Chapter 8 Lecture               Human Geography: Places and                  Regions in Global Context                    ...
Key Concepts   •   Agricultural practices   •   Agricultural revolutions   •   Industrialization of agriculture   •   Biot...
Traditional Agriculture   • Agrarian   • Hunting and gathering   • Subsistence      agriculture   • Commercial      agricu...
Traditional Agriculture, (cont’d)                                                  Figure 8.5 Slash-and-burn in Figure 8.4...
Traditional Agriculture, (cont’d)    Figure 8.6 Intertillage: planting   Figure 8.7 Gender division of labor in    differe...
Global Distribution of Agriculture, 2005            Figure 8.2© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Traditional Agriculture, (cont’d)   • Intensive subsistence     agriculture   • Double cropping   • Pastoralism   • Transh...
Agricultural Revolutions   Figure 8.10 Animals were important in the first agricultural revolution.   Apply your knowledge...
Agricultural Revolutions, (cont’d)   • Third revolution       – Mechanization       – Chemical farming       – Food manufa...
Agricultural Revolutions, (cont’d)         Figure 8.13 Worldwide growth in fertilizer use, 2005-2007.© 2013 Pearson Educat...
Industrialization of Agriculture   • Important     developments                     • Green revolution       – Changes in ...
Green Revolution               Figure 8.B                             Figure 8.C        Increased yields of protein crops ...
Biotechnology   •   Biorevolution   •   Biopharming   •   Bourlaug hypothesis   •   Cash crops                            ...
Biotechnology, (cont’d)© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Blue Revolution and Global Shrimp   • Aquaculture   • Cost/price squeeze    Figure 8.G Price trends in the Mekong Delta   ...
Forces of Globalization   • Globalized agriculture   • Global food problems   • Subsidies to food     producers           ...
Organization of the Agro-Food System             Figure 8.20 The food supply chain© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Food Regimes and Alternative Food                     Movements   •   Organic farming   •   Conventional farming   •   Loc...
Food Regimes and Alternative Food                 Movements, (cont’d)© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Fast Food   •   Product of post-World War II   •   Fast Food Nation by Eric Schlosser   •   Children’s eating habits   •  ...
Fast Food, (cont’d)      Figure 8.23 Economic costs of obesity in the U.S., 2009© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
The Growth of Urban Agriculture                                 Figure 8.J Urban rooftop gardens in China    Figure 8.I Ur...
The Environment and Agricultural                      Industrialization Figure 8.24 Modern irrigation system   Figure 8.25...
The Environment and Agricultural                Industrialization, (cont’d)                        Figure 8.26 Desertifica...
Emerging Problems and Opportunities   • Food and health       –   Undernutrition       –   Malnutrition       –   Famine  ...
Emerging Problems and Opportunities,                      (cont’d)  Figure 8.28 Jatropha plantation in India.   Figure 8.2...
Future Geographies                        Figure 8.30 Government investments   Apply your knowledge: Search the Internet f...
End of Chapter 8© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Hg 6e ch_08_lecture

611 views

Published on

0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
611
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
49
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
21
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Hg 6e ch_08_lecture

