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# Geography five lab one

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• 1. Geography Five: Lab One
• 2. Latitude and Longitude The latitude and longitude system was developed in the middle ages. Ptolemy also used a grid system in ancient Greece. Latitude lines run horizontally and are also known as parallels. Longitude lines, also known as meridians, run vertically. LATITUDE LONGITUDE
• 3. Latitude
• Latitude also known as parallels because they are parallel and are an equal distance apart from each other.
• Each degree of latitude is approximately 69 miles apart.
• One way to remember latitude is to imagine it as the rungs of a ladder, “ladder-tude.”
• Degrees of latitude are numbered from 0 to 90, both north and south.
• 0° is the Equator, the imaginary line that divides the earth into northern and southern hemispheres.
• 90° north is the North Pole and 90° south is the South Pole.
• 4. The Equator: 0° N/S
• 5. Longitude
• Longitude lines are also known as meridians.
• They are about 69 miles apart at the equator, they converge at the poles.
• 0° longitude is located at Greenwich, England.
• The degrees continue to 180° east and west until they meet at the International Date Line in the Pacific Ocean.
• 6. Prime Meridian: 0° E/W
• Greenwich, England: the site of the British Royal Greenwich Observatory, was established as the site of the Prime Meridian by an international conference in 1884.
• 7. International Date Line 180° E/W
• 8. Longitude and Latitude
• Degrees longitude and latitude are divided into minutes (') and seconds (&quot;).
• There are 60 minutes in each degree.
• Each minute is divided into 60 seconds.
• Seconds can be further divided into tenths, hundredths, or even thousandths.
• For example, the U.S. Capitol is located at 38°53'23&quot;N , 77°00'27&quot;W
• Or 38°, 53 minutes, and 23 seconds north of the equator and 77 degrees, no minutes and 27 seconds west of the meridian passing through Greenwich, England).
• 9. How to write Latitude and Longitude
• Coordinates of latitude and longitude are ALWAYS written as
• LATITUDE 1 st , LONGITUDE 2 nd
• N or S°, E or W°
• For Example- Rancho Cucamonga, CA:
• 34° N, 118° W
• Directions MUST always be included in the coordinates
• 10. Using Latitude and Longitude
• AAA is located at the corner of Haven Ave. and Foothill Bl.
• Latitude and longitude are like imaginary streets on the earth.
• 1. Go to your starting line (the Equator). 2. Determine which direction you must go (north or south). 3. Determine the distance in degrees you must go.
• *This will give you the location of one of your streets*
• 1. Go to your starting line (the Prime Meridian). 2. Determine which direction you must go (east or west). 3. Determine the distance in degrees you must go.
• *This will give the location of your second street.*
• If you find the imaginary intersection of the two roads, then you have found the exact location of a particular place.
•
• 11. Standard Time
• The globe is divided into 24 time zones in the Standard Time System.
• All inhabitants within a zone keep time according to a standard meridian that passes through their zone.
• Since standard meridians are usually 15° apart, the difference in time between adjacent zones is normally one hour.
• In some geographic regions the difference is only half an hour.
• 12. Standard Time
• Given the Earth rotates once throughout a 24 hour period, 24 standard times zones were agreed upon at the 1884 International Prime Meridian Conference.
• The local solar time at Greenwich, England was designated the prime meridian . Each time zone extends 7.5° on either side of a central meridian.
• For years the global standard for reporting time was Greenwich mean time (GMT) .
• GMT is now referred to as Universal Time Coordinated (UTC)  but the prime meridian is still the reference for standard time.
• 13. Standard Meridians
• There are 24 standard meridians.
• They are all 15° apart.
• The first standard meridian is the Prime Meridian.
• Time does NOT change at the standard meridians.
• The standard meridian is the middle of the time zone.
• Time zones extend 7.5° on each side of the standard meridian.
• 14. US Time Zones
• 15.
• 16. Global Time
• Our planet requires 24 hours for a full rotation with respect to the sun, and our global time is oriented with some respect to the sun.
• 15° of longitude equates to one hour of time.
• Since Earth turns 360° in a 24-hour day, the rotation rate is:
• 360° ÷ 24 hours = 15° per hour.
http://www.flickr.com/photos/telstar/433029904 /
• 17. Time
• A solar day is defined by one sun circuit.
• Solar noon (at a particular location) is the time of the highest solar angle.
• The time is calculated by the position of the Sun at selected meridians (Standard Time).
• 18. Military Time
• Military time is an unambiguous, concise method of expressing time used by the military, emergency services (law enforcement, firefighting, paramedics), hospitals, and other entities.
• The following sections provide a detailed description of the difference between regular and military time, how military time is written, and several time conversion examples.
• 19. Military Time
• The main difference between regular and military time is how hours are expressed.
• Regular time uses numbers 1 to 12 to identify each of the 24 hours in a day.
• In military time, the hours are numbered from 00 to 23. Under this system, midnight is 00, 1 a.m. is 01, 1 p.m. is 13, and so on.
• Regular and military time express minutes and seconds in exactly the same way.
• When converting from regular to military time and vice versa, the minutes and seconds do not change.
• Regular time requires the use of a.m. and p.m. to clearly identify the time of day.
• Since military time uses a unique two-digit number to identify each of the 24 hours in a day, a.m. and p.m. are unnecessary.
• 20. Military Time 2300 11:00 p.m. 1100 11:00 a.m. 2200 10:00 p.m. 1000 10:00 a.m. 2100 9:00 p.m. 0900 9:00 a.m. 2000 8:00 p.m. 0800 8:00 a.m. 1900 7:00 p.m. 0700 7:00 a.m. 1800 6:00 p.m. 0600 6:00 a.m. 1700 5:00 p.m. 0500 5:00 a.m. 1600 4:00 p.m. 0400 4:00 a.m. 1500 3:00 p.m. 0300 3:00 a.m. 1400 2:00 p.m. 0200 2:00 a.m. 1300 1:00 p.m. 0100 1:00 a.m. 1200 Noon 0000 Midnight Military Time Regular Time Military Time Regular Time