking Lafourche Parish, Louisiana (pop. 89,974) - 19.12% French-speaking Acadia Parish, Louisiana (pop. 58,861) - 19.04% French-speaking Avoyelles Parish, Louisiana (pop. 41,481) - 17.64% French-speaking Assumption Parish, Louisiana (pop. 23,388) - 17.58% French-speaking St. Landry Parish, Louisiana (pop. 87,700) - 16.70% French-speaking Coos County, New Hampshire (pop. 33,111) - 16.17% French-speaking Jefferson Davis Parish, Louisiana (pop. 31,435) - 16.15% French-speaking Lafayette Parish, Louisiana (pop. 190,503) - 14.37% French-speaking Androscoggin County, Maine (pop. 103,793) - 14.29% French-speaking
  63. 65. Roanoke Colony: The Lost Colony This was the first English colony in North America. It was Founded in 1585 by Sir Walter Raleigh. It was set up to bring In riches from the New World, and to launch attacks on the Spanish in America. It was a private venture. It was financed By Raleigh, with permission of the Queen. The colony failed. After 1587, English ships were Unable to get back to the colony for three Years. When they came back, no one Was there. The word “CROATOAN” Was carved into a tree. Croatan Was the name of a local tribe of Native Americans. It is unknown whether the colony Went with them willingly, however, there were no bodies At the colony, and it is rumored that years later when the Area was being explored, a tribe of Natives was found Already practicing Christianity. Other theories suggest that The Spanish wiped out the colony, the colony tried to return to England on their own and were lost at sea. One thing that Probably had an impact was the weather. Evidence from tree Rings shows that the worst drought in 800 years struck while The colonists were waiting to be resupplied. This certainly made Life very difficult for the new colony.
  64. 66. Jamestown <ul><li>Established in 1607 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most of the first settlers were aristocrats </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Picked an island that was swampy and not well suited for agriculture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It was picked because it was uninhabited </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The site was defensible </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The water around the island was deep so it could be protected by ships </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Many colonists died </li></ul><ul><ul><li>England sent more </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The first factories were established here </li></ul><ul><ul><li>England sent experts to establish them from Poland and Germany </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Glassware was exported </li></ul></ul>
  65. 67. Dutch Settlement <ul><li>Began in 1609 at Ft. Nassau </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dutch government gave land grants to wealthy nobles. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Settlers could not own land, another feudal system like at home (similar to the French experience) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The first Jewish people came to America with the Dutch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They also brought Africans, some slaves and some servants. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ended in 1664, taken over by England and slowly anglicized. </li></ul><ul><li>Only real impact: some place names in NY </li></ul>
  66. 68. English vs. Native Worldviews <ul><li>The Native Americans viewed themselves as part of their environment. There was no separation between themselves and the natural world. </li></ul><ul><li>The English saw wild landscapes as a reflection of wild people who were unwilling or unable to subdue them. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The English justified taking land from the Natives based on use. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They deserved to have it because they were going to put it to better use. </li></ul></ul>
  67. 69. Tidewater Chesapeake World <ul><li>The English had to make adaptations in order to make this settlement area feasible. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The soil and climate were different than at home. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>One of the first adaptations that had to be made was the adoption of native foods: corn, beans, and squash. They also had to learn to grow these things in a different manner than they were used to farming. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seasoning was another adaptation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The summers were much warmer than back home in England. Arrival to the Tidewater area was timed so that settlers would arrive in Spring or Fall in order to avoid summer heat and diseases. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In order to make the settlements profitable, tobacco was grown as a cash crop for the first time. </li></ul></ul>
  68. 70. Tobacco <ul><li>Tobacco is a labor intensive crop. </li></ul><ul><li>When it was decided to grow tobacco as a cash crop, the first solution to the labor shortage was to bring in large numbers of male indentured servants. </li></ul>
  69. 71. Plymouth Colony 1621 <ul><li>The area was surveyed by John Smith before settlement </li></ul><ul><li>It was formed by a group of English separatists called the Pilgrims </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They came to America looking for religious freedom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They DID NOT come to make a profit like in Jamestown </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They came to start a new society </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>The first colonists were aided by Squanto, a Native American </li></ul><ul><li>The tradition of Thanksgiving comes from Plymouth </li></ul><ul><li>The legend of Plymouth Rock comes from Plymouth </li></ul><ul><li>The Pilgrims came to Plymouth on The Mayflower </li></ul><ul><li>They were supposed to land in Newfoundland, but ended up at Plymouth </li></ul><ul><li>The site chosen for Plymouth Colony was an abandoned Native American Village </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The reason it was abandoned was because disease had wiped out the people who lived there before the English came </li></ul></ul>
  70. 73. Squanto
  71. 74. The First Winter <ul><li>There were 104 original colonists. </li></ul><ul><li>Only 53 were alive to celebrate the first Thanksgiving. </li></ul><ul><li>They died for lack of shelter, disease, and on the ship before they even arrived. </li></ul><ul><li>They would not have survived without the help of the Native Americans, especially Squanto. </li></ul>
  72. 75. Plymouth Rock Plymouth Rock, described by some as &quot;the most disappointing landmark in America&quot; because of its small size and poor visitor access.