  1. 1. Chapter 8 Lecture Human Geography: Places and Regions in Global Context Sixth EditionFood and AgricultureWendy A. MitteagerState University of New York, Oneonta
  2. 2. Key Concepts • Agricultural practices • Agricultural revolutions • Industrialization of agriculture • Biotechnology • Globalized agriculture • Agribusiness • The environment and agriculture Figure: Chapter 8 Opener Peasants in Ecuador prepare sustainably grown potatoes for market.© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  3. 3. Traditional Agriculture • Agrarian • Hunting and gathering • Subsistence agriculture • Commercial agriculture • Shifting cultivation • Crop rotation • Slash-and-burn Figure 8.1 Genetically-modified • Intertillage soybeans in Brazil.© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  4. 4. Traditional Agriculture, (cont’d) Figure 8.5 Slash-and-burn in Figure 8.4 Shifting cultivation helps maintain China soil fertility.© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  5. 5. Traditional Agriculture, (cont’d) Figure 8.6 Intertillage: planting Figure 8.7 Gender division of labor in different crops together has rice processing in India. many benefits.© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  6. 6. Global Distribution of Agriculture, 2005 Figure 8.2© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  7. 7. Traditional Agriculture, (cont’d) • Intensive subsistence agriculture • Double cropping • Pastoralism • Transhumance Figure 8.8 A terraced rice field in Bali© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  8. 8. Agricultural Revolutions Figure 8.10 Animals were important in the first agricultural revolution. Apply your knowledge: Why was the Industrial Revolution so important to the second agricultural revolution? How did manufacturing technologies change agricultural technologies?© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  9. 9. Agricultural Revolutions, (cont’d) • Third revolution – Mechanization – Chemical farming – Food manufacturing Figure 8.14 A bread factory in Iowa. Apply your knowledge: Read the labels on at least four different products. Identify the various processes involved in making them ready for market. How does the package enhance the attractiveness of the product?© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  10. 10. Agricultural Revolutions, (cont’d) Figure 8.13 Worldwide growth in fertilizer use, 2005-2007.© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  11. 11. Industrialization of Agriculture • Important developments • Green revolution – Changes in rural labor • Nontraditional exports (NTAEs) – Innovative inputs • Contract farming – Industrial substitutes Figure 8.15 Commercial flower production in Argentina.© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  12. 12. Green Revolution Figure 8.B Figure 8.C Increased yields of protein crops and other crops ,such as rice, was a result of the Green Revolution – often at the expense of the environment.© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  13. 13. Biotechnology • Biorevolution • Biopharming • Bourlaug hypothesis • Cash crops Figure 8.16 Biopharma map of the U.S.© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  14. 14. Biotechnology, (cont’d)© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  15. 15. Blue Revolution and Global Shrimp • Aquaculture • Cost/price squeeze Figure 8.G Price trends in the Mekong Delta Figure 8.F Price trends in Louisiana© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  16. 16. Forces of Globalization • Globalized agriculture • Global food problems • Subsidies to food producers Figure 8.19 Demonstrators in Yemen, spring 2011 Apply your knowledge: Research agricultural subsidies in the U.S. Which growers receive the most subsidies? Compare the U.S. data with other countries from both the periphery and the core.© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  17. 17. Organization of the Agro-Food System Figure 8.20 The food supply chain© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  18. 18. Food Regimes and Alternative Food Movements • Organic farming • Conventional farming • Local food • Urban agriculture • Slow food Figure 8.22 Local food advertisement Apply your knowledge: Create a map of the availability of locally produced food. Is the distribution even across your region?© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  19. 19. Food Regimes and Alternative Food Movements, (cont’d)© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  20. 20. Fast Food • Product of post-World War II • Fast Food Nation by Eric Schlosser • Children’s eating habits • Disease • Environmental impacts Apply your knowledge: How many fast food restaurant are in your town? Research their menu and nutritional value of several popular items. What can you conclude about the nutritional value of each item and their price?© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  21. 21. Fast Food, (cont’d) Figure 8.23 Economic costs of obesity in the U.S., 2009© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  22. 22. The Growth of Urban Agriculture Figure 8.J Urban rooftop gardens in China Figure 8.I Urban gardening movement in Detroit, Michigan© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  23. 23. The Environment and Agricultural Industrialization Figure 8.24 Modern irrigation system Figure 8.25 Impact of pesticides on pollinators© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  24. 24. The Environment and Agricultural Industrialization, (cont’d) Figure 8.26 Desertification in China© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  25. 25. Emerging Problems and Opportunities • Food and health – Undernutrition – Malnutrition – Famine – Food security – Food sovereignty Figure 8.27 Almost one in seven people worldwide is chronically undernourished.© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  26. 26. Emerging Problems and Opportunities, (cont’d) Figure 8.28 Jatropha plantation in India. Figure 8.29 Protest in Paris, France against genetically modified organisms (GMOs), 2008.© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  27. 27. Future Geographies Figure 8.30 Government investments Apply your knowledge: Search the Internet for news stories on recent protests against GMO food. What are the protesters’ concerns? Do you believe their concerns are justified? Provide scientific evidence to support your argument.© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  28. 28. End of Chapter 8© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

×