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Latitude and Longitude The latitude and longitude system was developed in the middle ages. Ptolemy also used a grid system in ancient Greece. Latitude lines run horizontally and are also known as parallels. Longitude lines, also known as meridians, run vertically.
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a) Latitude (Parallels) b) Longitude (Meridians) The Geographic Grid
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Latitude <ul><li>Latitude also known as parallels because they are parallel and are an equal distance apart from each other. </li></ul><ul><li>Each degree of latitude is approximately 69 miles apart. </li></ul><ul><li>One way to remember latitude is to imagine it as the rungs of a ladder, “ladder-tude.” </li></ul><ul><li>Degrees of latitude are numbered from 0 to 90, both north and south. </li></ul><ul><li>0° is the Equator, the imaginary line that divides the earth into northern and southern hemispheres. </li></ul><ul><li>90° north is the North Pole and 90° south is the South Pole. </li></ul>
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Longitude <ul><li>Longitude lines are also known as meridians. </li></ul><ul><li>They are about 69 miles apart at the equator, they converge at the poles. </li></ul><ul><li>0° longitude is located at Greenwich, England. </li></ul><ul><li>The degrees continue to 180° east and west until they meet at the International Date Line in the Pacific Ocean. </li></ul>
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Prime Meridian: 0° E/W <ul><li>Greenwich, England: the site of the British Royal Greenwich Observatory, was established as the site of the Prime Meridian by an international conference in 1884. </li></ul>
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Longitude and Latitude <ul><li>Degrees longitude and latitude are divided into minutes (') and seconds ("). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There are 60 minutes in each degree. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Each minute is divided into 60 seconds. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Seconds can be further divided into tenths, hundredths, or even thousandths. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>For example, the U.S. Capitol is located at 38°53'23"N , 77°00'27"W </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Or 38°, 53 minutes, and 23 seconds north of the equator and 77 degrees, no minutes and 27 seconds west of the meridian passing through Greenwich, England). </li></ul></ul>
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How to write Latitude and Longitude <ul><li>Coordinates of latitude and longitude are ALWAYS written as </li></ul><ul><li>LATITUDE 1 st , LONGITUDE 2 nd </li></ul><ul><li>N or S°, E or W° </li></ul><ul><li>For Example- Rancho Cucamonga, CA: </li></ul><ul><li>34° N, 118° W </li></ul><ul><li>Directions MUST always be included in the coordinates </li></ul>
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Using Latitude and Longitude <ul><li>AAA is located at the corner of Haven Ave. and Foothill Bl. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Latitude and longitude are like imaginary streets on the earth. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Go to your starting line (the Equator). 2. Determine which direction you must go (north or south). 3. Determine the distance in degrees you must go. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>*This will give you the location of one of your streets* </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Go to your starting line (the Prime Meridian). 2. Determine which direction you must go (east or west). 3. Determine the distance in degrees you must go. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>*This will give the location of your second street.* </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If you find the imaginary intersection of the two roads, then you have found the exact location of a particular place. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
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Standard Time <ul><li>The globe is divided into 24 time zones in the Standard Time System. </li></ul><ul><li>All inhabitants within a zone keep time according to a standard meridian that passes through their zone. </li></ul><ul><li>Since standard meridians are usually 15° apart, the difference in time between adjacent zones is normally one hour. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In some geographic regions the difference is only half an hour. </li></ul></ul>
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Standard Time <ul><li>Given the Earth rotates once throughout a 24 hour period, 24 standard times zones were agreed upon at the 1884 International Prime Meridian Conference. </li></ul><ul><li>The local solar time at Greenwich, England was designated the prime meridian . Each time zone extends 7.5° on either side of a central meridian. </li></ul><ul><li>For years the global standard for reporting time was Greenwich mean time (GMT) . </li></ul><ul><li>GMT is now referred to as Universal Time Coordinated (UTC) but the prime meridian is still the reference for standard time. </li></ul>
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Standard Meridians <ul><li>There are 24 standard meridians. </li></ul><ul><li>They are all 15° apart. </li></ul><ul><li>The first standard meridian is the Prime Meridian. </li></ul><ul><li>Time does NOT change at the standard meridians. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The standard meridian is the middle of the time zone. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time zones extend 7.5° on each side of the standard meridian. </li></ul></ul>
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US Time Zones This map does NOT include Alaskan or Hawaiian time zones. Atlantic Standard Time and Newfoundland are NOT in the US, they are Canadian.
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Global Time <ul><li>Our planet requires 24 hours for a full rotation with respect to the sun, and our global time is oriented with some respect to the sun. </li></ul><ul><li>15° of longitude equates to one hour of time. </li></ul><ul><li>Since Earth turns 360° in a 24-hour day, the rotation rate is: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>360° ÷ 24 hours = 15° per hour. </li></ul></ul>http://www.flickr.com/photos/telstar/433029904 /
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Time <ul><li>A solar day is defined by one sun circuit. </li></ul><ul><li>Solar noon (at a particular location) is the time of the highest solar angle. </li></ul><ul><li>The time is calculated by the position of the Sun at selected meridians (Standard Time). </li></ul>
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Military Time <ul><li>Military time is an unambiguous, concise method of expressing time used by the military, emergency services (law enforcement, firefighting, paramedics), hospitals, and other entities. </li></ul><ul><li>The following sections provide a detailed description of the difference between regular and military time, how military time is written, and several time conversion examples. </li></ul>
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Military Time <ul><li>The main difference between regular and military time is how hours are expressed. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Regular time uses numbers 1 to 12 to identify each of the 24 hours in a day. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In military time, the hours are numbered from 00 to 23. Under this system, midnight is 00, 1 a.m. is 01, 1 p.m. is 13, and so on. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Regular and military time express minutes and seconds in exactly the same way. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When converting from regular to military time and vice versa, the minutes and seconds do not change. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Regular time requires the use of a.m. and p.m. to clearly identify the time of day. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Since military time uses a unique two-digit number to identify each of the 24 hours in a day, a.m. and p.m. are unnecessary. </li></ul></ul>
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