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Fellmann11e ch9

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  • 1. Human Geography Jerome D. Fellmann Mark Bjelland Arthur Getis Judith Getis
  • 2. Human Geography Chapter 9 Livelihood And Economy: From Blue Collar to Gold Collar Insert Figure 9.6 here © Getty RF
  • 3. Components of the Space Economy
    • Concepts and Controls
    • Market Equilibrium
    Human Geography 11e
  • 4. Secondary Activities:
    • Gives form utility to the products of primary industry through manufacturing efforts
    • Involved in material processing and goods production
    Human Geography 11e
    • Movable, rather than spatially tied
    • Locational decision involves the weighting of the locational “pulls” of a number of cost considerations and profit prospects
  • 5. Secondary Activities: Manufacturing
    • Locational Decisions in Manufacturing
      • Principles of location
      • Raw materials
      • Power supply
      • Labor
      • Market
      • Transportation
    • Transportation and location
    Human Geography 11e
  • 6. Industrial Location Theories
    • Least-cost theory
    • Locational interdependence theory
    • Profit-maximization approaches
    • Other locational considerations and controls
    Human Geography 11e
  • 7. Industrial Location Theories
    • Least-Cost Theory
      • Based on the work of Alfred Weber (1868-1958)
      • Explains the optimum of a manufacturing establishment based on minimizing three basic expenses:
        • Relative transport costs
        • Labor costs
        • Agglomeration costs
      • Agglomeration refers to the clustering of productive activities for mutual advantage
      • Weber concluded that transport costs are the major consideration determining location
    Human Geography 11e
  • 8. Industrial Location Theories
    • Least-Cost Theory
      • The optimum location will be found where the costs of transporting raw materials to the factory and finished goods to the market are at their lowest
    Human Geography 11e Insert figure 9.10
  • 9. Least-Cost Theory
    • Assumptions
      • Isotropic plain
      • Single product to a single market
      • Raw materials from two or more sources
      • Labor infinitely available but immobile
      • Transportation routes are not fixed but connect places by a straight line
    Human Geography 11e
  • 10. Locational Interdependence Theory
    • Variable revenue analysis
    • Competitive locations in a linear market
    Human Geography 11e
  • 11. Profit-Maximization Approaches
    • Spatial margin of profitability
    • Satisficing locations
    • Price sensitivity (elasticity of demand) will encourage industrial dispersion
    Human Geography 11e
  • 12. Other Locational Considerations and Controls
    • Agglomeration economies
    • Just-in-time and flexible production
    • Comparative advantage
    • Outsourcing
    • Offshoring
    • Imposed considerations
    • Transnational corporations
    Human Geography 11e
  • 13. World Manufacturing Patterns and Trends
    • Anglo America
    • Western and Central Europe
    • Eastern Europe
    • Eastern Asia
    Human Geography 11e
  • 14. High-Tech Patterns
    • Impacts of high-tech industries
    • Agglomerating forces
    • Contributors to production
    Human Geography 11e Insert figure 9.23
  • 15. Tertiary and Beyond
    • Services
    • Business and labor specializations that provide services to the primary and secondary sectors, to the general community, and to the individual
    Human Geography 11e
    • Tertiary
      • Lower-level services largely related to day-to-day needs of people and to the usual range of functions found in smaller towns and cities
  • 16. Tertiary and Beyond
    • Service activities are by definition market oriented
    • Retailers and personal service providers tend to locate where market density is greatest and multiple service demands are concentrated
    Human Geography 11e
    • Quaternary
      • Information, administration, and “knowledge”
      • Dependent on communication
      • Dispersion has been facilitated by electronic digital processing and telecommunication transfer of data
  • 17. Quaternary and Quinary Activities
    • Quaternary
      • An advanced form of services involving specialized knowledge, technical skills, communication ability, or administrative competence
      • Transportability of these activities means that many of them can be spatially isolated from their client base
    Human Geography 11e
    • Quinary
      • “ Gold Collar” professions
      • Special and highly paid skills of top business executives, government officials, research scientists, financial, and legal consultants
  • 18. Services in World Trade
    • Impact in international trade flows
    • Impact in economic interdependence
    • Foreign direct investment (FDI)
    Human Geography 11e