Geography five lab one

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  • 1. Geography Five: Lab One
  • 2. Latitude and Longitude The latitude and longitude system was developed in the middle ages. Ptolemy also used a grid system in ancient Greece. Latitude lines run horizontally and are also known as parallels. Longitude lines, also known as meridians, run vertically. LATITUDE LONGITUDE
  • 3. Latitude
    • Latitude also known as parallels because they are parallel and are an equal distance apart from each other.
    • Each degree of latitude is approximately 69 miles apart.
    • One way to remember latitude is to imagine it as the rungs of a ladder, “ladder-tude.”
    • Degrees of latitude are numbered from 0 to 90, both north and south.
    • 0° is the Equator, the imaginary line that divides the earth into northern and southern hemispheres.
    • 90° north is the North Pole and 90° south is the South Pole.
  • 4. The Equator: 0° N/S
  • 5. Longitude
    • Longitude lines are also known as meridians.
    • They are about 69 miles apart at the equator, they converge at the poles.
    • 0° longitude is located at Greenwich, England.
    • The degrees continue to 180° east and west until they meet at the International Date Line in the Pacific Ocean.
  • 6. Prime Meridian: 0° E/W
    • Greenwich, England: the site of the British Royal Greenwich Observatory, was established as the site of the Prime Meridian by an international conference in 1884.
  • 7. International Date Line 180° E/W
  • 8. Longitude and Latitude
    • Degrees longitude and latitude are divided into minutes (') and seconds (").
      • There are 60 minutes in each degree.
        • Each minute is divided into 60 seconds.
          • Seconds can be further divided into tenths, hundredths, or even thousandths.
    • For example, the U.S. Capitol is located at 38°53'23"N , 77°00'27"W
      • Or 38°, 53 minutes, and 23 seconds north of the equator and 77 degrees, no minutes and 27 seconds west of the meridian passing through Greenwich, England).
  • 9. How to write Latitude and Longitude
    • Coordinates of latitude and longitude are ALWAYS written as
    • LATITUDE 1 st , LONGITUDE 2 nd
    • N or S°, E or W°
    • For Example- Rancho Cucamonga, CA:
    • 34° N, 118° W
    • Directions MUST always be included in the coordinates
  • 10. Using Latitude and Longitude
    • AAA is located at the corner of Haven Ave. and Foothill Bl.
      • Latitude and longitude are like imaginary streets on the earth.
      • 1. Go to your starting line (the Equator). 2. Determine which direction you must go (north or south). 3. Determine the distance in degrees you must go.
      • *This will give you the location of one of your streets*
      • 1. Go to your starting line (the Prime Meridian). 2. Determine which direction you must go (east or west). 3. Determine the distance in degrees you must go.
      • *This will give the location of your second street.*
      • If you find the imaginary intersection of the two roads, then you have found the exact location of a particular place.
      •  
  • 11. Standard Time
    • The globe is divided into 24 time zones in the Standard Time System.
    • All inhabitants within a zone keep time according to a standard meridian that passes through their zone.
    • Since standard meridians are usually 15° apart, the difference in time between adjacent zones is normally one hour.
      • In some geographic regions the difference is only half an hour.
  • 12. Standard Time
    • Given the Earth rotates once throughout a 24 hour period, 24 standard times zones were agreed upon at the 1884 International Prime Meridian Conference.
    • The local solar time at Greenwich, England was designated the prime meridian . Each time zone extends 7.5° on either side of a central meridian.
    • For years the global standard for reporting time was Greenwich mean time (GMT) .
    • GMT is now referred to as Universal Time Coordinated (UTC)  but the prime meridian is still the reference for standard time.
  • 13. Standard Meridians
    • There are 24 standard meridians.
    • They are all 15° apart.
    • The first standard meridian is the Prime Meridian.
    • Time does NOT change at the standard meridians.
      • The standard meridian is the middle of the time zone.
      • Time zones extend 7.5° on each side of the standard meridian.
  • 14. US Time Zones
  • 15.  
  • 16. Global Time
    • Our planet requires 24 hours for a full rotation with respect to the sun, and our global time is oriented with some respect to the sun.
    • 15° of longitude equates to one hour of time.
    • Since Earth turns 360° in a 24-hour day, the rotation rate is:
      • 360° ÷ 24 hours = 15° per hour.
    http://www.flickr.com/photos/telstar/433029904 /
  • 17. Time
    • A solar day is defined by one sun circuit.
    • Solar noon (at a particular location) is the time of the highest solar angle.
    • The time is calculated by the position of the Sun at selected meridians (Standard Time).
  • 18. Military Time
    • Military time is an unambiguous, concise method of expressing time used by the military, emergency services (law enforcement, firefighting, paramedics), hospitals, and other entities.
    • The following sections provide a detailed description of the difference between regular and military time, how military time is written, and several time conversion examples.
  • 19. Military Time
    • The main difference between regular and military time is how hours are expressed.
      • Regular time uses numbers 1 to 12 to identify each of the 24 hours in a day.
      • In military time, the hours are numbered from 00 to 23. Under this system, midnight is 00, 1 a.m. is 01, 1 p.m. is 13, and so on.
    • Regular and military time express minutes and seconds in exactly the same way.
      • When converting from regular to military time and vice versa, the minutes and seconds do not change.
    • Regular time requires the use of a.m. and p.m. to clearly identify the time of day.
      • Since military time uses a unique two-digit number to identify each of the 24 hours in a day, a.m. and p.m. are unnecessary.
  • 20. Military Time 2300 11:00 p.m. 1100 11:00 a.m. 2200 10:00 p.m. 1000 10:00 a.m. 2100 9:00 p.m. 0900 9:00 a.m. 2000 8:00 p.m. 0800 8:00 a.m. 1900 7:00 p.m. 0700 7:00 a.m. 1800 6:00 p.m. 0600 6:00 a.m. 1700 5:00 p.m. 0500 5:00 a.m. 1600 4:00 p.m. 0400 4:00 a.m. 1500 3:00 p.m. 0300 3:00 a.m. 1400 2:00 p.m. 0200 2:00 a.m. 1300 1:00 p.m. 0100 1:00 a.m. 1200 Noon 0000 Midnight Military Time Regular Time Military Time Regular Time