1. Chapter 3 Lecture Human Geography: Places and Regions in Global Context Sixth EditionPopulation GeographyWendy A. MitteagerState University of New York, Oneonta
2. Key Concepts • Census • Demographics • Population Dynamics • Movement of Population • Population Patterns • Sustainable Development Figure 3.1 Biometric census taking in India, 2011© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
3. Demography • Characteristics of a human population – Gender, race, age, income, disabilities, education, etc • Census – Vital records – Limitations Figure 3.2 Accuracy of the 1990 U.S. census Apply your knowledge: Give an example, other than the Iraq case, of how the census is more than just counting people.© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
4. Population Distribution Figure 3.3 World population density, 2010© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
5. Population Distribution, (contd) • Geographic reasons – Environmental & physical factors – Political & economic experiences – Cultural characteristics • Examine at many scales Figure 3.4 Population distribution of Egypt – Global, national, regional, metropolitan© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
6. A New Sense of Identity, USA [Insert Figure 3.A] Figure 3.B Mixed-race Americans, by region Figure 3.A Mixed-race Americans© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
7. Population Density and Composition • Crude (arithmetic) density • Nutritional density • Agricultural density Figure 3.5 Mexico City, a classic high-density urban settlement© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
8. Health Care Density Figure 3.6 Countries with a high proportion of old people face unique challenges. This map shows the ratio of physicians to the population by nation.© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
9. Age-Sex Pyramids • Shape of pyramid is dependent on proportion of people in each age cohort • Dependency ratio Figure 3.7 Population of Germany by age and sex, 2000© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
10. Age-Sex Pyramids, (contd) Figure 3.8 Population Pyramids of Core and Peripheral Countries Apply your knowledge: Why do researchers divide the population of a country into youth, middle, and old-age cohorts? What do these categories indicate about the potential of a countrys population?© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
11. U.S. Population • Baby Boom generation – Born 1946-1964 • Demographic, political, and economic factors – Suburbanization • Aging of the core countries Figure 3.D Improved health care leading to • Impacts on younger longer life expectancies Americans – The Net Generation© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
12. U.S. Population, (contd) Figure 3.9 U.S. baby boomers, 1960-2040© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
13. Birth (or Fertility) Rates • Crude birthrate (CBR) • Total fertility rate (TFR) • Doubling time Table 3.3 TFR provides more insight into the potential of a population© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
14. Death (or Mortality) Rates • Crude death rate (CDR) • Infant mortality rate • Life expectancy Figure 3.12 World crude death rates, 2009 & 2010© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
15. Death (or Mortality) Rates, (contd) Figure 3.14 World infant mortality rates 2009© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
16. World Rates of Natural Increase, 2009 Figure 3.13© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
17. HIV Infection, 2010 Figure 3.15 Apply your knowledge: How does the level of wealth of a country affect its ability to respond to health issues like HIV/AIDS, infant mortality, or life expectancy?© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
18. Demographic Transition Theory Figure 3.16 Demographic transition model Figure 3.17 World trends in birth and death rates, 1775-2050© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
19. Demographic Transition Theory, (contd) Apply your knowledge: Why would a country be concerned about its population being too small? What might a country gain by increasing or decreasing the birthrate?© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
20. Mobility and Migration • Emigration • Voluntary migration • Immigration – Guest workers • International & – Undocumented workers internal migration • Forced migration – Permanent & • Refugees temporary • Gross & net migration • Internally displaced persons (IDPs) • Push and pull factors© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
21. Mobility and Migration, (contd) Figure 3.18 Global voluntary migration, 2005© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
22. Mobility and Migration, (contd) • Great Recession and undocumented workers • Transnational migrants • Eco-migration Figure 3.19 Controversy surrounds immigration over the U.S./Mexico border. The Samaritans mission is to end immigration related death and suffering.© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
23. Mobility and Migration, (contd) Figure 3.E Internally displaced persons, 2007© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
24. Mobility and Migration, (contd) Figure 3.21 Iraqi diaspora before 2003 and since Figure 3.22 Palestinian refugees in the Middle East© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
25. Mobility and Migration, (contd) Figure 3.23 Changing demographic center of the U.S. 1790-2010 Figure 3.24 U.S. Rustbelt -- where population was impacted by the movement of corporations© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
26. Population Debates and Policies • Population and Resources – Malthus – Neo-Malthusians • Population policy Figure 3.27 World population projections Figure 3.29 Educating girls in Afghanistan© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
27. Population Issues • Sustainable Development • Gender Issues • Neoliberalism Apply your knowledge: What do you consider to be the most pressing issue with respect to global population growth? Why?© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
28. Future Geographies • 2011 population: nearly 7 billion • Projected to increase – 9.3 billion by 2050 – Core vs. periphery growth • What will happen in the future? Figure 3.31 Shanghai, China: one of – How will urban the worlds largest cities at 14 million systems keep up?© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
29. End of Chapter 3© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.