  73. 76. The Mayflower <ul><li>Allerton , Isaac </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mary (Norris) Allerton , wife ( Newbury, Berkshire ) [1] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bartholomew Allerton , son ( Leiden , Netherlands ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remember Allerton , daughter (Leiden, Netherlands) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mary Allerton , daughter (Leiden, Netherlands), the last survivor of the Mayflower company [2] </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bradford, William ( Austerfield , Yorkshire ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dorothy (May) Bradford , wife ( Wisbech , Cambridge ) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Brewster, William ( Doncaster , Yorkshire) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mary Brewster , wife </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Love Brewster , son (Leiden, Netherlands) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wrestling Brewster , son (Leiden, Netherlands) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Carver, John </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Catherine (Leggett) (White) Carver , wife (probably Sturton -le-Steeple , Nottinghamshire ) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chilton, James (Canterbury) [2] </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mrs. Susanna Chilton , wife </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mary Chilton , daughter ( Sandwich, Kent ) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cooke, Francis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>John Cook , son (Leiden, Netherlands) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cooper, Humility - (probably Leiden, Netherlands) baby daughter of Robert Cooper, in company of her aunt Ann Cooper Tilley, wife of Edward Tilley [3] </li></ul><ul><li>Crackstone, John ( Stratford St. Mary , Suffolk ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>John Crackstone , son </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fletcher, Moses (probably Canterbury , Kent ) </li></ul><ul><li>Fuller, Edward (Redenhall, Norfolk) [2] </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mrs. Edward Fuller , wife </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Samuel Fuller , son </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fuller, Samuel ( Redenhall , Norfolk) (brother to Edward) </li></ul><ul><li>Goodman, John </li></ul><ul><li>Minter, Desire ( Norwich , Norfolk) </li></ul><ul><li>Priest, Degory </li></ul><ul><li>Rogers, Thomas ( Watford , Northampton ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Joseph Rogers , son (Watford, Northampton) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sampson, Henry ( Henlow , Bedford ) child in company of his uncle and aunt Edward and Ann Tilley [3] </li></ul><ul><li>Tilley, Edward (Henlow, Bedford) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ann (Cooper) Tilley (Henlow, Bedford) wife of Edward and aunt of Humilty Cooper and Henry Sampson </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tilley, John (Henlow, Bedford) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Joan (Hurst) (Rogers) Tilley , wife (Henlow, Bedford) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elizabeth Tilley , daughter (Henlow, Bedford) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tinker, Thomas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mrs. Thomas Tinker , wife </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>boy Tinker , son </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Turner, John </li></ul><ul><ul><li>boy Turner , son </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>boy Turner , younger son </li></ul></ul><ul><li>White, William </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Susanna (Fuller) White , wife </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resolved White , son </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peregrine White , son (born in Provincetown Harbor ) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Williams, Thomas , ( Great Yarmouth , Norfolk) </li></ul><ul><li>Winslow, Edward ( Droitwich , Worcester ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Elizabeth (Barker) Winslow , wife </li></ul></ul>
  74. 77. <ul><li>Planters recruited by London merchants </li></ul><ul><li>Billington , John (possibly Spaulding , Lincolnshire ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eleanor Billington , wife </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>John Billington , son </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Francis Billington , son </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Britteridge, Richard </li></ul><ul><li>Browne, Peter ( Dorking , Surrey ) </li></ul><ul><li>Clarke, Richard </li></ul><ul><li>Eaton, Francis ( Bristol , Gloucester ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sarah Eaton , wife </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Samuel Eaton , son </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gardiner, Richard ( Harwich , Essex) </li></ul><ul><li>Hopkins, Stephen ( Upper Clatford , Hampshire ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Elizabeth (Fisher) Hopkins , wife </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Giles Hopkins , son by first marriage ( Hursley , Hampshire) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Constance Hopkins , daughter by first marriage (Hursley, Hampshire) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Damaris Hopkins , daughter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oceanus Hopkins , born en route </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Margesson, Edmund </li></ul><ul><li>Martin, Christopher ( Billericay , Essex) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mary (Prower) Martin , wife </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mullins, William ( Dorking , Surrey) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alice Mullins , wife </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Priscilla Mullins , daughter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Joseph Mullins , son </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Prower , Solomon (Billericay, Essex) </li></ul><ul><li>Rigsdale, John </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alice Rigsdale , wife </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Standish, Myles ( Chorley , Lancashire ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rose Standish , wife </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Warren, Richard ( Hertford , England) </li></ul><ul><li>Winslow, Gilbert ( Droitwich , Worcester ), brother to &quot;Pilgrim&quot; Edward Winslow but not known to have lived in Leiden </li></ul>Men hired to stay one year Alden, John (Harwich, Essex) - considered as a ship's crewman but joined settlers Allerton, John , was to return to England to help the rest of the group immigrate but died in the winter, may have been relative of &quot;Pilgrim&quot; Allerton family Ely , --?--, hired as seaman, returned to England after term was up English, Thomas , hired to master a shallop but died in the winter Trevore, William , hired as seaman, returned to England after term was up
  75. 78. <ul><li>Family servants </li></ul><ul><li>Thirteen of the 18 people in this category were attached to Pilgrim families. </li></ul><ul><li>Butten, William , age &quot;a youth&quot;, servant of Samuel Fuller, only person who died during the voyage </li></ul><ul><li>Carter, Robert , age unknown, servant or apprentice to William Mullins, shoemaker. </li></ul><ul><li>--?--, Dorothy , maidservant of John Carver, married Francis Eaton within two years of arrival </li></ul><ul><li>Doty, Edward , (possibly Lincolnshire ) age probably about 21, servant to Stephen Hopkins </li></ul><ul><li>Holbeck, William , age likely under 21, servant to William White </li></ul><ul><li>Hooke, John , (probably Norwich, Norfolk) age 13, apprenticed to Isaac Allerton </li></ul><ul><li>Howland, John (probably Fenstanton , Huntingdonshire ), age about 21, manservant for Governor John Carver </li></ul><ul><li>Lancemore, John (probably Shropshire or Worcestershire), age under 21, servant to the Christopher Martin </li></ul><ul><li>Latham, William , age 11, servant/apprentice to the John Carver family </li></ul><ul><li>Leister, Edward (Kensington), aged over 21, servant to Stephen Hopkins </li></ul><ul><li>More, Ellen , ( Shipton , Shropshire ), age 8, indentured to Edward Winslow </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jasper More , (Shipton, Shropshire), brother, age 7, indentured to John Carver </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Richard , (Shipton, Shropshire), brother, age 6, indentured to William Brewster </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mary , (Shipton, Shropshire), sister, age 4, indentured to William Brewster </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Soule , George , teacher of Edward Winslow 's children </li></ul><ul><li>Story, Elias , age under 21, in the care of Edward Winslow </li></ul><ul><li>Thompson, Edward , age under 21, in the care of the William White family, first passenger to die after the Mayflower </li></ul><ul><li>reached Cape Cod . </li></ul><ul><li>Wilder, Roger , age under 21, servant in the John Carver family </li></ul>Dogs At least two dogs are known to have participated in the settling of Plymouth. In Mourt's Relation Edward Winslow writes that a female mastiff and a small springer spaniel came ashore on the first explorations of what is now Provincetown . There may have been other pets on the Mayflower , but none are mentioned.
  76. 79. Indentured Servants <ul><li>Also called a bonded laborer </li></ul><ul><li>A laborer under contract to work for an employer for a specific amount of time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually 2 to 7 years </li></ul></ul><ul><li>They were not paid. Employers were supposed to feed them and shelter them </li></ul><ul><li>The system of power it created was often an opening for physical, sexual, and verbal abuse, as well as legal abuses of contract. </li></ul>

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