Hg 6e ch_02_lecture

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Hg 6e ch_02_lecture

  1. 1. Chapter 2 Lecture Human Geography: Places and Regions in Global Context Sixth EditionThe Changing GlobalContextWendy A. MitteagerState University of New York, Oneonta
  2. 2. Key Concepts • Evolution of the Modern World • World-System • Core and Periphery Regions • Neocolonialism • Globalization • Sustainability • Cultural Imperialism Figure: Chapter 2 Opener An Icelandic ash plume impacted flights on a global scale in May 2010© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  3. 3. The Premodern World • Minisystems • Slash-and-burn • Hearth Areas [Insert Figure 2.3] – Middle East – South Asia – China – Americas Figure 2.3 A remnant minisystem in the Amazon Apply your knowledge: Describe example of traditional crafts from the agricultural hearth areas of Arizona and New Mexico© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  4. 4. The Premodern World, (cont’d) Figure 2.1 Old World hearth areas Figure 2.2 New World hearth areas© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  5. 5. The Premodern World, (cont’d) • World-Empire – Group of minisystems – common political system Figure 2.4a Greek colonies and the extent of the Roman empire© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  6. 6. The Premodern World, (cont’d) • Colonization – Law of diminishing returns • Urbanization Figure 2.4b Highly developed infrastructure of the Roman empire© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  7. 7. The Premodern World, (cont’d) • Framework of human geographies – Harsher environments in continental interiors – Dry belt of steppes and desert margins – Principal areas of sedentary agriculture [Insert Figure 2.6] Figure 2.6 The Silk Road© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  8. 8. The Premodern World, (cont’d) Figure 2.5 The precapitalist Old World, circa 1400 C.E.© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  9. 9. World Systems Figure 2.7 European Age of Discovery© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  10. 10. World Systems, (cont’d) • External arenas • Plantations • Import substitution • Technological improvements and limits Figure 2.8 Cotton plantation, Mississippi River Apply your knowledge: Compare maps of Brazil from the internet—from the 1600s and the present day. How has the world-system in Brazil changed over time?© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  11. 11. World Systems, (cont’d) • Industrialization in Europe • Diffusion – Began in England, spread through Europe and globally • Three distinctive waves – Influenced by resources and technology Figure 2.A European industrialization© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  12. 12. World Systems: Core & Periphery • Structured relationship – Core, semiperipheral, peripheral • Imperialism & Colonialism • Leadership cycles • Hegemony • Ethnocentrism Apply your knowledge: Discuss a current international issue involving a former colonial territory© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  13. 13. World Systems: Division of Labor • Colonial economies • Suez and Panama • Needs of core regions Canals • Development of • Network of telegraph oceangoing steamships communications Figure 2.11 International telegraph network in 1900© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  14. 14. World Systems: British Empire Figure 2.13 Late 1800s British empire Apply your knowledge: Where were your clothes sewed? Where did the materials come from? How does this relate to division of labor and comparative advantage?© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  15. 15. World Systems, (cont’d) • Environmental determinism • Third World • Neocolonialism • Commercial imperialism • Transnational corporations • Gross Domestic Product (GDP) Apply your knowledge: Provide an example of how neocolonialism reinforces the power and influence of core countries. Be specific. What is the role of transnational corporations in neocolonialism?© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  16. 16. World Systems: Core & Periphery, (cont’d) Figure 2.9 The world-system in 1800 Figure 2.12 The world-system in 1900© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  17. 17. World Systems: Core & Periphery, (cont’d) Figure 2.12 The world-system in 1900 Figure 2.14 The world-system in 2010© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  18. 18. Globalization • Increasing interconnectedness of the world – Economic, environmental, political, cultural – Greater speed, larger scale, broader scope, and greater complexity than in the past • Commodity chains • Increase in significance of place – Mobility of money, labor, products, and ideas© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  19. 19. Globalization, (cont’d) Figure 2.B The commodity chain of a pair of Lee Cooper jeans© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  20. 20. Globalization: Environment Figure 2.15 The human “footprint”© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  21. 21. Globalization: Environment, (cont’d) Figure 2.16 Pollution continues to threaten Figure 2.17 Three key aspects to the ecosystem of Lake Baykal sustainability Apply your knowledge: Give an example of a local environmental concern. How does it relate to economic development and social equity?© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  22. 22. Globalization: Health Figure 2.18 Diffusion of the HIV virus© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  23. 23. Globalization, (cont’d) • Security – Risk society • Spatial Justice • Cultural Imperialism • Westernization • “Jihad vs. McWorld” Figure 2.19 Communication flow between major world regions© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  24. 24. Globalization: Worlds Apart Figure 2.C An Ethiopian family Figure 2.D A Swiss family© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  25. 25. Future Geographies Figure 2.20 Westernization in Istanbul Apply your knowledge: Find a story in a national newspaper that addresses an issue associated with contemporary globalization. How does the article illustrate the increasing interdependence of place and region?© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.
  26. 26. End of Chapter 2© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

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